Volume 31, Issue 4, Autumn 2022

Research Paper

Using U. V. C Ray for Inducing Resistance Against Tobacco mosaic virus

Hameed Mahmood Ali; Nihal Y. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176067

The research discusses the use of flashes of ultraviolet-C rays in inducing resistance against viral pathogens and the possibility of its employment in covered houses or garden nurseries. A number of tomato and tobacco plants of type Nicotiana tabacum, uder protected cultivation conditions, were exposed to UV-C rays at wavelengths 200-280 nm using an electronic LED lamp, for 5 and 10 minutes, all plants were inoculated 48 hours after the last exposure to UV rays. The number and size of local lesions were calculated on the leaves of inoculated tobacco plants, as well as monitoring the development of symptoms on tomato plants inoculated with the virus for 12 days of inoculation, and the virus concentration was estimated based on the amount of absorbance at 405 nm by ELISA test. The results indicated that the ultraviolet rays used enhanced the plant's resistance to viral infection through a noticeable increase in the enzyme peroxidase, as it reached (59220 nanometers) in the treated plants compared to the untreated plants that were (28,016 nanometers). The irradiation for the first five minutes had a higher effect than the longer irradiation that lasted for ten minutes, in addition to that the irradiation for intermittent periods and for a short period was better than the continuous exposure for one time. It was found that the leaves far from the radiation exposure area acquired an inducible character of resistance against the pathogen.

Isolation and Identification of Phenolic Compounds from the Plant Residues of Hordeum sp. and Brassica sp.by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Rawnak Al-Taee; Janan A. Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 8-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176068

        The current study included qualitative diagnosis and quantitative estimation of some active compounds in two types of weeds, namely wild mustard Hordeum sp. and wild barley Brassica sp. The results showed that these plants contained several chemical compounds that were diagnosed as phenolic acids. Wild mustard contained three chemical compounds, namely: Galic acid, Resorsenol, Vanillin While wild barley contained four compounds, namely: Galic acid, Resorsenol, Vanillin benzoic acid. The results of quantitative estimation also showed variation in the concentration of these compounds in the extracts of these weed residues.

Determination of Doxycycline as Pure and in Pharmaceutical Preparation (Capsule) Using 4-Aminoantipyrine in Presence of Potassium Periodate

Nameer M. Khalaf; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176069

    A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of doxycycline in aqueous medium using oxidative coupling reaction has been described. The method was based on the reaction of doxycycline with 4-aminoantipyrene (4-AAP) which gives soluble and stable red colored product that gives the highest absorption at the wavelength 515 nm, and the linearity of Beer's law was in the concentration range from 5 to 110 µg/ml, and the value of the determination coefficient for the standard curve was 0.9995, which statistically indicates that it has excellent linear characteristics. The molar absorptivity was calculated and found to be 1.387x103 l.mol-1.cm-1. Sandell's sensitivity value, the Limit of detection (LOD), and ‎‏ limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated and equal to 0.3334 μg/cm2, 0.114 and 0.38 µg/ml respectively the method was successfully applied for the determination of doxycycline in its pharmaceutical preparation.

A Simulation Study on the Effect of the Thickness and Carrier Concentration of the Active Layers in the n-CdSe/p-CdSe Solar Cell

Maha Khalid Abdul Ameer; Laith M. Al Taan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176070

In this work, thin-film solar cells based on Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) film were used, due to the low manufacturing cost and superior electronic properties, and this type of cell also achieves appropriate efficiency. The current work will focus on investigating the effect of the thickness and carrier concentration of the active layers in the cell, and the thickness of the window on the performance of the proposed solar cell, using the one-dimension solar cells capacitance simulation SCAPS-1D computer program. The proposed structure of this cell consists of ITO/n-CdSe/p-CdSe/Pt, where ITO was used as a window layer, n-CdSe as a buffer layer, p-CdSe as an absorber layer, and platinum Pt as a back conductive electrode. The results revealed that the cell performed best at thicknesses of 5000 and 100nm for the absorber and buffer layers, respectively, and with carrier concentrations of 1016 and 1017cm-3for the same layers. The optimal window layer thickness is 100nm. These variables yield open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current density (JSC), fill factor (FF) of 1.0845 V, 20.87 mA/cm2, 88.02% respectively, while the conversion efficiency of cell (Eff.) was obtained, which is 19.92%.

