Volume 30, Issue 2, Spring 2021

Research Paper

Simulation of the Gamma Absorption by Lead Bronze Alloys Using Geant4

Hilala N. Mohammed; Ali H. Taqi; Abdulahdi M. Ghalib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168338

Shielding materials are extremely important in production or handling isotopes, nuclear reactors, accelerators, and medical centers, etc. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 is one of the most important and common platforms for the simulation of the interaction of radiation with matter. Therefore, this paper is devoted to simulating the partial absorption of the gamma-ray by Lead bronze alloys                  (Pb, Sn, Cu) in different proportions using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 from 1.5 keV to 15 MeV. The accuracy of the simulated results of the total and partial mass attenuation coefficients () for the photoelectric effect, Compton Scattering and pair production, and tenth value layers (TVL) were evaluated by using the XCOM program. The agreements were good, but it depends on the energy of the incident photon. The mass attenuation coefficients decreased when the photon energy increased and many peaks are observed. The effect of adding Pb was clear, as the  increases while the TVL decreases.

Simulation of the Gamma Attenuation through Borate Glass Using Genat4

Shlair I. Mohammed; Ali H. Taqi; Abdulahdi M. Ghalib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168339

In this study, the protection parameters of the gamma-ray of Borate glass system containing 10Li2O. 10K2O. 20Na2O. xPbO.                   (60-x) B2O3 where x to be varied as 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60, were investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The coefficients of attenuation were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 as a function of the incident photon 0.0015 MeV and 15 MeV. The accuracy of the simulated results was tested by using the XCOM program. The Geant4 and XCOM results showed a reasonable agreement. The results of the attenuation parameters showed that the sample of higher PbO concentration absorbs a greater number of photons, therefore the attenuation coefficients are increased while the tenth-value layer (TVL) values are decreased due to the increase in PbO from 0 to 60%. The linear and mass attenuation coefficients decreased when the photon energy increase and many peaks are observed.

Review Paper

The Development of Microwave Applications in Medical Field

Qusay Kh. Al_Dulamey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 23-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168340

Through this analysis, we conclude that there is no fixed limit to the radiation threat, but that the risk begins at any stage. High frequency electromagnetic waves have detrimental effects, in particular, on the body and sensitive cells. One of the susceptible organs affected by radiation is the reproductive system, though it does not contain a high percentage of blood. This plays an important role in reducing the heat generated by the cumulative microwave effect. Most studies have agreed that these radiation communication systems have an effective effect on red and white blood cells due to the heme's cellular structure, which is influenced by magnetic and electrical fields, creating a change in the cellular composition and composition. Thus, a shift in cell function clinically visible symptoms of photo damage are fine lines and rhytides. Traditionally, for nonsurgical facial rejuvenation, truncated and non-truncated lasers were used, in addition to that its cumulative side effects and its heroes time are in the work. Initially used to target photo damage, radio frequency represents an idea of radiation surgery technology. It is different from lasers   such as current of an electric is used as well as a light source. It is widely used for treating slouch of skin, deflations, skin tags and freckles, and dimple in dermatology. This work aims to show the different kinds of radiofrequency tools and their application. Assessing the effectiveness of these tools is based on facts.  This paper discusses the latest RF function, applications, clinical advance.         Application guide for various RF applications. The findings were positive with multiple clinical tools of radio waves, although more trials were non-randomized, non-comparative trials using local methods of assessment. Most non- truncated radio waves are a healthy, suggest method that produces moderate results for skin rejuvenation and cellulite therapy. Radio wave is act as replace from surgery.

Specialized High-Quality 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Databases for Identification of Bacterial Taxonomic Groups: a review

Talal Sabhan Salih; Hiba K. Saeed; Mohammed A. Ibraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 40-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168341

        Recent accumulation of the bacterial 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences in the public GenBank databases obtained from the wide use of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) applications has led the specialists in the fields of microbiology and bioinformatics to provide specific and reliable databases for storing, retrieving and aligning bacterial ribosomal gene sequences. In our review, we have provided a comprehensive description of gene databases with an emphasis on the most specialized and high quality rRNA gene databases. These databases are freely accessible and widely used for all specialist users for accurate bacterial genera and species identification from different sources. rRNA genes, platforms, internet addresses and references of each gene specialized database were outlined. The Silva, EzTaxon-e and BIBI have been shown to be the most confident and reliable specialized rRNA gene databases. These databases contain the semi fully high-quality ribosomal gene sequences along with some              house-keeping and uncultured gene sequences in case of EzTaxon-e.   

