Volume 30, Issue 1, Winter 2021

Research Paper

Variation of Scale Factor and Deceleration Parameter Through the Cosmic Evolution of Time and Temperature

Ahmed Subhi Ali; Mohammed K. Zeki

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167677

      In this work the differential Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model solutions which offer different cosmological parameters. We studied the effect of time and temperature evolution on these cosmological parameters, such as the scale factor R(t) and the deceleration parameter q, across radiation, matter and dark energy eras. The nature of the variations in time and temperature of these quantities are consistent with that obtained from other cosmological models which have taken into account astrophysical observations. Time and temperature variations of these parameters have been shown graphically. These parameters provided strong evidence about the expansion and acceleration of the universe. The scale factor and the deceleration parameter show a linear change with the increase in time during the radiation and matter dominated eras, followed by a rapid expansion during the dark energy era, indicating that the universe has a transition from a phase of decelerated expansion to an accelerated expansion, which is contributed to dark energy. This led to a flat, homogeneous, and isotropic universe.

Review Paper

The Pandemic of COVID-19: Current Scheme of Iraq (24 February- 8 August 2020)

saad taha mutlk; Ban O. Abdulsattar; Ian M. Jones

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 11-17
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167678

 Late in December 2019, the Wuhan City of China faced an outbreak of the unknown etiological agent of COVID-19, which spread rapidly in China and then worldwide to include 188 countries or regions of Africa, Oceania, Australia, Europe, America and Asia including Iraq. There are 31,132,906 of infected people over the world and 962,008 of global death, whereas the infection numbers increase rapidly. Several methods have been considered worldwide in order to control COVID-19. In spite of limited resources in Iraq. The Iraqi government has also taken demanding measures includes safety guides during Ramadan in the context of Covid-19. In addition, several strategies are used for that purpose such as designed particular hospitals, laboratories for testing, quarantine facilities, and movement restrictions to control viral spread all over the country. This review highlights the efforts of the Iraqi government to contain this deadly pneumonia inside it as well as travellers from Turkey, Iran and other neighbour countries.

Toxoplasma gondii: Model Manipulating by the Host Behaviour

Musafer AlArdi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 18-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167679

Toxoplasma gondii isan obligate intracellular parasite. Its life cycle includes two hosts, intermediate host (Mice, Rats, Birds, and Mammalians) and definitive host (feline family) which may be intermediate host, also. Toxoplasma infection exhibited variable consequences ranging from aborted to hard infections, in addition to modifications cytokines, change gene expression, and behaviour alterations.
 Alteration of behaviour mechanism includes stimulating a special immune response, a change in the rate of concentration of many neurotransmitters, and a change in the concentration of some important hormones, in addition to many genetic modifications.
          Many researches have established the association between Toxoplasma infection and various behaviour of the intermediate host. On the other hand, many studies regret the presence of such a relationship. Comparing the results of both studies, it can be said that the parasite infection has a ‎clear role in the emergence of many behavior disorders that may sometimes reach ‎schizophrenia, where the interaction of the parasite presence with the strength of the ‎immune response and the effect of it on the concentration of neurotransmitters and ‎some other hormones have confirmed their occurrence as confirmed the occurrence of ‎pathological effect.‎

Overview on Epidemiology of Leishmaniasis in Iraq

Haitham L. Al-Hayali; Muntaha alkattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 28-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167680

  Leishmaniasis continues to be a significant public health issue and socioeconomic obstacle in Iraq. The various species of leishmania are transmitted by the bite of sandflies belonging to genus phlebtomus, where high temperatures might prolong the breeding season for this fly species. The current review proved that the infection in the southern regions of Iraq is more than in the northern regions.
 The incidence of leishmaniasis has increased and expanded to most Iraqi governorates, the reason may be due to the population growth, urbanization, pronounced poverty and lack of public health awareness. Furthermore, leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease with a rodent, cats and dog’s reservoir that poses a problem to human health. Leishmaniasis has spread in Iraq from the 1950s until now, additionally, wars forced migration of Iraqi people from their province to other places. All these have encouraged an increase in the infected rate with leishmaniasis in areas previously uninfected.

