Volume 31, Issue 3, Summer 2022

Research Paper

Isolation and Identification of Candida dubliniensis in Patient with Cervical-Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Erbil City

Nareen Q. Faqe Abdulla; Hero M. Ismael

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175386

        Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is a fungal infection caused by Candida spp. of the genital mucosa that is still a health concern for women.This is a first-of-its-kind investigation on the isolation of Candida dubliniensis, from cervical-vulvovaginal patients in Erbil hospitals. The study was carried out for isolation and identification which performed by using phenotypic and molecular approaches. A total of one hundred samples of vaginal swabs (Copan transport swabs dry (in a cover)), were taken from patients with cervical vulvovaginal candidiasis in order to test for the presence of Candida species. According to macroscopic and microscopic examination, Candida spp. was discovered in 60 of the 100 samples (60%). On CHROM agar medium, eleven non-duplicated C. dubliniensis were identified depending on color of colony (dark green colonies-blue colony). Then the species were confirmed using API 20C assay. Finally, a multiplex PCR technique was performed depending on two types of primers, which are universal and specific for identifying C. dubliniensis and the results of the CHROM agar and API 20C assays were identical with molecular method.

Synthesis of some New Derivatives of Triazole using Ortho-Carboxybenzaldehyde as a Synthone

Maysaa Kairulden Shakir Al-Mala Khder; moayed Salim noori

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175388

       In this work, the 1,2,4-triazole ring was prepared by introducing the starting material ortho-carboxybenzaldehyde (1) in the usual esterification reaction, in ethanol as a solvent and in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid to give ethyl-2-formylbenzoate (2), then introducing the resulting ester in a condensation reaction with thiosemberazide in the presence of ethanol as a solvent to afforded 2-(2-formylbenzoyl)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide (3), which on cyclisation using a solution of sodium hydroxide to obtain the 1,2,4-triazole compound (4), which on treatment with different primary aromatic amines to obtain Schiff bases (5a-e) the prepared Schiff bases were introduced into a reaction with chloroacetyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine as an auxiliary base for the reaction to prepare the tetracyclic azitidinone compounds (beta-lactams) (6a-e) along with the triazole ring in the same compound. Finally, these prepared compounds were characterized by physical and spectroscopic measurements such as melting point, thin layer chromatography (m.p., TLC) infrared spectroscopic measurements FT-IR, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra  of some compounds1H-NMR.

Synthesis of some new Pyrazoline Carbothioamides and Pyrimidinethiols Derivatives from Bis-α, β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

Zina K. Yahya; Muneera Y. Roof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175389

              In our research, new bis-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (Z2-Z4) were prepared via Claisen- Schmidt reaction, by the condensation of 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydropyridine (Z1) with different appropriate benzaldehyde, like (benzaldehyde, m-nitro benzaldehyde and o-chloro benzaldehyde) using 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide as a base.
        A simple and efficient method has been applied for the synthesis 2,6-dimethyl- 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydropyridine (Z1) by multi components Rudolf-Hantzsch condensation reaction which included heating the starting materials (paraformaldehyde, acetylacetone and ammonium acetate) at 80Cͦ degrees centigrade in aqueous medium. Bis-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (Z2-Z4) can be considered as useful intermediates leading to the formation of several heterocyclic compounds such as pyrazoline carbothioamide (Z5-Z7) and pyrimidinethiole (Z8-Z10). The titled compounds (Z5-Z7) and (Z8-Z10) were prepared by interacting with thiosemicarbazide in neutral medium, and thiourea in basic medium respectively. These mentioned compounds (Z1-Z10) were characterized by Ferrier Translate-Infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet spectrum (UV), in addition to some physical properties. Also, all these reactions followed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique and calculate the retardation factor (Rf) values.

A Simulated Study of 65 nm CMOS 2GHz Front-End Preamplifier Circuit for Optical Fiber Applications

Ruwaida A. Al-Berwari; Muhammed Hameed Alsheikhjader

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175390

   In this research a new design of the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with the current mirror was employed by the technique (65nm). The TIA consists of a common gate transistor amplifier (CG TIA) and a common source amplifier as an input stage with local active feedback with a second stage of a current mirror and local active feedback to increase gain. In order to verify the performance of the proposed TIA, a circuit simulation was carried out in the LT spice program using coefficients with the technique (65nm CMOS). The simulation results indicate that the interfacial impedance gain is (41 dBΩ) at a bandwidth frequency of (2.0 GHz-3dB) for an input capacitor of          (100 fF) and an input referred noise current spectral density of (14 pA/√Hz) and a power consumption value of                (0.091 mw) at an applied voltage (1V). The main focus of this research is low consumption of power and voltage compared to another research.

