Volume 29, Issue 4, Autumn 2020

Research Paper

Determination of IL-6 and TNF-∝ Levels in Sera of Laboratory Animals Injected by Different Concentrations of Lipopolysaccharide Isolated from Escherichia coli

Dhuha J. Mohamed; Hiyam Adel Altaii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167307

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted from Escherichia coli by using EDTA method. Three concentrations of LPS have been prepared which are 50, 100, 200 μg/100g of body weight. Three groups of rats aged 2-3 months were used three animals per each were injected Intraperitoneally (IP) with three doses every 48 hours, followed by two booster doses in two weeks, then blood was withdrawn and serum was separated and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor( TNF-∝ ) and  interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) were estimated by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) method. TNF-∝ concentrations were 125.566 ± 1.826, 133.566 ± 1.149 and 150.766 ± 1.954 picogram (pg)/ml for different doses of injected LPS, further the concentrations of IL-6, were 37.733± 4.747, 51.333± 4.475 and 63.000 ±1.982 pg/ml for various injection doses.
          Exposure to LPS stimulated production of TNF- ∝ and IL-6, However, we noticed that TNF-∝ was higher compared to IL-6, the concentration 200 μg/100g also had a greater catalytic effect than the other concentrations for TNF- ∝ and IL-6.

Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Extracted from Enterobacter cloacae on some Pathogenic Bacteria

Rawaa Ahmed AL Aswad; Hiyam Adel Altaii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167308

A 106 different specimen were collected to isolate and diagnose some gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, as it was performed for the period from 15 August to 30 November 2019 from AL-Salam and Al-Khansaa educational hospitals in Mosul. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted from Enterobacter cloacae by using the Methanol - Chloroform method. extract was diagnosed, using some biochemical tests such as the Molisch test to detect carbohydrate content and Folin reagent in order to determine proteins concentration, lipid solubility in organic solvent and Bio drop technique as well as to detect nucleic acid concentration. The extraction methods showed its efficiency with low protein and nucleic acids concentration in the extract. Lipopolysaccharide demonstrated its efficiency inhibiting microbial growth on all test isolates at concentrations 1100, 1000 µg\ ml while its lipopolysaccharide showed its inhibition of Proteus mirabilis at all concentrations used. LPS showed possibility used as inhibitory, antimicrobial growth

Assessment of Natural and Industrial Radioactivity and Radiological Hazard in Sediments of Tigris River of Dhuluiya City, Iraq

Shaimaa J. Khudair; Abdullah M. Ali; Nada F. Tawfiq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167309

Specific activity of Natural and industrial radionuclides in sediments samples collected from the Tigris river of Dhuliya city of Salah Uddin Governorate was measured using γ-ray spectroscopy. The γ-ray spectrometry was carried out using NaI(Tl) detector. The results indicated that specific activity of 226Ra ranged from 1.51Bq/kg to 84.68Bq/kg with average 15.48Bq/kg, 228Ac ranged from 1.47 to 49.84Bq/kg with average 8.36Bq/kg, 40K ranged from 56.51Bq/kg to 711.34Bq/kg with average 418.47Bq/kg and 137Cs ranged from 2.77Bq/kg to 9.78Bq/kg with average 2.88Bq/kg. The average concentrations of these radionuclides were less than the internationally accepted limit ​​except for 40K radionuclides. The radiological parameters of the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rate (Dγ), external and internal annual effective dose (AEDE), external and internal risks (Hex, Hin), and gamma radiation representative level index (Iγ) were calculated and found to be lower than the internationally acceptable limit value.

Review Paper

Role of the Hairy Roots as A Biological Agent in Phytoremediation

Amjad A. Mohammed; Owayes M. Hamed; Raed S. Alsaffar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167310

Pollution is a growing undertaking for humans around the globe which affects in which affects both developed and growing towns (Suresh and Ravishankar, 2004). All herbal methods that make contributions to economic pollution are typically categorized as natural contaminants (Sosa Alderete et al., 2009). These are the human final products which include:  navy explosives, agriculture, oil products, gasoline manufacturing and wood results                            (Pilon-Smits, 2005). Subsequently, the natural activities can additionally sell the discharge of heavy metals as nickel, molybdenum, lead, copper, zinc and mercury to the environment which are harmful to human health (Nedelkoska and Doran, 2000).                              The whole surroundings are constantly being contaminated from pollutants which is unsafe for human fitness (Suza et al., 2008 ; Rezek et al., 2012).
The cost of cleansing up infected sites is high therefore using vegetation to extract, stabilize and degrade contaminants, all of them called as phytoremediation, is giving reputation as an extra cost-powerful opportunity to different strategies of cleanup                            (Kuiper et al., 2004).