Research Paper

The Ability of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Minced Meat to Adhere and form Biofilm on the Aluminum and Stainless-Steel Surfaces

alaa hussein almola

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167681

The research included isolation and diagnosis of 19 bacterial isolate from 10 samples (minced meat and meat mincer), as 15 isolates belonging to the Micrococcaceae were diagnosed including 8 Staphylococcus spp. Isolates depending on the phenotypic properties and biochemical test, and in order to investigate the bacterial ability of the Micrococcaceae family to the formation of biofilms, two methods are used, the tube method and the Congo red agar method, as the results showed that all of the 15 isolates possess the ability to form biofilms as 100% depending on The tube method compared to the results of the Congo red agar test, which gave 13 positive result of 15 isolates in ratio 86.6% of the Micrococceae family. The highest rate of biofilm formation attributed to the Staphylococcus spp. which it gives 8 positive result for both tests as 100%. When comparing the adhesiveness of Staphylococcus spp. on the surface of the aluminum and stainless steel coupons as the materials used in the manufacture of meat mincers, our results showed that the adhesion and formation of biofilms were high on the surface of the aluminum coupons compared to the stainless steel coupons in the turbidity test using sonication and when investigating the total number of bacteria attached to the aluminum and steel coupons after exposing them to sonication, it was found that the number of units forming colonies CFU / cm2 for the aluminum coupons is 97 × 106, while it was found that CFU / cm2 of stainless steel coupons is 172 x 105, which enhances the turbidity comparison results.

The Protective Effect of Ficus Carica Leaves Extract on some Fertility Parameters in Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Treated with Paracetamol Drug

Noori Taha Khalaf; Waad S. Shaher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 11-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167682

This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of leaves extract of Ficus carica on some fertility parameters in white rats Rattus norvegicus.
 In this study used (40) male rats (2.5-3) month, weights ranged (200-250) g were divided into (4) groups (10) rat/group. The first group (control group), the second group (paracetamol group), the third group (extract group), the fourth group (extract + paracetamol group). All treatments were given doses every other day for (6) weeks.
 Results showed a significant decreased (P<0.05) in testosterone levels in paracetamol group after the third and sixth weeks of treatment as a compare with control group. While the testosterone level for extract group don’t changed after the third week, but the hormone level increased after sixth week of treatment to exceed the hormone level of the control group. While the (extract + paracetamol) group showed a decrease in testosterone level after the third week, then the hormone level increased to close level of (extract group) after the sixth week of treatment.
 The result revealed a significant decrease in the total sperms count and the percentage of the living sperms at (P<0.05) and increased the percentage of dead and abnormalities sperms of the paracetamol group as a compare with control group, the results showed no significant changes in the total sperms count (P<0.05) of the (extract + paracetamol) group, whereas found a significant change in percentage of living and dead sperms, there were no significant change in abnormalities sperms between the extract group and (extract + paracetamol) group.

Initiation Callus Cultures from the Seedlings of Silybum Marianum and Estimate their Protein Content

Sabah Abdullah Al-Badrani; Rehab ِA. AL-Baker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 21-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167683

The present research investigates the best Method for sterilization the Silybum marianum Plant seeds for getting best seedlings and the roles of plant growth regulators the (BA) Benzyl adenine and (2,4-D) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, as well the type of the explants of the seedlings to induce and grow callus. In addition, determined the callus viability and its protein content. The results showed the best treatment seeds is to soak them with water for (24) hours and then with Ethanol 70% for (3) minutes, immerse them with Sodium hypochlorite) NaOCl) 2.5% for (10) minutes, and with 0.1% Tween 20 for (10) minutes. The explants of seedlings (roots, leaves, shoots, nodes) have been cultured on solid MS medium contain different concentrations (0.1,0.5,1.0,1.0) mg/L of BA and (0.25,0.5,0.5,1.0) mg/ L of 2,4-D. The medium which supplemented with (1) mg/l of (BA) and (2,4-D) had succeeded to induction of calls growth, which produce (2.4,3.1,4.1) gm. fresh weight respectively. The results showed that roots and nodes have more response than others to initiate and induce callus. The viability of callus showed a noticeable increase in age (80) day to reach (87%) for roots, leaves, and nodes callus. The callus of roots showed best increase in viability which reaches (95%) in (120) day. The results explained variation in protein level in callus culture with different in callus source and age, it reaches the highest level in nodes callus, and in (80, 120) days was the highest level of protein where in roots callus.

