Volume 29, Issue 2, Spring 2020

Research Paper

Elevation of the Inhibitory Action of Standard Antimicrobials (Ciprofloxacin and Chlorhexidine) by some Natural Materials against Three Periodontal Pathogens

Sumaya A.S.M. Al-Hamdoni; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165354

Maintaining the level of periodontal bacteria under control represents the basis for reducing periodontal infections. Therapeutic therapy along with scaling aids to prevent the causative agent from recolonizing the treated surface. As natural substitutes, this study aimed to verify the validity of two natural products, olibanum and alum as inhibitors of periodontal pathogens and also as supporting agents to elevate the anti-action of the pre- validated antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine. The study chose three periodontal bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola as representative taxa because they are considered the more virulent with high proteolytic activity. The antimicrobial activity was studied to find out the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values using resazurin- based microdilution assay. The cooperative interaction between reagents was studied by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values, analyzing the statistical difference between the single and combinational use and comparing the inhibition zone by agar diffusion. The results proved the inhibitory activity of olibanum and alum against the three pathogens and their high efficacy in improving the inhibitory action of the two standard drugs which was evidenced by the lowered MIC values, calculated FIC values, enlarged inhibition zone and statistical significance of the combinational use. The study concluded the successful use of olibanum and alum in reducing the red complex pathogens either in a single use or in combination as a pure natural preparation and also raising the anti- action of lower concentrations of ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidin.

90 nm Current Mirror Based Transimpedance Amplifiers for Fiber Optic Applications

Asmaa Z. Al-Kawaz; Muhammed Subhi Hameed Alsheikhjader

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 10-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165355

This research displayed the new design of a 90 nm CMOS technology transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with current mirror executed. The goal and challenge in this research are to arrive at low consumption of power while activating other required performances. Integrated circuits CMOS(Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) tend to be the best technology achieving the desired level of integration with appropriate speed, cost, and gain for this were used. The proposed transimpedance amplifier (TIA) consists of a common-gate (CG) topology with a current mirror to increase TIA gain and common-source (CS) TIA with the active feedback resistor. In addition, to verify the proposed TIA performance, circuit simulations are done in NI Multisim 14.1 using 90nm CMOS technology parameters. Therefore, the simulation results of the proposed TIA for 90 nm CMOS technology indicate a transimpedance gain of 66.63 dBΩ with -3dB frequency bandwidth of around 1.0 GHz for input capacitance of 250 fF, input-referred noise of 25.413 pA/and with the power consumption of only 1.08m at 1V supply voltage. This low power consumption and supply voltage are the main emphases of this work in comparison with other research literature.

Effect of Essential Oil Isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis Leaves on the Vitality of Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces of Sheep Outside the Organism in vitro

Arkan Sheet; Abdulkhaliq A. Mahaimed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165357

This study was carried out at the beginning of September 2018 to the end of August 2019, the current study involves the effect of the essential oils of rosemary plant leaves on vitality of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. So using modified drip-type steam distillation device (Clevenger), the biological effectiveness of the essential oils were tested and its effect was effective in vitality of primacies protoscolices using concentrations 20, 30, 40, 50, 100 mg / ml and times of 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes and  didn’t show a significant difference among used concentrations and duration on the probability level p<0.05, this led to the mortality of all protoscolices with 100% percentage in all duration and concentrations used on the test.
          Deduced from the current study the biological activity of the essential oils of rosmary leaves against the protoscolices, so we recommend increasing interest in these extracts and it's use against this epidemic disease  and during surgery to remove the hydatid cysts.

Effect of Soil Cultivar with Legume in Germination and Growth of Cucumbers

Wasan Salih Hussain

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165359

The allelopathic effect was studied to sequence varieties of cucumbers in soils cultivated previously with plants (broad bean, peas, chickpeas), as the results of this study showed that allelopathy had an effect on germination and growth of cucumbers, as previously cultivated soils caused legumes (broad bean, peas, chickpeas) significantly reduced. In the percentage of germination and germination speed, while it caused an increase in the height and dry weight of the vegetative group of cucumber varieties tested in most treatments, the highest percentage increase was 24% for the cultivars of the cultivar Beitha alpha after the chickpea plant. And on the role of allelopathy and its effect on the modulus of division and the phase factor of the cells of the roots of the roots of the cucumber seedlings gave a difference in their effect between the increase and the decrease, as the soil planted with chickpeas caused an increase in the division factor and the coefficient of the introductory phase of the Biyar dalta class, which was accompanied by a decrease in the coefficients of the separation and the final phase, accompanied by a decrease in Root total length.
The study also showed an increase in the number of root branching of the cultivated cultivars following the broad bean plant, accompanied by an increase in the length of the vegetative system.

