Volume 29, Issue 3, Summer 2020

Research Paper

Identification of Red Complex Pathogens Group from Chronic Periodontitis Patients in Mosul City

Sumaya A.S.M. Al-Hamdoni; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166307

This study is concerned with the isolation of red complex pathogens, identifying them by a new molecular method as the first locally used and described procedure and characterizing these pathogens by their phenotypic features and biofilms. Gingival fluids were sampled from chronic periodontitis and inoculated into three types of culture media, Schaedler Anaerobe Agar, Tannerella forsythia (TF) agar, and Trypton Yeast extracts Gelatin Volatile fatty acids and Serum (TYGVS) agar. The different appearing colonies were purified and identified by Loop- Mediated Isothermal Amplification protocol (LAMP) for the detection of red complex species. Bacterial biofilm was estimated in term of mono- and polytypic biofilm by measuring the absorbance of a crystal violet- stained biofilm formed in a microtiter plate. Different forms of colonies appeared at the primary isolation. LAMP method was of a significant value for perfect rapid identification of the target species of extracted DNA or intact cells within half an hour. The three types of red complex pathogens were simultaneously detected in the same gingival fluid sample. They formed mono- and polymicrobial biofilms in a synergistic manner particularly the two intimates P. gingivalis and T. denticola. In conclusion, the updated LAMP molecular protocol was attractive method for the diagnosis of red complex pathogens which showed great morphological variations. P. gingivalis fortified the growth of the other two to establish polymicrobial biofilms in a synergistic manner.

Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus and its Roles in Cytokines Stimulation in Immunocompromised Patients in Mosul City, Iraq

Nawal Shahir Mahmood; Abdulrhem Thonnon AL-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 17-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166308

Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) cause different infections in humans all over the world with a prevalence exceeds 70% in adults and 90% in poorer communities and developing countries. Two hundred immunocompromised patients (cancer, dialysis, thyroid gland, and thalassemia) infected with CMV were subjected to determine CMV seroprevalence and its effect on cytokines expression using advance molecular test (Real time PCR) and Serological ELISA test.  The results showed high CMV seroprevalence rate in immunocompromised patients but in low rate in thalassemia patients in Mosul city compared with other cities near Iraq. CMV stimulates upregulation in expression (mRNA transcripts) of three cytokines genes (IL-10, TNF, and CCL2) which affect four key immune pathways which in turn may cause severe complication on patients such as asthma and cytokine storm.

Synthesis of some New Spiro 1,3,4-Oxadiazolines Derived from Azlactone

Shaymaa K. Younis; Mohamad R. Mohamad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166309

In this work a mixture of hippuric acid (N-benzoyl glycine) (1) and substituted benzaldehyde undergone Erlenmeyer and Perkin reactions respectively to afford the 4-aryl methylidene-2-phenyl oxazole-5-one (2a-d). This reaction proceeded under acidic media using acetic anhydride and sodium acetate. The azlactones (2a-d) used as starting material to prepare the imidazolone derivatives. New 4-aryl methylidene-5-oxo-2-phenyl-N'-(substituted cyclohexylidene)-4,5-dihydro imidazole-1-carbohydrazide(3a-j) were prepared from reactions the azlactones (2a-d)   with Schiff’s bases which prepared through condensation reaction of semicarbazide with substituted cyclo hexanone. Finally, the preparation of new 1-(4-acetyl-5-spiro substituted cyclohexyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-4-aryl methylidene-2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-one (4a-j) via intracyclization reaction of imidazolones (3a-j) in the presence of acetic anhydride as suitable cyclizing agent.
        The structure of the synthesized compounds were illustrated by the available physical and spectral analysis (M.P, T.L.C, U.V, FT-IR and some of them by 1H-NMR) .

Using of Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline in Spectrophotometric Estimation of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride

Shlear H. Hasan; Nabeel S. Othman; Kafia M. Surchi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166310

The suggested work included simple accurate diazo-coupling spectrophotometric method for the determination of phenylephrine-HCl (PHEPH) in pure drug and tablet formulation. The method was based on coupling of PHEPH with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline in alkaline medium. The sensitivity expressed by the value of molar absorptivity of yellowish-orange azo- dye was 1.915 ×104 L. mol-1. cm-1, the maximum absorption at 455 nm and Beer's law obeyed within the range of 10-200 μg/10ml of PHEPH. The color of the product was highly stable and did not show a significant change in absorbance up to 60 min. with a recovery of 99.97% and a RSD% is 0.024%. The PHEPH in nose drop and syrup has been estimated with satisfactory results.

Single-Stage Amplifiers Simulation for Microwave Applications Using S-Parameters

laith Al Taan; Nawfal Y. Jamil; Salah I. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 47-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166312

A single-stage amplifier circuits containing transistor as BJT or FET transistor were designed for the microwave application using S-parameters, and developed as a lumped circuit then converted to its equivalent microstrip distributed circuits on different substrates such as Alumina (er=9.8) and Beryllia (er=6.3). The output results as power gain Gp, noise figure NF, and stability factor K were obtained. These results were compared with other published worked included circuits having the same conditions. The comparison shows that in case of the feedback applied to the circuit the Gp achieved about (~1.5) dB for BJT circuits along (0.6-1) GHz and noise figure increased about double, where for FET circuit the increasing in Gp about (7) dB along (2) GHz, and noise figure was less than BJT circuit. The physical characteristics are discussed with respect to substrate and show that the substrate with high permittivity was helpful to reach the higher operating frequency and good power gain values.