Oviposition Deterrent and Repellent from Bites Activities of some Essential Oils against Culex pipiens molestus Forskal

Muneef Abed Mustafa; Aseel H. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 38-45
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167684

This study aimed to test the oviposition deterrent effect and repellent from bites for five essential oils (Hyacinthus orientalis L., Cinnamomum camphora L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Laurus nobilis L.and Ruta graveolens L.) at four concentrations (200, 100, 50, 25 ppm) against the female of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Results indicated that essential oils of all plants showed oviposition deterrent, the essential oils of H. orientalis, C.camphora and R.officinalis caused 100% deterrent at concentrations (200 and 100 ppm ), but oil of R. graveolens caused low deterrent to the female. Where the rate of deterrent reached 74% at concentration 200 ppm. The essential oils of plants showed repellent bites of female, H.orientalis caused the best protection period so reached (160.0 ± 20.4 ) minute, followed  C. camphora , R. officinalis, L. nobilis and R. graveolens, where caused protection period (130 ± 14.0 , 90 ±16.4 , 70 ± 15.3  ,50 ± 19.2 ) minute respectively.

Antiphosphatidyl Serine as Diagnostic Indicators for Detection of Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Aborted Women

Raqa& Alubaidi; Adeeba Younis Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 46-53
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167685

This study included 90 blood samples. 80 of which were collected from women who had undergone spontaneous or recurrent miscarriage and 10 were collected from women with a normal pregnancy as control samples. Serum was prepared from these samples for use in investigating antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies, the results of the study showed that 21 samples give a positive result for the presence of antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies, the concentration rate in these positive cases was 14.6±1.4 RU/ml in the patient group, control group did not show positive cases, the concentration rate of these antibodies reached 7.9±2.0 RU/ml in the control group and the presence of these antibodies increased in the group of patient who had suffered from three or more miscarriages and their number was 15 cases ,while the remaining 6 positive samples was belong to group of women suffered from two abortion and the average concentration of anti-phosphatidyl serine antibodies in this group of patient was 15.1±2.1 RU/ml, and there was no positive result in the group of women had underwent one miscarriage .

Synergistic Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Erythromycin on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Different Infections

Reyam Th. Ghazi; Essra Ghanim Alsammak

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 54-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167686

One hundred and Twenty (120) samples were collected from various pathogenic sources (wounds, abscesses, urinary tract infections and blood samples) for the period from September 2019 to December 2019 from Al Salam and Al-KhansaHospitals and the Public Health Laboratory in Mosul city.
Samples were cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar medium; 105 samples showed a positive result. 50 isolates fermented mannitol sugar, at a rate of 47.6% depending on the phenotypic characteristics and production of Coagulase, 14 isolates were identified, at a rate of 13.3%, belonging to Staphylococcus  aureus the diagnosis were confirmed using VITEK system. The highest isolation rate from wounds was 57%, then abscesses 21%, blood samples 14%, and urinary tract infections 7%. The sensitivity of the isolates was tested for 16 antibiotics, the isolates showed variation in their resistance to antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed high resistance at 92.8% to Oxacillin, with a resistance rate of 85.7% for Erythromycin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Erythromycin was determined and ranged between (1250-5000) mg / cm3. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO nanoparticles was determined at different sizes (30,20, 50-150) nm and ranged between (5000-10000) mg / cm3 for all isolates. The results of the study showed a synergistic effect of Erythromycin with zinc nanoparticles and with good efficacy by inhibiting the bacterial growth of antibiotic-resistant strains as the MIC value of Erythromycin decreased from (1250-5000) mg / cm3 to (19.5-156.25) mg / cm3 when mixed with ZnO nanoparticles are 20 nm. Meanwhile, the MIC value of ZnO nanoparticles decreased from (30,20, 50-150) nm from (5000-10000) mg / cm3 to (78.125-312.5) mg / cm3 when mixed with Erythromycin.

The Effect of Biological Control Agents on Fungi Isolated from some Citrus Trees in Mosul

Maha M. Taha Al-Nuaimy; Faten N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 68-77
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167687

In this study, the counter effect of two Biological Control Agents, namely Trichoderma harzianum fungi and Bcillus subtilis bacteria against the fungi-like organism Phytophthora infestans and the fungi; Fosarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani isolated from orange- trees’ bark and from lemon- trees’ roots. The results showed that the counter effect of T. harzianum (using double culture on petri dishes) reached 1.0 according to Bell scale, against all these pathogens. The counter effect of this antibiotic was also tested in vitro on branches taken from citrus trees and infected with Phytophthora infestans. The infection percentagesbefore treatment with T. harzianum were 75% and 58.3% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively, whereas after treatment with the inhibition fungi, the percentages of infection were 25% and 16.6% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively. The percentages of inhibition by Bacillus subtilis bacteria were 83%, 71% and 73% against Phytophthora infestans , Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani respectively

