Volume 31, Issue 1, Winter 2022

Research Paper

The Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Powder on some Immune Parameters in Rat

Hiyam Adel Altai; Mahmood A. Altobje; Ali A. Dawood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172921

The impact of Ganoderma lucidum powder on both chemokines, IgG and C3 complement concentrations, as well as WBC types, was investigated in 60 ester citrine rats split between two groups, one of which was injected with Carbon tetrachloride CcL4 and the other with Ganoderma lucidum powder. They were not given this drug; instead, two concentrations of mushroom powder, 40 mg/ per kilo-gram of body weight and 80 mg/ per kilo gram of body weight, were utilized, along with a control group. The results revealed a clear increase in all immune factors measured, with a clear difference between males and females when compared to control samples, as well as an increase in the numbers of both neutrophils and lymphocytes in males for both concentrations, with a higher increase for the second concentration than the first, while the increase in females for both concentrations was similar.
In the groups exposed to CcL4, an increase in the values of chemokines, IgG, and C3 as well as the number of neutrophils appeared in males in varying numbers for both concentrations, whereas the increase in females appeared in the second concentration higher than the first concentration of immune values, and the opposite was true for the number of white cells. The number of monocytes showed slight changes in both males and females under study with clear significant differences between C3, chemokine, white blood cell count, lymphocytes and monocytes.

Biochemical Study of Consumption Zahdi Dates (Phoenix dactylifera) in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Saba Z. Al-Abachi; Sameer M. Yaseen; Ghofran A. Shihab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172924

Dates considered one of most significant commercial crops and have been documented in the Holy Quran and scientific references. This study was designed to determine the therapeutic effects of Zahdi variety of dates in control subjects and their effects on glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), antioxidant vitamins (C and E), and inorganic phosphate and calcium excursions. Study subjected twenty-four control group (12 male and 12 females), mean age (42.0±8.69 year), and twenty patients with diabetic type 2 (10 males and 10 females) with a means of HbA1c (9.25 ±2.02 %) and age (47.7±9.33 year). All participants ate a single number of the Zahdi dates (5-7) before breakfasting for a prior twenty-one days. Glucose was measured in control group and for diabetics.
        Glycemic index (GI) was established as proportion of the gradational areas below the return curves for dates as compared to glucose. Collecting blood samples from patients and control group were collected and the statistical data examinations are achievement by using independent samples and paired t-test. The results indicated a significant increase in glucose, MDA, total cholesterol and TG, while a significant decrease in GSH, vitamins (C and E) and phosphate in patients when compared with control group (previously and in accordance) consumption dates palm. No considerable changes in calcium level between diabetic and control subjects. The consumption of dates palm led to a significant decrease in MDA, total cholesterol, TG, and phosphate, also a significant increase in GSH and vitamin E in diabetic patients when compared with control group.

Development of Spectrophotometric Method to Assay Sulfadiazine in Pure and in Pharmaceutical Dosage form through Diazotization and Coupling Reaction

Dheyaa Thamer Azeez; salim ali mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172925

This study involves the development of a sensitive accurate and low-cost spectrophotometric procedure to analyze sulfadiazine as pure and in its dosage forms. In this method sulfadiazine was diazotized with an equimolar solution of sodium nitrite in the presence of hydrochloric acid to form corresponding diazonium salt followed by coupling with phloroglucinol reagent in basic solution of NaOH to produce a yellow water-soluble azo dye that has maximum absorption at 417 nm versus reagent blank. Under optimum conditions. The linearity of the method obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range 0.25-15 μg/ml with an excellent determination coefficient             (R2= 0.9992) and molar absorptivity 3.81×104 l/mol.cm. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) have also been estimated and their values were found to be 0.192 and 0.563 μg/ml, respectively. A relative error% was calculated and found in the range -2.75% to 4.02%, while the precision (RSD%) was estimated as ≤ 1.36%. The stoichiometry of the resulting azo dye was found to be 1:1 sulfadiazine: phloroglucinol with stability constant 0.37×107 l/mol. The suggested procedure was applied to the analysis of sulfadiazine in cream and veterinary drugs (powder and injection).