The Effect of the Iron Arm's Relative Position to the Pole piece Tip Position on the Objective Snorkel Lens Type

Neam Awanees Samuel Awanees Derdrian; Mohammed Kh. Zeki; Abdullah I. Alabdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 39-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176071

The bipolar region is one of the most important factors in determining the effectiveness of a magnetic lens. Regarding the focus and optical qualities of the display devices, the optimal position of the polepiece and the most significant aspect of the magnetic electron lenses were the iron shrouds, where the magnetic field increases smoothly and uniformly with the highest possible value and has just one peak.  The goal of this study is to determine the position of the shroud tip relative to the axial axis (Z), where the tip of the polepiece is located at (Z = 0 mm). In practice, it has been seen that the optical properties of electron lenses have improved when the position of the polepiece iron shroud tip is separated by a distance of 180 mm. By extending the distance between the iron shroud and the polepiece face in the opposite direction of the coil, by removing or reducing magnetic flux leakage, it is possible to increase its performance. The axial magnetic field will then rise within the lens in a direction that prevents it from being lost. In this work, the FEMM and MELOP programs were used to investigate the lens' performance, axial magnetic field, and focal optical characteristics.

Assessment the Quality Number of Well Water on the Left Side of the City of Mosul / Iraq and its Suitability for Drinking Using the Canadian Water Quality Index.

Qusay T. Muhammad; Abdulmoneim Mohammed Ali Kannah Kannah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176072

The current study was conducted on 10 wells of water located within the city of Mosul / on the left side. The quality of this water was evaluated to determine the number of physical and chemical properties, including acidity, turbidity, total dissolved salts, total alkalinity, nitrates, chlorides, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, and sulfates. The current study showed that the values ​​of total dissolved solids and sulfate rates for well water ranged between 155-1150 mg/L, and 226-1037mg/L, respectively, and the acidity function rates ranged between 7-7.6, which are within The appropriate determinants of drinking according to the specifications of the World Health Organization, while the average values ​​of turbidity ranged between 0.5-21 N.T.U, and the nature of the geological formations of the study area had an impact on the concentration of calcium and magnesium, as well as the chlorides and total alkalinity where the concentration rate ranged Between 29-325, 16-89, 20-259 and 179-366 mg/L, respectively. The results of the current study showed that wells water for drinking purposes, according to the Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI), varied between (doubtful - good).

Production of Lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia) Plants from Somatic Embryos Developed from its Seedlings Leaf Callus

Azza Adel Al-Tai; Amjad A. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176073

The current study succeeded in producing the lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) plant from somatic embryos induced by the leaves callus of its seedlings, The results of soaking its dormant seeds in a solution of gibberellic acid at concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0) gm l
for 24 hours showed the superiority of the concentration 0.5 g L
-1 in stimulation the germination rate that reached 75% after 6 days comparing with other treatments and control that had 20% germination after 13 days. This study was able to initiated callus from seedling leaves when were placed on MS solid medium supplemented with by added 3.0 mg L-1
NAA and 10 mg L
BA after 20 days, Initiated callus was characterized by its yellowish-green color and friable texture, and when its masses were removed and placed on the same media, it produced well-growth cultures that were perpetuated every 15 days. After the second sub-culturing, the first stages of somatic embryos appeared, the spherical stage, which later developed into the heart,then torpedo and cotyledon stages and produced when placed individually on MSO medium, Intact lavender plants after 30 days were characterized by their good growth and density of leaves.

Detection of Bacteria Causing Skin Infections in Mosul City and Studying its Resistance to Antibiotics

Dhuha Younus; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 20-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176074

The current study was conducted to detect the bacteria that causes skin infections in Mosul city and to study its resistance pattern to different antibiotics. For this purpose, 30 swab samples were collected from different skin infections from patients referred to the dermatology consultations of Al-Salam Teaching Hospital and Mosul GeneralHospital in Mosul city. The results of isolation and diagnosis showed that (20) samples, 66.6% of the total samples were positive for bacterial culture. (56.5%) of isolated bacteria were Gram-negative and 43.5% belonged to Gram-positive bacteria. The isolation percentage for Staphylococcus aureus and Sphingomonas paucimobillis were (17.3%) each, Pantoea spp. (13%), and all three species belonging to the genus Kocuria and Klebsiella pneumonia was 8.6% each, while Acinetobacter baumannii , Brevundimonas diminuta, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas luteola were isolated by (4.3%) each.
The results for antibiotic sensitivity showed the prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon in all isolates, and the isolates showed a clear variation in their resistance to each antibiotic. The highest percentage of resistance towards antibiotics were (69.5%) and (60.8%) against the Oxacillin and Penicillin, respectively. All isolates were sensitive towards levofloxacin, which makes it a suitable treatment option for infections associated with the bacteria understudy.

