Volume 28, Issue 4, Autumn 2019

Research Paper

Evaluation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Females with Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

Payman A. Hamasaeed; Saeed Kh. Hussain; Sana M. Ashraf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163290

This study was designed to evaluate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones Concentrations. Setting of the present study was performed in Teaching Hospital in Erbil city - Iraq from 1st of October  2017  to 1st of  March  2018. A total of 433 female  were participated for blood tests to estimate  thyroid function. Only 323 (74.6%) cases showed overall variation in hormonal level and 110 (25.4%) cases were normal. According to educational statue most of cases were with Bachelor level (67%). Generally 291(90%) of cases were married. 52% of the cases were  41 to 45 age group and 14.2 % cases was  in both 26 to 30 and 31-35 age groups.
About 59 (18.3%) cases had high TSH level only 13 (4%) case is considered as hypothyroidism when examined by consultation and collaboration with senior physician, while  54 (16.7%)  cases had low TSH level  but  41(12.7%) cases were considered hyperthyroidism. The result shows that 4 (1.7%) case have high T3 level  and 52 (16.09%) case have  low T3 level. While 26(8.04%) case have high T4 level  and 61 (18.9%) case have  low T4 level. In conclusion, we believe that thyroid diseases are more prevalent in women in Erbil and hyperthyroidism patient was more than hypothyroidism.

Impact of Collared Dove Pigeons (Streptopelia decaocto) Age on some Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Mosul City

Sinan Th. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 8-12
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163291

The study conducted to determine the effect of differences of age on hematological and biochemical values of collared dove pigeons (Streptopelia decaocto) in Mosul city, Iraq. 28 healthy collared dove of 4 different age groups (7 birds of each group) 1 month, 3month, 6 months old as immature and 12 months old as mature pigeons were collected from local areas of Mosul city during May to August 2018. Total red blood cells (TES), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb),  differential of white blood cells, serum total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and glucose were determined. The results showed fluctuations in parameters with different age groups. Mature birds had a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in PCV, Hb, Basophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, total protein and uric acid compared to immature birds. In the mature birds, there was a decrease in both heterophils, H / L ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose when compared to immature birds. The conclusion from this study there is differences in blood parameters in collared dove pigeons according to the age advanced. 

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Investigation and Detection of Fire Blight Disease on Pear Caused by Erwinia amylovora in Erbil Province

Tahsein A.M. Amein; Ramadan Y. Mohamed; Aram N. Hussein

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 22-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163293

Four isolates of Erwinia amylovora were isolated during (May, 2016) from different pear orchards of Erbil Governorate in Kurdistan/Iraq. Typical symptoms of fire blight such as shepherd crock and bacterial exudates were observed in pear trees, The bacteria morphologically similar to E. amylovora were isolated and characterized morphologically using selective media Crosse and Goodman, Biochemically using the API 20E and same biochemical tests (oxidase, catalase and indole) were also used for identification, and the result of API 20E kit (Biomérieux, France), demonstrated that the bacterium belongs to E. amylovora. Also all isolates were oxidase and indole negative, catalase positive and produced craters on the surface of colonies which permitted positive identification of the pathogen. A pathogenicity tests were positive on young pear shoots and immature fruits. PCR amplification was applied to identify a specific region of chromosomal pEA71, Results showed positive reaction to this specific primer.The first study conducted on pear fire blight caused by E. amylovora in ErbilProvince.

Preparation and Characterization of some Transition Metal Complexes with Two Mixed Ligands Macrocyclic and Ligands PPh3

Falah M. Fakhree; Saad Kh. Dawood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 29-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163294

         A new ligand (3,4,6,14,15,17,23,24-octaazatricyclo [,12] tetracosa-1(23),8(24),9,11, 19, 21- hexaene - 2,5,7,13,16,18 – hexaone), (CHT) was been prepared from the reaction of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid  with semicarbazide using microwave irradiation in solid state. The ligand is reacted  with  some  transition  metal(II) ions to form complexes of the type [Co(CHT)]Cl2,  [Fe(CHT)Cl]Cl  and [M(CHT)Cl2] where (M=Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)). Complexes  of  the  type  [Ni(CHT)(PPh3)]Cl2 and [M(CHT)(PPh3)Cl]Cl where (M=Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)), were prepared  by the reaction of  the above complexes with triphenylphosphine(PPh3) in a 1:1 molar ratio. All the  complexes were characterized by (C,H,N) analysis, metal content analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment  measurements, electronic and  IR spectroscopy, as well as the ligand was characterized by 1H,13C -NMR. The electronic spectra and magnetic measurements indicate that the complexes have octahedral environment  around the metal ions, except cobalt complex have square planer geometry.