Investigate some Species of Candida Contaminated with Yogurt and Tested its Sensitivity to some Antibiotics

Badia Abd Al_Razzak Malla Obaeda

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 20-29
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165361

Twenty-five samples of sheep yogurt were collected from different regions in Nineveh Governorate, marketed to local markets in the city of Mosul / Iraq. Isolates were diagnosed after phenotypic; culture and biochemical tests and the diagnosis was confirmed using API 20C test. The results showed that yeasts belong to the following species: Candida guilliermondii 28%, C. krusei 12%, C. norvegensis 36% and C. utilis 24%. The resistance of isolates was studied for six antibiotics. The results of the sensitivity examination showed a variation in the resistance of yeasts to antibiotics and yeast showed C. utilis resistance to all antibiotics used except Nystatin while the yeast C. krusei was sensitive to all antibiotics and was resistant to Candizole and Nystatin. The rest of the isolates varied in the resistance to the antibiotics used.

Relationship of some Risk Factors and Bacterial Contamination Associated with Dialysis to Patients in some Mosul Hospital

Raad M. Mahmmod; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 30-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165362

The research was conducted on dialysis patients at Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital                        (alternative site) in Mosul / Nineveh Governorate. Where the study included 90 blood samples from the patients as well as swabs from the washing machine with recording information related to chronic diseases and the age and gender of all patients under study. Isolation and identification of the accompanying and contaminating bacteria was done using morphological and biochemical tests then by using Vitek device.                                                                                  
The results of the current study showed that age group 56-46 years are more likely to suffer from kidney failure at a rate of 26.66%, while the age group with the lowest infection was 76-85 year, with a rate of 1.11%. Males are more likely to have renal failure at 57.77% compared to 42.22% for females. High blood pressure may be the leading cause of kidney failure, and 50% of all patients. Bacteremia was appeared in hemodialysis patients in 11.11. Staphylococcus aureus came in at 44.44%, Burkholderia cepacia complex was isolated by 33.33%, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus was isolated by 22.22%. Contamination of dialysis devices reached 40%, and the causative bacteria, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, reached 100%.                                           

Regenerated of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Plants from Differentiation of the Hypocotyl Stems Callus of its Seedlings

Safwan J. Sultan; Amjad Abdul-Hadi Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 39-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165364

The current study produced broccoli plants (Brassica oleracea var. italica) from the differentiation the hypocotyl stems callus of its seedlings and succeed of their adaptation and transferred to the soil. The results showed the difference in ratio of callus initiation with different type of plant growth regulators Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Indole-3-butyricacid (IBA), Benzyl adenine (BA) and their concentrations which used in this study. The interaction of IBA and BA had an efficient role of increasing the initiation ratios. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 IBA and 2.0 mg L-1 BA superiority in registered initiation ratio reached 100% after 11 days of the cultivation, and with its continued growth it produced typical callus cultures. The continued of callus subculture on the same initiation medium led to spontaneous production of 142 shoots produced from 50 pieces of callus. These regenerated shoots easily rooted in the MSO medium with full strength at ratio 100%, and with continued growth and formation of efficient root groups, they were successfully adapted to the soil within the pots in the greenhouse. 

Reinforcement Effect of Alumina and Silica on the Mechanical Properties of Mixture Polyesters (Unsaturated Polyester / Polyurethane)

Haneen M. Ali; Raad A. Rasool; Soham Y. Moustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 51-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165365

In this study composite materials were prepared from based polymer mixture                                             (B) (UPE/PU, 95/5) supported by alumina powders and silica with grain sizes (75 - 150) μm, these samples were tested B and B1, B2 and B3 respectively.
       The samples were subjected to mechanical tests represented by bending test, compression, hardness and impact at laboratory temperature. The results showed that the Young modulus of bending test increased by increasing the strength, and the fracture resistance was reduced by increasing the reinforcement. As for compressive resistance, the maximum compressive resistance was for alumina - supported (B1) sample 51.29 MPa. The Hardness was increased by increasing reinforcement with a maximum value of 94.5 Hs.