Uptake of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Hypocotyl Callus Tissues of Helianthus annuus L. Seedlings

Ashraf Mohammed Hamed; Amjad A. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 32-42
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176075

This study gives a special indication about the ability of callus tissues of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling stems in uptake of copper oxide Cu2O nanoparticles with concentration (30,60,90,150) µg ml-1 which reflect their important role in phytoremediation, and in the same time the nanoparticles have role in improve callus growth and fresh weight. The positive role of growth regulators NAA and BA it become clear in induction the callus of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plant. The result showed superiority of 150 µg ml-1 in encourage the increase of the fresh weight of the callus which developing on MS mediums that supported with growth regulator 0.5 mg ml-1 NAA and 1.0 mg ml-1 BA. Where the average fresh weight of the callus was 7.1 gm, 12.9 gm after 20 and 40 days of the growth respectively. Compared  with the fresh weight of callus  developing on same medium without nanoparticles where the average of the fresh weight was 4.1 gm, 6.2 gm after 20 and 40 day of the growth respectively, similarly the same concentration of nanoparticles above encourage the highest fresh weight when added alone in nutritional medium where it was 2.2 gm, 3.6 gm after 20 and 40 day of the growth respectively in compared with the other treatment. The Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) pictures explained the ability of callus tissues in uptake of nanoparticles on the surface of their cells in variant quantity according to the different concentration that used. 

The Design and Manufacturing of a Czerny-Turner Spectrometer and a Spherical Aberration Reduction Mechanism for the Spectrometer

Atheel Alaqa; Yaser A. Al-jwaady; Raied Ahmed Al-Wazzan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 43-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176076

One of the most important diagnostic tools for a better understanding of actual systems is the spectroscopic examination of the physical properties of plasma and other bright sources. Atomic transitions of optical wavelengths are frequently used in a range of plasma devices as indicators of plasma characteristics like temperature and density. The design and construction of an effective spectrophotometer were motivated by the requirements of our ongoing plasma physics research. One of the most crucial methods for figuring out the density and temperature of electrons is the optical spectroscopic emission method. This study focused on the design and production of a low-cost Cherny-Turner spectrometer that could be produced locally. Using a manual micrometer, the slitter's exact movement is managed. Two quartz concave mirrors, one with a focal length of 15.375 cm and the other with a focal length of 16.825 cm, were employed. The spherical aberration was then treated by lowering the angle of incidence and angle of diffraction as much as feasible. The spectrometer's light input was focused, and the mirror positions were calibrated. The positions of the mirrors were calibrated with the diffraction grating to the location of the camera, first manually using a red laser light with a wavelength (650nm), and then using a CCD camera to locate the final image. With the movement of the diffraction grating to scan the wavelengths and analyze the light to its original components.

Studying the Effect of Changing Several Layers on the Performance of the Perovskite Solar Cell (CH3NH3PbI3) and Studying the Effect of Adding the Back Surface Filed layer to the Solar Cell Using the Simulation Program (SCAPS 1-D)

Raddad Mahmoud; Raad A. Rasoul

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 55-68
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176077

This research includes testing several different materials for each layer of the five-layer perovskite solar cell (CH3NH3PbI3) and choosing the best material for each layer of the cell in order to obtain the highest efficiency of the perovskite solar cell, as well as studying the effect of both the thickness of the absorption layer and the back surface field layer on the performance  of the solar cell using the computer simulation program (SCAPS1-D), where the perovskite material (CH3NH3PbI3) was adopted as an absorption layer in the solar cell with a thickness of (1 µm), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) was selected from among several different materials as a window layer with a thickness of (0.05 µm), Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) was selected from among a number of different materials as a transparent conductive oxide layer with a thickness of (0.1 µm), as well as a buffer layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) with a thickness of (0.05µm) and after studying each cell layer and selecting the best one for each layer the structure of the four-layer solar cell became as follows:
      The outputs of the solar cell were as follows: [Voc=1.263(V), Jsc=24.01 mA/cm2, FF=89.017%, ƞ=26.94%]. Finally, the back surface field layer was selected, which is zinc telluride (ZnTe) with a thickness of (0.05 mµ). The structure of the five-layer solar cell became as follows: (ZnTe /CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2/ZnO/FTO)). The final output of the perovskite solar cell (CH3NH3PbI3) was as follows: [Voc=1.288(V), Jsc=25.04mA/cm2, FF=89.54%, ƞ=28.88%].