Volume 31, Issue 2, Spring 2022

Research Paper

Estimating the Level of Interleukin-22 in Sera of Patients with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Mosul City

laith Az-Aldeen Ismael

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174269

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) were infectious diseases of the urinary system, that were caused by the different causative agents, including fungi, parasites, viruses, and bacteria. The current study was designed to isolate different bacteria from UTI and choose E. coli isolates to study levels of interleukin-22 in patients infected with it. Furthermore, studying the prevalence of type 1 fimbriae (fimH) virulence gene from isolated E. coli of above patients. Methods: In the present study, a total of (140) midstream urine and serum samples were collected from patients (110 females and 30 males) with the age ranged between 10 to 65 years, who had signs and symptoms and primarily diagnosed with UTI by physician in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital – Mosul/Iraq during the period between January and March 2021, while thirty-four healthy individuals were studied as controls for the ELISA test. Identification of bacterial isolates was done by microscopical examination, biochemical tests, and (API 20E). Furthermore, disc diffusion method was used in antibiotic sensitivity test, and DNA from E. coli isolates was extracted for gene detection. In addition, serum interleukin-22 level was determined via ELISA technique. Results: The mean ± SD age in UTI patients were (32.95 ± 12.80) years, while in the healthy controls group were (35.55 ± 13.51) years. Additionally, E. coli were the most common isolated bacteria from the patient group with a frequency and percentage of 50 (35.7%). Furthermore, when compared to the control group, serum IL- 22 level was significantly higher in the patient's group due to E. coli infection (P<0.001). Moreover, the prevalence of the fimH gene in E. coli isolates was 47 (94.0%) were positive for that gene. Conclusion: The present study revealed that E. coli was the most bacterial infection in patients with urinary tract infection, while the highest E. coli sensitivity was to Meropenem, Nitrofurantoin (F15) and Chloramphenicol also the higher serum IL- 22 level in patients with UTIs due to E. coli compared to controls group. Therefore, IL-22 could be used as a biomarker for UTI. Additionally, the prevalence of the fimH gene in E. coli isolates was present in most isolates.

Effect of some Heavy Metals on Carbohydrates, Proteins and Phenolic Compounds Content in Olive and Oleander Leaves at Three Intersection of Tikrit Streets

Mhammad Aziz

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 10-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174270

The study was conducted in the city of Tikrit. Three intersections of the city were chosen. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 30cm with olive and oleander leaves from each location from April to October 2021, to study the effect of heavy metals resulting from the crowded cars at the intersections of Tikrit city on the primary and secondary metabolic products of olive and oleander plants grown on the sides of the roads. The heavy metals were examined in the soil and plants of the study from the selected sites in which the highest rate of Lead (2.1) per part million in the soil of the first site. Iron concentration has part rates, within the permissible limits and reached to (13.9) per part million in the soil of the first site too. The analyses of olive have shown that Iron has been recorded the highest concentration reached (7.23) per part million in the third site. The primary metabolic compounds, such as: carbohydrates and total protein, of the plants have been identified. These compounds have been recorded low rates in olive and oleander leaves as a consequence of the exposure to pollutants, including heavy metals in traffic areas. Five phenolic compounds were diagnosed in olive and oleander leaves, where the highest concentration of the total phenolic content was recorded with a value of (5898.72, 8460.23) per part million, respectively. Meanwhile the phenolic compounds (Quercetin, Cinnamic acid) have recorded the highest values (1223.51, 1067.27) per part million in the both plants respectively.

Spectrophotometric Estimation of Clonazepam as Pure Form and in its Pharmaceutical Formulation (Tablet) Using Alizarin Red S

Rabee M. A. Yassin; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 22-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174271

An easy and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been suggested for the assay of clonazepam (CLZM) as pure form and in its formulation as tablets. The present method based on the reaction of CLZM with alizarin red S reagent (ALRS) via proton transfer reaction to form a colored solution with a maximum absorption at wavelength of 528 nm and the optimal conditions for the reaction were studied. The linearity was within the concentration range from 1 to 30 µg/ml, with an R2 value (determination coefficient) of 0.9882 and the sensitivity express via the molar absorption of 7.04x103 l mol-1.cm-1, while Sandell's sensitivity index has been determined and equal to 0.0448 µg/ cm2.The percentage of relative standard deviation (RSD%) which express the precision of the method, percentage of relative error (RE%) express the accuracy, the LOD and LOQ also have been estimated. The application of the suggested method to the determination of CLZM in tablet gave satisfactory results.

Electrical Properties of n-CdSe/Si-p Junction Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique, from Different Weights of Sodium Selenosulfate and Constant Molarity

Sarah Y. Abdulkaleq; Laith M. Al Taan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 34-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174272

A pn-junction was successfully fabricated by depositing n-type CdSe thin films on p-type Si as a substrate using chemical bath deposition technique (CBD) at 70oC. Time of deposition was 6 hours and the preparing solution was changed every 2 hours during the deposition. Sodium Selenosulfate (with different weights) is the source of Se-2 ions, cadmium nitrate is the source of Cd+2 ions. The (I-V) characteristics for the n-CdSe/p-Si junction show it behaves as a Zener diode in reverse bias, with Zener resistance (3 and 27×103)W. SEM also shows spherical-shape particles with difference grain size (3.8 and 19.8) nm.