Using Different Equations of States to Study Volume Ratio, Bulk Modulus and Energy Gap in Nano Ge Under High Pressure

Asmaa fareed Abdulateef; Adnan M. Al-Shiekh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 64-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165366

This research has been used EOSs (Birch-Muranghan, Vinet, mL-J, Thomsen and Madan) to study the effect of high pressure on  nano-Ge parameters by calculating compressed volume V/Vo, Bulk modulus BT, Energy gap Eg, under high pressure. All equations used showed compatibility with the experimental results for calculating V/Vo of nano-Ge under high pressure, an increase in the Bulk modulus BT with an increase in high pressure and an increase in the energy gap of nano Ge with high pressure.

Design and Implementation of Tri Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with Bandwidth Enhancement for GSM, WLAN, WiMAX system

Ahmed Abdulkareem Ahmed Luhaiby; Fares S. Alatallah; Yessar. E. Mohammed Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 73-85
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165368

In this research design of tri-band microstrip antenna suitable for wireless GSM, WLAN and WiMAX application. The total size of the proposed antenna (107 × 110 × 1.6) mm3. The substrate material type is FR-4(epoxy). Return losses of -34.328 dB, bandwidth 24.8%, gain 2.8738 dB at frequency 0.912 GHz and return losses -37.375 dB, bandwidth 52.33%, gain 2.0411 dB at frequency 1.842 GHz and  return losses -27.753 dB , bandwidth 40%, gain 4.4762 dB at frequency 2.4 GHz and  return losses -33.471 dB, bandwidth 4%, gain 4.9543 dB at frequency 3.534 GHz.                     
The simulated results are obtained using the software computer simulation technology CST. The simulated results are verified with experimental results which are in acceptable agreement.

Assessment of Radiation Hazards in Soil Samples from some Selected Areas of Mosul City in Iraq

Zainab N. Hamoo; Laith A. Najam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 86-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165370

Naturally radionuclides that present in soil such as 226Ra,232Th and 40K contribute in large amount of radiation that population exposed in these areas, the assessment of radiation levels is very important to evaluate radiological hazards  due to exposure radiation  and comparing these results with the recommended world average values.                                                                                                            
         In this study we measure the levels of natural radioactivity of some areas from Mosul city, north of Iraq. We used gamma-spectroscopy NaI(Tl) detector and estimated the activity concentration levels of natural radionuclides in soil. Results show that the concentration of radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was ranged from (6.2±0.10-26.51±0.44) Bq/kg with mean value 11.06±0.18 Bq/kg for 226Ra and between (11.33±0.82- 40.78±2.77) Bq/kg with mean value 24.82±1.75 Bq/kg for 232Th, While the concentration radio-isotope of 40K was (82.88±1.53-482.42±7.85)Bq/kg with mean value 228.83±3.93 Bq/kg.                                                                                  
         Radiological hazard Indices were determined according to the activity concentration for these radionuclides in the areas under study of Mosul city, the results show that the values of Radium equivalent Req were ranged between (36.89-104.61) Bq/kg with mean 69.98 Bq/kg which is less than the recommended world values that mustn`t exceed 370 Bq/kg. While the values of absorbed dose Dr were ranged between (17.5-48.05) nGy/h with mean 32.21 nGy/h which also less that the recommended world values that equal 60 nGy/h, where the external and internal radiological indices were ranged between 0.099-0.282 with mean value 0.188 for Hex and between (0.118-0.341) with mean 0.219 for Hin ,where these mean values are within the world mean values (not exceed from one) and finally the results show  that the magnitude of gamma index (Iɣ) ranged between (0.278-0.766) with mean value 0.522 and  also these values are less than the world average                  (not exceed from one).from this study we can concluded that there is no radiological hazard due to the direct and continuous exposure of radiation on human and organisms that lives in Mosul city.