Research Paper

Pathological Effects of Toxoplasma gondii in the Brain and Liver of Sheep’s Fetuses in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

Yahya N. ALKATEB; Ayad H. Ibrahim; Saad T. Rasheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167311

Congenital toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of abnormalities and pathological changes in fetuses that cause miscarriage, fetal death, or the death of newborns, especially in farms animals. The research designed to study of the histological changes in the brain and the liver of sheep’s fetuses that infected with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in in the third trimester of pregnancy. 32 fetuses where taken after slaughtering the mothers and then collect the brain and liver after confirming the infection by laboratory tests. The histological study showed that the brain suffering from congestion of blood vessels, hemorrhage and necrotizing areas surrounded with Glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and the parasites tissue cysts. In the liver the lesions were sever necrosis, degeneration, dilatation of blood sinusoids and the tissue lost the characterizing appearance of liver tissue, the presence of the parasite in multiple areas surrounded with leukocytes and kupffer cells. We conclude from the current study that the parasite has a severe and destructive effects on the brain and liver tissues of sheep’s fetuses, however pregnancy may continue to the last period and this explains the death of fetuses in late pregnancy or the death of lambs immediately after birth when they are congenitally infected with toxoplasmosis as a result of failure of Those organs to perform their vital functions.

Detection of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in some Pathogenic Samples and Medical Devices and Determining Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

Ahmed A. Hammadi; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167312

This study was conducted to detection of bacterial types belonged to (CoNS) group from pathogenic sources and medical devices and studying the pattern of their resistance to different antibiotics. 120 samples (pathogenic samples, surgical instruments and tools) were collected from some hospitals in Mosul city for the period from August 2019 until January 2020, Various diagnostic methods were used, which included phenotypic methods (Cultural, microscopic and biochemical) and the use of the Api Staph system, and Vitek system. The sensitivity of the isolated bacteria to (12) antibiotics was tested.
 The CoNS bacterium group was isolated from all studied sources and (37) isolates were obtained, at a rate of (52.8%) of the total staphylococci, and it prevailed on Staphylococcus aureus in many cases, and the isolated species included Staphylococcus epidermidis (12 isolates 32.4%) followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (8 isolates 21.6%), then Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis (6 isolates 16.2%) for each of them, then Staphylococcus lentus (3 isolates 8.1%) Finally, Staphylococcus sciuri (2 isolates 5.4%).
 Antibiotic sensitivity results of CoNS isolates showed high resistance to Tetracyclin 89.1% (%), Penicillin (86.4%), Erythromycin 81%), and Oxacillin 78.3%), respectively, and in lower percentage to the rest of the studied antibiotics. Isolates are absolutely sensitive (100%) to the Vancomycin and high sensitivity for Ofloxacin (89.1%) and Novobiocin (72.9%). These results confirm the prevalence of different bacteria belonging to the CoNS group in the various pathogenic sources, and their health importance and severity associated with their high resistance to antibiotics.

The Effect of Diode Laser on Growth of some Gram-Negative Bacteria

Mohammad Tarish; Ghada Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167313

The Laser is distinguished of it’s the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacterial cells and spores, the effect of laser with (650 nm wavelength and a capacity of 50 mw/cmand a distance of 10 cm) were studied on the growth of four species of gram-negative bacteria: Shigella spp., Entereobacter cloacae,  Morganella morganii, and  Entereobacter hormaechei, All of them isolated from an eradicated gallbladder were diagnosed with conventional methods. After isolation and identification, the bacterial suspensions were prepared separately for each bacterium understudy, then were exposure to the laser beam for a period of (0,2,5) minutes, respectively, after that 0.1 ml of bacterial suspension for timings (0,2,5) min. were transported to the Muller-Hinton agar with triplicate.
After incubation, the results showed a clear decrease in the number of developing colonies, and the intensity of the killing was associated with direct relationship with increasing the time of exposure. The results also showed a variation in the bacterial sensitivity under study to killing by laser, Where the isolate E.cloacae recorded decreasing  in the number of its colonies from 144 before exposure to 80 and 28 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with a killing percentage of 45% and 81% respectively, E.hormaechei isolates also recorded decreasing in the number of its colonies from109 before exposure to 62 and 25 colonies, with a killing percentage reaching 43% and 77% respectively after (2 and 5) of exposure, as well as the number of Shigella spp colonies decreased from 180 before exposure to 134 and 97 colonies  with a killing percentage of 26% and 64% after (2 and 5) exposure respectively, in addition, M.morganii isolates witnessed decreasing in the number of its developing colonies after exposure to the laser beam from 233 colonies before exposure to 148 and 120 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with percentage of killing reaching 37% and 48% respectively.