Review Paper

Lycopene Promotes Bone Metabolism

Hadeel Mohammed Alhashemi; Elham Al-khashab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 40-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174273

Lycopene is antioxidants and natural substance which found in ‎large quantities in reddish color fruits, especially in tomatoes. Consuming lycopene, which is abundant in tomato plants and its products that made from tomatoes, reduce the risk and development of  diseases like heart and cancer disease in several recent studies, in addition, lycopene levels in the blood and tissues are reversely related to these chronic diseases, however, studies and researches on the effects of lycopene on bones are rare. Lycopene can prevent loss of bone, especially, there are many drugs  used to treat osteoporosis, but this treatment causes harmful side effects. This review outlines the currently available studies on lycopene ‎sources, structure and absorption. This review aims to summarize and investigation the effectiveness of lycopene on bone metabolism that include ‎formation and ‏resorption of bone through its effect on osteoblast cell, and Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Bone turnover signs in women after menopause were reviewed and hypotheses explores that its supplementation with lycopene would increase antioxidant capacity and decreasing oxidative stress parameters.‎

Research Paper

Qualitative Evaluation of Selected Well Water from the South Areas of Tal Afar District in Nineveh Governorate / Iraq for Various Civil Uses

Ahmed Shihab Ahmed Hussain Al-Hamdani; ABDUBARI YOUNS Kaplan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174274

The study included the random selection of water from five wells from the southern districts of Tal Afar district to assess its quality and determine its suitability for drinking purposes and various civil uses by studying the physical and chemical properties (temperature, total solid dissolved materials, pH in addition to positive and negative ions) and applying the water quality index (WQI).  The results of the current study showed that the water temperature was relatively constant throughout the study period, while the values ​​of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 1186 mg/l  in the well (1) to 1859 mg / l  in the well (5) While the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased to an average of 1.2 mg/l in well (1), while the values ​​of total hardness and sulfate increased to the limits of 1530 mg/l and 840 mg/l, respectively, and the nitrate values ​​ranged between (1.2 - 13.8) mg / l and A Phosphate values ​​ ranged  between (1.33-0.02) mg / l  due to its adsorption with minerals in the rocks around the groundwater, and the results of the water quality coefficient (WQI) indicated that the values ​​ranged between (109-125), and the studied was considered to be of poor quality for drinking purposes and various household uses due to the high values  ​​of total dissolved solids (TDS) and sulfur for the studied well water.

Effect of Pinching and Spraying of Paclobutrazol and Ascorbic Acid in Flowering Growth Characters of zinnia elegans L.

Rand nafi Abd Albaqi; Hala A. Abd Al-Qader

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 10-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174275

The current study was conducted during the period from April 2021 to August 2021 on Zinnia elegans L. Its flowers are purple in color to study the effect of pinching of the growing tip of the plant or without, and spray twice the shoot system with paclobutrazol at concentrations (0, 15 and 30) mg. L-1 and ascorbic acid at concentrations (0, 150 and 300) mg. L-1, in the qualities of vegetable growth, The factorial experiment was implemented using Randomized Complete Block Design within Split Plot, with three replicates and seven plants for the experimental unit. The results indicated the following: The pinching of the growing top of the plant led to a delayed the date of flowering, increased inflorescences longevity and increased morally in the content of anthocynin in flowers40.58 mg.100g-1 wet weight. The spraying of paclobutrazol at a concentration of 30 mg. L-1 delayed the date of flowering and increased inflorescences longevity, while spraying in both concentrations 15 and 30 mg. L-1 increased the number of flowers to 2.09 and 2.32 flower. per plant, respectively. Ascorbic acid spraying delayed the date of the flowering and led to spraying at a concentration of 300 mg. L-1 and increased inflorescences longevity, and significantly increased the content of anthocynin in inflorescences to 51.23 mg.100g-1 wet weight.

Study the Susceptibility of Epoxy-based Composite Materials Reinforced with Powders of Different Elements and Compounds to be used as Materials with a Positive Environmental Impact

thary haider; Ahmed Noori Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 19-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174276

In this research, a group of polymeric composite materials with an epoxy basis (PMCS) was manufactured, the base material is (Master Brace ADH 1406 Part A), which represents a substance (Resin) and (Master Brace ADH 1406 Part B) is a (Hardener), with the standard mixing ratio of material [1H:3R]: this material supported the basis with powders of different materials (Al2O3, Black Carbon, Active Carbon, kaolin, Car Exhausts Type I, II and III). The manufactured samples have been subjected to hardness and impact resistance tests. The results showed that there is an improvement in the surface hardness and the shock resistance of the base material after reinforcement it with different powders. The results also showed that there is a critical ratio for the amount of the reinforcing material, which shows the best case of improvement in the mechanical properties and it depends on the nature of the base material. The results also showed that the samples of the substrates reinforced with different powders showed their ability to adsorb nine elements or compounds from the hypothetical system that were subjected to it for a period of (30 days), and that the most basic materials that showed the content of the adsorbed elements was the substrate fortified with powder (Black Carbon) and the least It is the base material supported by powder (Al2O3), and the base materials supported by powder (Active Carbon) are less efficient in the adsorption of elements and compounds than (Black Carbon), in addition, the base materials supported by powders of materials used in car exhausts and of their three types have a limited ability in Adsorption of elements and compounds.

The Relationship Between the Emitter Position and the Wehnelt Cylinder Aperture Radius of the Thermionic Electron Gun

najia mohammed; Abdullah Idrees Alabdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.174277

This paper includesfinding a mathematical relationship between the distance from the emitter to the width of the Wehnelt cylinder bore and the diameter of that bore, by studying the effect and correlation of these two parameterson the quality of the electron beam. A group of electron guns with identical and variable geometric parameters were designed for the values ​​of the Wehnelt cylinder aperture radius for each case from the emitter site, which represents the distance from the emitter head to the Wehnelt cylinder aperture. As well as the calculation of the electron beam diameter and the brightness and emittance, as the mathematical relationship between these two parameters was found to be linear.