Estimation of p-Aminophenol via Diazotization and Coupling Reaction with 4-Chlororesorcinol –Application on Paracetamol

Hiba abdul salam Alhafhd; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 35-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172930

A spectrophotometric method has been proposed for the direct determination of p-aminophenol (p-Amp). The method includes diazotisation of p-Amp using an excess of sodium nitrite and in the presence of hydrochloric acid, and after destroying the remaining nitrous acid by adding sulphamic acid, then the produced diazonium salt coupled with the reagent 4-chlororenocinol (4-Chlr) in an alkaline medium of sodium hydroxide to form a water-soluble azo dye that gives the highest absorption at the wavelength of 488 nm. The linear range that follows Beer's law was from 0.5 to 15 μg/ml. The value of the molar absorptivity was 1.9905x104 l/mol. cm. After investigation of the optimal conditions by studying all factors affecting the absorption of the formed azo dye. The method was applied to estimate paracetamol in its pharmaceutical preparations after hydrolysis process. The results of standard addition method proved that there is no interference by additives.

Study of Electrical Conductivity for Salt Diclofenac Potassium in Water and Water-Methanol Mixtures at Different Temperatures

Hakam Alhayaly; Mohamed Yaha Al Tamer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 47-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172932

This paper traces the conductivity of diclofenac potassium salts in the low concentrations in water and mixtures of water and methanol (10%, 20% and 30% aqueous methanol) at different temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K). The conductivity data were analyzed using the Lee-Wheaton conductivity equation to obtain the values ​​of equivalent conductivity at infinite dilution “∧o”, association constants (KA), the association diameter (R) and Walden product (Λ0η0). The results showed that diclofenac potassium salt behaves as weak electrolytes in the solvents used. Moreover, standard thermodynamic parameters of the association (change value in: Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the values ​​of molar conductivity, the distance parameter between the ions (R) and association constants (KA) increase with increasing temperature at the best fit value of the standard deviation (σ). The thermodynamic results also indicated that the ion association process is endothermic (+ΔH) and spontaneous (- ΔG) and increasing degrees of freedom (+ΔS).

Preparation and Characterization of some Transition Metal Complexes with di -2- Quinolinone Dibenzylidine Ligand and their Adducts with 1,10 – Phenanthroline

lana abdalhameed alnuaimy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172933

The present work includes the preparation with complexes of the general formula [M2L2] Cl4 and [M2L2(1,10-phen)2] Cl4 were
M= Mn (II), Fe (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II)
L = di -2- quinolinone dibenzylidine
1,10-phen = 1,10phenanthroline
       The ligand was prepared by condensation reaction of N-aminoquinoline-2-one with terphaldehyde (2:1) and characterized by infrared and proton NMR.
       The complexes number (1-6) prepared into (2:2) (M: L) molar ratio respectively while complex number (7-12) prepared into (2:2:2) (M: L: 1,10–phen) molar ratio respectively.
       The I.R spectra data suggest the involvement of nitrogen atom of azomethine group and oxygen atom of carbonyl group of the ligand in coordination to central metal ion.
       The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, and spectral measurements (UV – Vis, IR).
        Elemental analysis data proposed 2:2 (metal: ligand) and 2:2:2 (1,10-phen). The molar conductance measurements showed 1:4 electrolytes complexes, Further more magnetic moment measurements and electronic spectra indicated that the complexes of the type [M2L2] Cl4 possess a tetrahedral geometry while complexes of the type [M2L2(1,10-phen)2] Cl4 possess an octahedral geometry.