Physical Thermal Effect Test for Treatment of Polystyrene Plastic Waste

Ali Mohammed Ahmed; Ahmed N. Mahmood; Rasheed M. Yousuf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167314

Two groups of plastic waste manufactured from polystyrene (PS) were used to manufacture samples, the first group of polystyrene (Ps) is not subject to recycling, while the second group was made of polystyrene (Ps), which was subject to a recycling process using the sulfonation method and by (19.3%). The first group was called the saturated polystyrene group, while the second group was called unsaturated polystyrene, Manufactured samples underwent surface hardness and bending durability checks before and after exposure to a thermophysical effect at temperatures ((T = 60, 80 and 100 C
)). The results indicated that the polystyrene cannot maintain its surface hardness in case it is exposed to a thermophysical effect. The amount of decrease in the value of the surface hardness takes the exponential form instead of the linear shape, the extent that the value of the surface hardness is fixed with the increase in the time period of exposure to the thermophysical effect. Even if the change in the effect value was relatively few. And that there is a critical time period in which the bending resistance of the polystyrene material reaches the maximum value, after which the ability of the material to resist the bending decreases with an increase in the time period of exposure to the thermophysical effect. The effects associated with the bending process (tension, compression, shear) collapse after exposure to the thermophysical effect during a critical time period due to the loss of the continuity property in the body of the polystyrene, and finally the material loses its ability to resist the bending, and this characteristic depends on the quality of the polystyrene .

Effect of Pole Face Thickness on Magnetization of the Single-pole Magnetic Lens

Sarah Akrm Sultan; Abdullah Idrees Alabdullah; Abdulsamee fawzi Abdel Azeez

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 44-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167315

An innovative design of a polepiece magnetic lens has been introduced so that the thickness of the pole face can be changed without affecting the other geometrical parameters of the lens, for a systematic study to develop the important region of ​​the pole face to improve the performance of  single polepiece magnetic lenses and to get a high intensity magnetic overflow and a narrow half width. A study was conducted for each design that includes calculating the axial magnetic field and studying the magnetization of the lens by means of the finite element method using the (EOD) program to get the best design for the polepiece proposed in this study, it was found that the best magnetic properties and the highest value of magnetic flux and the lowest value of the axial magnetic field strength half-width were at the value of the pole face thickness equal to (0.5 mm). The effect of the magnetic circuit iron and the magnetic field of the coil on the total magnetic field produced from the designed polepiece magnetic lens was also studied.

New Formula for Negative Beta Decay Energy in the range

Aws Tariq Qasim; Firas Mohammed Ali Al-jomaily

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167316

In this research the negative beta decay energy  has been determine for light, medium, and heavy nuclei (even – even, even – odd, odd – even and odd – odd), which their atomic numbers are from . An equation of the negative beta decay energy was derived in terms of the nuclear binding energy of the parent and daughter nuclei instead of the mass difference between them as it known. After making the conceptual derivations, the Liquid Drop Model (LDM) was used to calculate the decay energy, which results in agreement with the experimental and theoretical values. With this, a new and general formula for negative beta decay energy () was achieved. The statistical relationship of standard deviation and root mean square deviation have been used to determine the reliability of this model to determine the negative beta decay value. The results showed that there is an acceptable agreement between the experimental and theoretical values, especially for medium and heavy nuclei, and less acceptable in light nuclei due to the presence of magic numbers and their interference in this spectrum of beta particles. 

Constructing a Solar Cell Based on n and p –type Polymers and Improve its Characteristics Using mWCNT

Haitham A. Ayoob; Laith Al Taan; Asaad F. Khattab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 66-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167317

In this work, solar cells were constructed based polymers prepared as n-type and p-type. Eight polymers were prepared from the reaction of P-phenylene-diamine with carbon disulfide and sulfur by polymerization. The IR, XDR, and thermal history of polymers were studied at room temperature, with thicknesses between (0.7-0.6) mm. Also, Hall factor, the mobility for electrons and holes before and after doping were studied. The polymer solar cells (PSC) were manufactured by depositing n-type polymers on Si/p-type substrate. And p-type polymers on the same area of ​​Si/n-type substrate. The aluminium layer was deposition as an ohmic contact on Si by evaporation under the pressure of 3.5×10-6 Torre the upper electrode, copper metal, was deposited on the surface covered with the polymer film. The I-V characteristics were obtained using a light with a power of 100 mW/cm2. From I-V curves, the value of the filling factor-FF and power conversion efficiency- Ƞ were calculated. Then to improve the efficiency, four n-type polymers were chosen with the highest electrical conductivity. A solution of 99.9% purity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mWCNT) was added by depositing the mixture on a Si/p-type substrate using the spin-coating method. The results of final four cells after improving showed an increasing in the short-circuit current density between Jsc=(13.8-19.8) mA/cm2, the open-circuit voltage between Voc=(0.345 -0.370)V, the FF=(~38%) where the efficiency improved significantly and increased between            ŋ =(2.6-4.48)%. The best PSC obtained gave a ŋ =1.07% before improvement, where after adding the carbon nanotube solution, it become about ŋ = 4.48%, that is, an increase of 4.18%. Therefore, the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into the organic conductive polymers can significantly improve the performance of the PSC.