Improving the Fire Retardant Efficiency of Phosphazenes for some Constructional Materials

Hyder I. AL Taha; Asaad F. Khattab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 38-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163295

Cyclophosphazene and Polyphosphazene have been developed as a fire retarding material by increasing the number of bromine and chlorine atoms and adding azo moieties within the chemical structure. Four azo phenolic compounds with different numbers and places of substituted bromine and chlorine atoms were prepared. The cyclophosphazene and polyphosphazene were functionalized by the azo phenolic compounds. The functionalizing was done  by substituting three chlorine atoms from cyclophosphazene or one chlorine atom from polyphosphazene by the prepared azo compounds through hydroxyl group. (ratio Azo3:1Cyclophosphazoene, and ration Azo1:1 Polyphosphazene). The chemical structure of the phosphazenes were  studied  by IR, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The fire retarding efficiency of phosphazenes compounds for many trading constructional materials was examined. The efficiency of the new phosphazenes compounds was increased for both Cyclophosphazene and Polyphosphazene as a fire retardant.                  

Pressure and Temperature Dependence of Energy Gap in SiC and Si1-xGex

Adnan M. Al-sheikh; Mumtaz M. Hussien; Siham J. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 53-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163296

The effect of pressure on energy gap for IV-IV compound SiC and Si1-xGex alloy have been investigated and evaluated by using Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) and Bardeen equation of state. Ambiguity in the effect of pressure and temperature on Eg of different SiC polytypes (3C, 4H, 6H) have been investigated and attributed.
Variation of  Eg in Si1-x Gex evaluated and an interpretation, for it, has been suggested.

Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (Tio2NPs) on Entamoeba gingivalis in vitro

Khansaa A. Younes; Najah S. Nayef; Ghada A. Taqa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163297

The  effect  of  Titanium  Dioxide Nanoparticals (Tio2NPs) on Entamoeba gingivalis in vitro     were   studied,which isolated  from  gums  in  gingivitis patients who  attended  the periodontal  disease    department  at  the  Faculty   Dentistry  of  Mosul University  for  the  period  from  1/4/2018    to   31/7/2018.
In  our  study  three  different  concentrations  of  (Tio2NPs)  were  prepared  as  the following order: (0.1, 0.01, 0.001) mg/ml and evaluated the effect of these different concentrations through (2,4,6) hours. Results  showed that time factor and the increasing of the  appositive effect on the parasite killing and  the highest concentration (0.1mg/ml) had a role in inhibition of  parasite  growth  and  reduced  parasite  survival rate to (3.60±0.953) compared to the other  concentrations. Also in this present study we found the concentration (0.1 mg/ml) was the highest  inhibition  of  parasite  (86.73%)  in  the  time  period  at  (6 hours)  compared  to  other concentrations and periods time  which    showed   slight   differences    between    them.

The Residues Effect of some Crop Plants on Germination and Growth of Five Wheat Cultivars Triticum aestivum L.

Fadia A. Abid-Aljabar; Janan A. Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 8-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163298

The research was conducted to study the effect  of  the  crops   (Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and  Cucurbita pepo L.)  residues, added to the soil at the ratio  5%  W: W, incubated for (0,2,4,6 weeks), in germination and growth of five wheatcultivars Triticum aestivum L.  including (Buro, Abu Graib, Rashid, Sham 6 and IPA 99). The results showed a significant reduction in seed germination and the growth of the wheat plants grown in the soil containing the crops residues as compared with the control (without residues), showing the difference in the effect of the crops type, the  C. melo residues caused the greatest reduction, also incubation periods differ in their effect of the crops residues. The interaction between cultivars and the incubation period, crops residues showed significant reduction in seed germination and growth, so the least germination percentage recorded (60.42%), the shoot and root length (26.27cm, 31.74cm), and the dry weight of them (1.29gm, 0.31gm), occur in the IPA 99 at the period 4 weeks incubation of   residues, were as the highest values of seed germination and growth  are (98.32%, 52.20cm, 57.53cm, 2.04 gm, 0.62gm)  showed in Buro plants grown in control soil (without residues ). This  was a comparison with the change in chlorophyll a, b content of the plant. The results showed through the search on type of fungal were found in the soil containing the crops residues as compared with the control (without residues), the each of fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani found at percent 60 % and % 52 respectively, in the soil containing the crop residues. Wheat cultivars showed difference in their response the effect to the crop residues, indicating that Buro showed resistance to the effect with better  germination and growth, where as IPA 99 showed  sensitive to the effect.