Synthesis and Study some new Schiff Bases Derived from Pyrazolo-Coumarin

Ahmed G. Abdulsalam Ghalib Al-shahwany; Adnan Othman Omer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 78-90
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167688

The research included the preparation and spectroscopic study of some of Schiff's bases derived from pyrazolo-coumarin by using 3-acetylcumarin (1) as a starting material, which was prepared by condensing a Knoevenagel of the salicylaldehyde derivative with an aceto-methyl acetate compound and using pyridine as a catalyst. (3-Methyl 1-Substituted Pyrazolo[4,5-c] Coumarin) (2a, 2b, 3a, 3b) were synthesized through the reaction of compound (1) with aqueous hydrazine in a basic medium. When the (2a, 2b, 3a, 3b) compounds reacted with an increase of aqueous hydrazine using pyridine as the base medium the (3-Methyl 1-Substituted Pyrazolo]4,5-c[1-Amino Quinoline-2-one) was prepared (4a, 4b, 5a, 5b) by replacing the oxygen atom with a nitrogen atom to create the pyridine ring, In this paper, some Schiff bases are also prepared by reacting (4a, 4b, 5a, 5b) compounds that contain free amino groups with Benzaldehyde or its derivatives to give Schiff base (Substituted Benzylidene (3-Methyl 1-Hydro/ Phenyl/ Amido/ Thiamido Pyrazolo[4,5-c])1-Amino Quinoline-2-one) (6a-e) - (9a-e). The compounds prepared in the research were diagnosed and investigated using physical and spectroscopic methods using the infrared (I.R) spectrum as well as the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectrum.

Structural Properties of the Doped Thin Films CdSe: Cu and CdSe: Sn, Prepared Using Chemical Bath Technique at 70oC.

Rahma N. Thannon; Laith Al Taan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 91-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167689

In this work, CdSe thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition on glass substrates using  and  as a source of  and  respectively, with a solution concentration 0.5M, a solution temperature at 70oC, pH=9 and deposition time 3 hours. The doping process was carried out with tin Sn and copper Cu with different amounts 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% also by CBD. The XRD studies show that the pure and the doped thin films were polycrystalline and cubic structure in the (111) plane direction, (220) and (311) too. SEM technique used to identify the surface nature of CdSe thin films as well as the average crystal size of the growing grains was (5.9nm). The images show a spherical grain, microcode, and other floral shapes with Cu doping at 70oC.

Estimating the Concentrations of Radioactive Radon Element along with the Radiation Risk Indicators at the Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Hospital in Mosul, Iraq

Firas Mohammed Ali Al-jomaily; Edrees Gh. Eedan; Mayan Khalil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 100-115
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167691

The radioactive radon concentration was determined in addition to the radiation risk indicators represented by the effective annual dose and the effective alpha energy concentration, as well as the lung cancer cases per year at selected and different well-ventilated sites in the Oncology and NuclearMedicineHospital in Mosul. The long-term cumulative counting technique of nuclear traces deposited on the nuclear track detector CR-39. Twenty-five sites were chosen within the hospital in its multiple buildings (administration building, laboratory building and consulting building), where these reagents were installed in the lower part inside the radiometric dose room (Dosimetry) with certain geometric dimensions for 47 days as an irradiation time Calibration was performed with a 2µci radium(222Ra) source. The results showed that the radon concentrations recorded for all sites ranged between (41.44 - 79.88 Bq.m-3) with a rate of (59.32 ± 9.08 Bq.m-3) and could be considered within the global normal levels. As for the annual effective dose (HE), as its value ranged (1.3-2.52 mSv.y-1) with a rate of (1.84 ± 0.29 mSv.y-1), while the annual effective dose values ​​ranged between (4.48-8.6 mWL) with a rate of 1.08 mWL (± 5.92, and the risk index is lung cancer). It included within the values ​​(32.52-54.34 / 106 person) and a rate of (35.16 ± 5.39 / 106person), and these indicators can be considered in light of the results obtained as falling within the normal global levels. I indicated the sites of the refrigerator of refrigerated drugs, the office of mental health and the laboratory store the highest-level Radon concentration, as well as radiation hazard indicators, while its values ​​were within the lowest levels recorded in the advisory path. The highest level of radon concentration as well as radiation risk indicators were identified at the sites of the medication refrigerator, the mental health clinic, and the laboratory store, although their values were below the lowest levels documented in the advisory corridor. The results showed that the Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Hospital is logically radio-safe, despite the fact that some of its sites reported high levels of radon concentration compared to other sites, especially when combined with appropriate global levels that do not exceed ( (200-300 Bq . m-3).