Review Paper

Most Concern Strains of Coronavirus-2 and Diagnostic Protocol in Iraqi’s Hospitals: A review

Hadeel Musafer; Raghad A. Abdulrazaq; Majid A. Al-Bayati; Sadeq A. Kaabi; Bashar K. Abdulateef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 77-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172934

The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 is responsible for the current global pandemic. The emergence of covid-19 variants on different continents has caused great concern in global human health. These variants affected many places around the world including China, Europe, U.K., and United States. The most variant of concern is Beta (lineage B.1.351), Epsilon (lineage B.1.429), and Kappa (lineage B.1.617). These variants allowed the virus to become higher transmissible in the population, and undetected because a large number of mutations accumulate in the spike (S) protein, especially within the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor-binding domain (RBD). The consequences of these variants are stimulated high virulence, frequent re-infection, and increased resistance for monoclonal antibodies. In Iraq the diagnosing process starts with a PCR test to confirm the infection, however, if the result comes up negative with persistence symptoms, the PCR need to be followed by CT the most supportive procedure for diagnosing the infection, where the infection is classified into three types depends on symptoms of cystic fibrosis as High confidence, intermediate confidence, and low confidence. The diagnosis procedure infection summaries that all series of diagnostic tests need to be done even if the PCR results are negative.

Research Paper

Evaluation of the Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticle AgNP on Stages of Housefly, Musca domestica L.

Zeena Zakaria Idrees Zakaria Al-Mashhadany; Muneef A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172935

        The current study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of silver AgNPs nanoparticles by dipping and feeding methods and for five concentrations (800, 400, 200, 100, 50) ppm in the stages of the house fly Musca domestica L., the concentration of 800 ppm caused an emergence inhibition rate of 100 %, while the lowest inhibition rate was at a concentration of 50 ppm, which amounted to 36% by immersion method after ten days of treatment, while the value of LC50 (the concentration that kills 50% of insects) reached (422.711) ppm. While the percentage of inhibition by feeding method reached 93% at a concentration of 800 ppm, and the concentration of 50 ppm gave the lowest inhibition rate of 43% and for the same time period, and the value of LC50 (794.099) ppm. For both methods. The results also showed that all concentrations had an effect on the natural development of the growth of the different stages and caused the appearance of deformations in the pupa and the adult and a decrease in the percentage of the appearance of the adult. The results showed that the effect of silver nanoparticles by dipping method was higher than by feeding method for all phases.

Preparation and Investigation of some Substituted Thiazole Complexes with Divalent and Trivalent Metals

Kawakib Abdulaziz mohammed Abdulaziz mohammed Altai; Ihsan A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172936

A new complexes of some transition metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu (II) and some non-transition metal ions Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) with two multidentate ligands 2-acetamidothiazole (at) and 2-acetamidobenzothiazole (abt). All the prepared complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, Molar conductance, Magnetic susceptibility infrared and electronic spectral. The complexes were classified as:
1-                  When the ligands (at and abt) behave as Mondentate coordinated throughnitrogen of thiazole ring, the resulting complexes are of the type [ML3X3] (M=Cr+3 when L= abt and at) (M=Fe+3 when L= abt,at).
2-                   When the ligands (at and abt) behave as bidentate coordinated through nitrogen of thiazole ring and nitrogen of amide or oxygen of the carbonyl, the resulting complexes are on the type [Co(abt)2.Cl.H2O]Cl.H2O, [ML2Cl2] (M=Mn+2 ,Zn+2,Hg+2when L= abt and at), [ML2.(H2O)2](NO3)2  (M=Cr+3 when L= abt and at; M=Ni+2 when L=abt) and [CdL2](NO3)2 (L=abt and at).
3-                  When the ligands (at and abt) behave as tridentate coordinated through the nitrogen of the thiazole ring and nitrogen of amide and the oxygen of the carbonyl group. The resulting complexes are on the type [Cu(abt)2] (NO3)2.
          The prepared complexes have octahedral structures except the complexes of type [CdL2] (NO3)2 have tetrahedral structures.