The Protective Effect of Pomegranate and Lemon Juices in Number of Biochemical Parameters in Blood Serum and Tissue of Local Rabbits Infected by Experimental Urolithiasis

Reem M. Mousa; Muna H. Jankeer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 23-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163299

         The aim of this study is to determine  the  protective  effect of both pomegranate juice Punica granatum and Citrus juice  Citrus limon in preventing the newly formed kidney stone induced  by ethylene glycol in local male rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus,which was expressed by monitoring renal functions, study of the effect of oxidative stress induced by ethylene-glycol, in addition to microscopic examination of the kidney tissue. In the current study 30 male rabbits were used ranging in age from (8-10) months, and weight (1500 - 2000) g, divided into 6 random groups, 5 Rabbit / group, as follows:The first group : was given water and the standard diet as a control group,  Group 2: was given ethylene glycol at a concentration of 1 ml / kg body weight, Group 3: was given the Pomegranate juice with a concentration of 6 ml / kg body weight, Group 4: was given the lemon juice at a concentration of  4 ml / kg  body weight, Group 5: was given the ethylene glycol at a concentration of  1 ml / kg  in addition to Pomegranate juice with a concentration of  6 ml / kg  body weight,  Group 6:  was given the  ethylene-glycol at a concentration of 1 ml / kg body weight as well as lemon juice at  a concentration of  4 ml / kg body weight,  for 30 days and two doses daily in the morning and evening. Results showed the induction of  calculi by ethylene glycol in local male rabbits which resulted in negative effects in the biochemical parameters, which was a significant increase at a potential level (P≤ 0.05) in the concentration of  urea, creatinine, uric acid, malodialdehyde MDA, magnesium, potassium while the concentration of glutathione GSH and calcium decreased when treated with ethylene glycol compared with control, Tissue sections of the kidney showed a clear deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissues  with a damage of the epithelial tissue lining of the renal tubules with necrosis, degeneration and enlargement of renal tubules due to deposition of  these crystals. The treatment of  local male rabbits with pomegranate and lemon juice each alone lead to positive effects in biochemical parameters for kidney, the results also  showed a non significant decrease in the level of glutathione and a significant decrease in level of blood serum MDA compared with control. Treatment of  ethylene glycol with pomegranate and lemon juices alone lead to positive effects in biochemical parameters and studied electrolytes. Tissue sections of the kidney showed decrease in deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the renal tubules and the damage caused by ethylene glycol in epithelial tissue lining of the kidney.

Effect of some Materials and Drugs on Entamoeba gingivalis Culture

Khansaa A. Younes; Ghada A. Taqa; Najah S. Nayef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 40-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163300

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some materials and drugs on Entamoeba gingivalis culture which was isolated from gums in gingivitis patients who attended to the periodental disease department at the college of Dentistry/ Mosul University, at the period from August to October 2018.
Five different concentrations of Flagyl, Ketamine, Bowsella and Apignein were prepared then added to the culture media of the parasite  at three periods (2, 4, 6) hours. as (0.0001, 0.0002, 0.0004, 0.0008, 0.0016) microgram/ml. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant difference between concentrations and time which showed that best concentrations were 0.0016 mg/ml for Flagyl, Ketamine, Apignein which inhibit parasite growth as (0.0, 4.73j, 9.53g) respectively also reduced parasite survival rate at (100%, 72.81%, 54.4%) respectively in the time period at (6 hours) while Bowsella at 0.0008 mg/ml inhibition of parasite growth to (5.47l) also reduced parasite survival rate to (72.04%) compared together concentrations and time periods (2, 4) hours which showed slight differences between them.

Histopathological and Micromorphometrical Study for the Effect of Stanozolol on Liver of Male Rats

Mohamed Y. Al-Fathi; Entesar R. Al-Kennany; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 50-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163301

         The study aimed to investigate the histopathological and micromorphometric measurements of the effects of stanozolol with different concentrations and periods on the liver in male rats. The study included 80 male white rats divided randomly into four groups of 20 rats per group. The first included (control group) which get water and feed only. The second group was treated with stanozolol 10 mg / kg. The third group was treated with stanozolol 10 mg / kg body weight with Vit. E 600 mg / kg body weight and the fourth group was treated with vitamin E 600 mg / kg body weight only. All groups were treated for 8 weeks. Euthanasia was performed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks (4 weeks after cessation of treatment) and liver samples were taken by eight samples and for all groups. The histological sections of the liver in the second group showed presence of histopathological changes represented by fatty degeneration of hepatic cells with the expansion and congestion of sinusoid. Eight weeks later, the intensity of histopathological changes were increased, the sections showed severe fatty change. Four weeks after the treatment cessation at the 12th week, pyknosis of the nuclei of the hepatic cells were observed. In the third group, the changes after four weeksrepre sented by diffuse fatty change and  sinusoidal expansion. After eight weeks of treatment, sinusoidal expansion with hypertrophy of kupffer cells were observed.
           The micromorphometric measurements of the second group on the sinusoidal diameters showed a significant increase at p≤ 0.05 for all periods when compared with control group. The third group showed a significant increase at all periods and at a significant level p≤ 0.05 compared with control group, while it showed a significant decrease in the diameter of  sinusoid at all periods and at a significant level p≤ 0.05 compared with the rats of the second group. The fourth group showed a significant decrease at the eighth week and four weeks after cessation of treatment             (week 12) at most periods. The results of the micromorphometric measurements of the second group showed a significant decrease in the diameter of hepatic cell nuclei at a significant level p ≤0.05  and for all periods when compared with control group. The third group showed an insignificant increase in hepatic cell nuclei diameter at all periods compared with the treated group of 10-mg / kg body weight.