Effect of Three Different Dielectric Substrates on the Performance of Rectangular Microstrip Antenna Designed for 2.4 GHz using CST


Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 42-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175392

This paper presents a design of a low profile inset feed microstrip rectangular antenna working at 2.4 GHz to support application in industrial, scientific, and medical sectors. The design of the antenna is achieved by using three different substrates with dielectric constants of 2.2, 3.6, and 4.3, each with variable substrate thicknesses of 0.6, 1.5, 1.9mm in order to know the effect of substrate properties on the antenna performance such as gain, efficiency, return loss, and frequency bandwidth. The dimensions and performances of the designed antenna are optimized by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software hence a comparison has been performed among previous the antenna performances. The practical results for the antenna with the substrate of (dielectric constant of 4.3) and (thickness of 1.5mm) show that the return loss is (-33) dB which close to the simulation value, but there is a small difference (about ~30MHz) in the Impedance bandwidth. However, all other results were close.

Statistical Analysis of the Monthly Activity of the Solar Flare

Imad Ahmed Al-Ibrahimi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 55-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175396

The study of solar flares (SF) is significant for a more understanding of the nature and dynamics of the sun as well as its impact on space weather. This paper will present a new idea by studying the monthly activity of SFs by collecting data for SFs, the flare index (FI), and the sunspots number (SSN) for the period from 1986 to 2019, which represents three solar cycles 22, 23 and 24. Extracting the monthly averages of the data shows us that the southern solar hemisphere is more active for solar flares than the northern solar hemisphere. Also, the second half of the year is more active than the first half of the three solar cycles. The most active months are March, (July or October) and November, while February was the least active. In addition, the evidence of the cross-correlation results in a strong positive relationship between the three variables. This study serves to forecast the state of the space weather during the months of the year.

Review Paper

The Role of Sulfa Drugs in our Life

Salim J. Mohammed; Azzam A. AL-Hadedi; Salih A. Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 64-74
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175395

         Gerhardt Dumac discovered in 1932 that Prontosyl kills bacteria while testing dyes, and in 1934, he began using Prontosyl as a treatment. This was in Germany, and experiments in France showed that the effect of Prontosyl is due to the presence of sulfanilamide in it. In 1908, Gelmo was the first to attend a sulfa drug conference in Germany. Sulfanilamide's medicinal usefulness was endorsed in 1936 by researchers at JohnsHopkinsUniversity in the United States, including Long and Plus, Marshall, and others. Sulfa drugs are used to treat a range of diseases caused by bacteria, with which it has been possible to save countless lives. It is believed that the effect of sulfa is to stop the growth of bacteria, meaning that these drugs prevent the growth and reproduction of bacteria, which creates an opportunity for the body's defensive forces to eliminate them. Humans are currently treated with sulfonamides for specific disorders, such as urinary system infections. However, sulfonamides are more typically seen in veterinary medicine. Therefore we attempted to explain the role and importance of sulfa drugs in our lives because of their widespread use in medical therapy.

Research Paper

Phenotypic and Molecular Investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Hemolysin

Roaa Amer Thamer; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175398

The current study aimed to detect S.pneumoniae, which is one of the gram-positive bacteria that gives partial α-hemolysis on blood agar media, as well as has the ability to complete blood hemolysis (beta)-hemolysis under anaerobic conditions. Fifty sputum specimens were collected from patients in Ibn sena and Al Salam hospitals in Mosul/ Iraq from august 2021 to March 2022. Five isolates were diagnosed as S.pneumoniae which exhibited an ability to produce hemolysin when phenotypicallyinvestigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect hlys gene Electrophoresis results showed four bands (80% of isolates) with a molecular size of 296 bp the PCR product were then sequenced.

Efficiency of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Stimulating Germination and Seedling Growth of Soybean Plant Glycine max L. and its Protein Content

Ghada Mahdi; Rana T. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 10-17
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175399

           The results of this study gived a scientific view about the role of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) in the seeds germination and seedlings growth of soybean (Glycine max L.) when placed on the surface of solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with concentrations                                   (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100µg/ml)  of those nanoparticles as stimulating factors. The results showed that the concentration of 40 μg/ml was superior to the percentage of germination of the growth seeds after 7 days which was 100 % at compared to the MS medium alone (control) which gave a percentage of germination of 75% after 15 days and also encouraged the same concentration to obtain the best length of the stems and roots groups at 10, 12 cm respectively, compared to the average lengths of seedlings growing on the control medium, with average lengths of 6 and 8.5 cm for stems and roots respectively. Also, this stimulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was reflected on the growth and division parameters of cells through the protein content and DNA and RNA content of seedling cells, which increased with the presence of these nanoparticles, especially at a concentration of 40 μg /ml, as the protein content of cells reached 1.92 μg\ gm and with DNA, RNA contents 12.45 and 99.43 μg /gm respectively, compared to their ratios in seedling cells growing on MS medium.