Research Paper

Comparison of Three Biofilm Detection Methods in Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Species

Ahmed Al-Jubory; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168342

This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the ability of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) for the detection of biofilms, which are considered as the main virulence factor in their pathogenicity. Three methods were used for this purpose, the tube method, congo red agar and tissue culture plate method. Thirty-seven isolates of the following bacteria were tested, which includes Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus and S. sciuri.The results of the tube method showed that most isolates (64.5%) gave a moderate positive result, (32.3%) was weak positive and six isolates showed no ability to form biofilm, the congo red method showed that, the majority of isolates were a moderate positive result (89.3%) and nine isolates were negative for biofilm formation. As for the tissue culture plate method, the results ranged between (62.9%) a moderate positive and (31.4%) a weak positive, while only two isolates could not form biofilm. When comparing the efficiency of the three methods in detecting the ability of CoNS isolates to form biofilm, it was found that tissue culture plate method was the most efficient (94.6%), followed by the tube method (83.8%), and the congo red (75.7%).

In Vitro Propagation of Petunia hybrida Plant

Amina Ameen Ahmed; Bashar Zaki Kassab Bashi; Aysar M. Almemary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 16-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168343

This study was carried out in the laboratory of cells and plant tissue culture at Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, to propagate Petunia hybrida cv. “grandiflora doppia miscuglio” in vitro through multiplication of shoot tips and nodes produced from axenic seedling by culturing them on MS medium supplemented with (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg/l BA. Shoot produced from multiplication stage were cultured on MS medium containing (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) mg/l IBA. In addition, this study included culturing leaf explants and petioles on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0) mg/l BA and NAA (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) mg/l. The results indicated that highest shoots number 9.3 shoots/explants with 3.0 cm length were obtained from culturing shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BA as compared to nodes which gave 10.2 shoots/explants with 2.9 cm length when cultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l BA after eight weeks. Highest rooting percentage 100% with highest roots number 12.4 were obtained from shoot tips that produced during multiplication stage on MS medium containing 0.25 mg/l IBA after four weeks. Highest fresh weight of callus was obtained from culturing leaf explants and petioles on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l NAA which reached to 1.237gm. and 1.346 gm. respectively. Leaf explants that cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA produced shoots with percent of 10% while highest percentage of shoots production 20% with 1.0 shoot/explant were achieved from differentiation of petiole callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l NAA after 8 weeks. All plantlets produced from these experiments were acclimatized and transferred to field successfully.

Allelopathic Effect of Residues Medicago sativa L. in Mineral Content and Antioxidant Enzymes of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on Growing under Different Levels of Field Capacity

Mohammed S. Faysial; Ibrahim O. Saied; Ahmed J. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168344

This study was conducted inside the wire house of the Department of Biology/ College of Education for Pure Science/ Mosul University for the agricultural season 2018- 2019 to test the effect of vegetative and root residues of Medicago satival on the chemical content and antioxidant enzyme fenugreek plant Trigonella foenum- graecum L. (Iraq and Indian) growth under three different levels of field capacity (25, 50 and 75%). The experiment was designed as a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD). The result showed that the addition of vegetative residues of caused an increase the concentration of enzymes peroxidase, catalase, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to the root residues and the control treatment (without residues) while the filed capacity 75%, exceeded compared to the field capacity 25 and 50% in concentration of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium with the exception of nitrogen concentration, peroxidase and catalase. On the other hand, Indian cultivar was superior compared to cultivar Indian in most studied traits. Antioxidant enzyme.

Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna for GSM Applications and Study the Effect of Substrate Thickness on the Bandwidth

Mona R. Talab; Fares S. Alatallah; Ahmed A. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168345

In this paper, a microstrip patch antenna designed for GSM (Global System for Mobile) applications at the frequency 0.9GHz (0.89 - 0.96 GHz), using an epoxy FR-4 substrate with an isolation constant of 4.3 and a thickness of 1.6mm and improving its radiate properties. The thickness of the substrate was changed, where a thickness of 3.2 mm was taken, then a third thickness of 1.4 mm was taken, then the results of changing the frequency beam width for each thickness were compared and it was noticed that the frequency beam width at the thickness 3.2 is equal to 0.41018GHz and the working frequency is 0.939 GHz, but at the thickness of 1.6 mm, the beam width The frequency is 0.35448GHz With a working frequency of 0.963GHz and the beam width at the third thickness 1.4 is equal to 0.26998GHz and a working frequency of 0.94939GHz, the thin film antenna was designed and the results simulated using (CST) 2019 software.