Using of Bathophenanthroline Reagent for Spectrophotometric Estimation of Acetylcysteine in its Pharmaceutical Preparations

Shahad L. Hasan; Saad Hasani Sultan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 21-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172937

A sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was suggested for the estimation of acetylcysteine in its pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was depended on the oxidation of the studied drug compound by iron (III) in aqueous medium, and then reaction of produced iron (II) with bathophenanthroline reagent to form a red color complex, which is stable and soluble in water and exhibits a maximum absorption at 534 nm. Beer̛̛s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.25 to 10.0 µg.ml-1 of acetylcysteine. The apparent molar absorptivity value is 2.35×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandalls sensitivity index of 0.00694 µg.cm-2, a relative error of                  -4.72 to 4.32% and a relative standard deviation of 0.627 to 3.54% depending on the concentration level. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of acetylcysteine in its pharmaceutical preparations as sachet (powder), capsule and injection.

Solar Activities and their Relationship to the Maximum Temperatures of the City of Baghdad for the Solar Cycles 23 and 24

mohammed AKeel; Imad A. Hussain

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 34-42
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172938

The interaction of solar activities with the layers of the Earth's atmosphere determines the pattern of the complex climate system. It is clear that any change in incoming solar radiation has the potential to affect the climate. In this research, the effect of the energies of coronal mass ejections and solar flares on the maximum temperatures of the summer seasons over the city of Baghdad for the time period (1996-2019) representing the 23 and 24 solar cycles was studied. CME data were collected from the SOHO/LASCO CME Catalog. Solar flare data were taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Center (NOAA) database. As for the geoclimatic data for the study for the summer seasons, it was relied on through the meteorological ground station in Baghdad affiliated with the Iraqi General Authority for Meteorology and Seismic Monitoring. The statistical program Minitab 19.0 was used, and the results showed a direct relationship between the energies of coronal mass ejections and solar flares with maximum temperatures during the solar cycles 23 and 24. Except for the descending phase of the solar cycle 24, the results showed an inverse relationship.

Review Paper

The Efficiency of Nanoparticles Oxides in the Promoting the Formation of Secondary Metabolites Compounds in Plants

Rana T. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172939

The study impressed on the necessary of using advanced nanotechnology in different fields and applications, as it contributes in the increasing of production, improving quality, reducing costs, preventing the use of harmful pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and explain the role of research related to completing new added value for the agricultural section and  for obtain an clean environment free from nano-pollutants and manipulating them in a positive direction for the growth of certain types of accumulated plants, improving the plant's ability to obtain plant metabolic materials with medical and pharmaceutical benefits and directing work to exploit these materials in all aspects of life because of their importance and empty from any harmful side effects. For this purpose elements are used as stimulation factors, which leads to enhancing the bio- formation of these compounds in plant cell cultures in vitro. These factors include elements from biotic and non-biotic sources, the most important of which are nanoparticles, which are non-biotic extract materials used to obtain medicinal compounds derived from plants.

Research Paper

Statistical Analysis of the Monthly Activity of the Solar Flare

Imad Ahmed Al-Ibrahimi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 55-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.175393

The study of solar flares (SF) is significant for a more understanding of the nature and dynamics of the sun as well as its impact on space weather. This paper will present a new idea by studying the monthly activity of SFs by collecting data for SFs, the flare index (FI), and the sunspots number (SSN) for the period from 1986 to 2019, which represents three solar cycles 22, 23 and 24. Extracting the monthly averages of the data shows us that the southern solar hemisphere is more active for solar flares than the northern solar hemisphere. Also, the second half of the year is more active than the first half of the three solar cycles. The most active months are March, (July or October) and November, while February was the least active. In addition, the evidence of the cross-correlation results in a strong positive relationship between the three variables. This study serves to forecast the state of the space weather during the months of the year.