Multicore Photonic Crystal Fibres Designing for Multiplexers and Demultiplexers Applications

Miami Mohammed; Ahmad K. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 61-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166313

Coupling properties are significantly affective when the three cores of a photonic crystal fiber are identical or non-identical, we analyze this numerically using COMSOL Multiphysics software 5.5 to gain insight into the nature of the coupling between these cores. A non-identical core produced by a slight mismatch in the propagation constants which are sufficient to suppress coupling between the cores or may strengthen the coupling between the cores because they sometimes have equal propagation constants. By manipulating the central core diameter (increase or decrease) compared to the diameter of the other cores can limit the strength of the coupling between the cores, the coupling efficiency and the coupling length of the cores become decreasing. Introducing anisotropy in three core diameters resulting in the modes of these cores are isolated in a certain region of the array of photonic crystal fiber, as a result, the coupling is suppressed between the modes of cores at the wavelength 1064nm while some coupling appears between modes of the cores in the wavelength 1550nm where the coupling coefficient is evaluated as a function of wavelength. The coupling between three cores reveals novel characteristics more than two cores and this useful for Multiplexers and Demultiplexers applications

Hemodialysis Effect in Myeloperoxidase Activity and Number of Biochemical Parameters in Blood Serum of Chronic Renal Failure Patients

Eyman Taha Al Ali; Eyman T. Al-Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166314

This study was conducted in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul for the period from the beginning of February 2018 to the end of June 2018, and this study aims to assess the effect of hemodialysis in the activity of the myeloproxidase enzyme and number of biochemical parameters for chronic renal failure patients who are undergo to hemodialysis, and this study included follow-up 95 patients with Chronic renal failure at the age of (15-65) years, and different parameters were compared with the same parameters in 30 healthy people who did not have any disease and the same ages as a control group. A significant increase was achieved at the probability level (P ≤ 0.05) in the activity of the enzyme before and after dialysis, compared with the control group. results showed a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in iron concentration and total iron capacity in iron associated with patients before and after dialysis compared with the control group. The results showed a significant increase in the activity of the enzyme myeloperoxidase in the age group       (31-40), and the concentrations of Urea, Creatinine Uric acid, and decrease in Iron concentration of Iron and TIBC as a result of the effect of age..

Investigation of the Ability of some Bacteria Isolated from Intravenous Catheters to form Biofilms and the Effectiveness Ability of some Substances in Removing them

Raad M. Mahmmod; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 14-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166315

The research included investigating some of the contaminated bacteria of the Cervical Vein Catheter (CVC) devices in patients with dialysis in  Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital (alternative site), then testing the ability of the isolated bacteria to form the biofilms in two ways, the  congo red agar and the tube method, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of some substances to remove the biofilms                       
   The results showed that the contaminated bacteria of the cervical venous catheter apparatus included: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Burkholderia cepacia. The current study also showed that the ability of the pathogenic bacteria above to form the biofilms by Tube Method came at 3,2 and 0, bacteria respectively, and its ability to the composition of the biofilms by the Congo Red Agar Method came at 2,2 and 0, bacteria respectively. The results also showed the high ability of Vancomycin and Meropemen 10% for each one, and Alum 20% as well as natural lemon juice undiluted to remove the biofims formed by the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium. As for the other materials that were used, they did not show any ability to remove the biofilms.                                                                                                

Levels for some Toxic and Essential Metals in Patients with Neurological Diseases

Omar M. Hameed; Luay Al-Helaly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 27-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166316

The research included studying the levels of some of the toxic and essential metals in the serum of patients with neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Epilepsy and Migraine, as levels of toxic metals including lead, nickel and chromium and the levels of essential metals that included copper, iron and calcium were measured in the male patient group who suffered from neurological diseases in Mosul city, Samples reached (144), which included group of male patients (97) and a group of normal persons who were in numbers (47).
The results indicated that there was a significant increase in patients with Alzheimer's, epilepsy and migraine in levels of: lead, nickel and chromium compared with the control group, as well as a significant increase in the level of copper for Alzheimer's and epilepsy patients when compared with the control group and no significant difference for migraine patients.
In addition, the results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the level of iron for all groups of patients, and was non-significantly there decrease in the level of calcium for Alzheimer's and epilepsy patients and non-significant difference in calcium was observed in migraine patients when compared with the control group.
The study showed that there was an increase in the levels of toxic metals especially in lead and nickel and a decrease in the levels of essential metals especially in iron and calcium in patients with neurological diseases, Which may constitute one of the causes of the occurrence of neurological diseases, especially among patients with Alzheimer's and epilepsy in the Mosul city.

The Effect of Sn, Cu -Doping on the Optical and Structural Properties of CdSe Film Deposed by CBD Technique

Laith M. Al Taan; Rahma N. Thannoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 38-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166317

Cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition technique (CBD) on glass slides with a solution concentration of 0.5M, at temperature 50oC, pH=9 for 3 hours. The doping process was carried out with Tin (Sn) and Copper (Cu) with different concentrations 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% also by CBD tech. The effects of different doping concentration on the optical and structural properties of the doped CdSe films was studied. The energy gap was found decreased by increasing the concentration of Sn up to 1.81eV, while the energy gap increased with increasing the Cu concentration. The relation between the absorption coefficient and the incident photon energy was shown that the electronic transitions between the energy bands are direct type. XRD studies revealed that pure and doped thin films was polycrystalline with cubic structure (111) preferential orientation.