The Effects of Polyphenol Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria) Fruits on Body Weights, Lipid Profile and Leptin Hormon Levels in Experimental Mice

Noor F. Al-Hamdany; Khawola A. Al-Flayeh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163302

This study included extraction of polyphenol compounds from sumac (Rhus coriaria) fruits that included use of Soxhlet apparatus and 70% ethanol. Also in this study, four groups of experimental mice I-IV, each group of 12 mice were used. Groups II, III, IV were treated orally with polyphenol extract of Sumac fruits of concentration 200, 300, 400 µg /10 g of body weight for periods of two and four weeks. group I was the control (untreated) group. Twelve specimens of blood sera were taken from each of the four groups for the further studies.
The study showed that polyphenol extract exhibited a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the mean values of weights and body mass index in three treated groups of mice II, III, IV for both periods of 2 and 4 weeks respectively, as compared with that of control group I, as well as compared with that of the same groups before treatment with the polyphenol extract of sumac administration.
This study also indicated a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the mean values of following biochemical parameters: glucose, total cholesterol and High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol    (HDL-c) and a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in Triglyceride (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c) in blood sera of the three mice groups which were treated with polyphenol extract of sumac as compared with that of control group.
The study on the effects of polyphenol extract on the mean levels of leptin hormon in serum of the three treated experimental of II, III, IV mice for a periods of four weeks were shown a significant increase (P≤0.05) as compared with that of control group. In the mean time the statistical analysis for the correlation coefficient between the mean levels of leptin hormon and the mean values of body weights as well as the mean value of body mass indexe for the treated mice were found to be highly positive +0.65 and +0.58 respectively.
The increased values of leptin hormone levels accompanied by the increase values of mean of body weights and body mass indexes of the treated experimental mice  which were encountered in this study was discussed here in  the view of leptin  working mechanism.

Isolation and Purification of Lipoxygenase from the Serum of Bronchial Asthma Patient and Studying the Effect of Natural Products of Horse Tail ( Equisetum arvense.L) Plant on it's Activity

Hiba R. Kamal; Mohammed B. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 76-93
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163303

This study includes the isolation and purification of the Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme from the serum of an Asthma patient by using different techniques. The result showed the Ion – Exchange chromatography which occurred in the column containing the ion exchange (DEAE- cellulose) diethylamino ethyl – cellulose of the proteinous precipitateth which is  produced after dialysis. Two bands of  protein and the first band (A) showed the highest activity of the enzyme with the specific activity (2.68 U/mg) and the number times of  the purification was (10.30) once. Then, the optimum conditions of LOX enzyme showed the highest activity which it was at the fifth minute at pH = 8 and at (40°C),  substrate concentration was about (0.5 mmol/ L)  and the maximum Velocity (Vmax) was (168 unit / L), the value of (Km) by using Mikael’s Menten and Linwifer – Burk plot was (0.13) and (0.14) molar respectively. In addition, the determining of the approximate molecular weight of LOX enzyme (the first protein band A) by electrical migration technology (Electrophoresis) using SDS-PAGE and molecular weight and it was (69000) Dalton. Also the study includes the  isolation of th the natural products of the horse tail plant (oils) and identificated by GC (Gas-Liquid chromatography) and the flavonoids isolated and identificated by (HPLC) to study their effect on the activity of the partially purified enzyme, the results showed that oils contain an Undecanoic and Lauric acid, while flavonoids contain Catechine, Qurectine, Ferulic acid and Rutin, and it’s effect on the activity of partially purified enzyme showed that flavonoids reduced high-volume lipoxygenase enzyme and then sabonin followed by oils.

Effect of Deposition Time and Temperature on Structural, Topographic and Optical Properties of Nano (ZnS) Film Prepared by CBD Technique

Tahseen A. Aswad; Nawfal Y. Jamil; Abdul-Majeed E. Ibrahim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 94-105
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163304

         The research includes the study of the effect of some preparing factors (time of deposition and temperature) on structural, topographic and optical properties of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoscale film. Nanofilms prepared by using a chemical bath deposition .The compositional properties included: pictures of X-ray diffraction (XRD), also included the topographic characteristics: pictures of the optical microscope (ORM) and pictures of the atomic force microscope (AFM), while the included optical properties: transmittance, absorption coefficient, the optical energy gap. The results of                X-ray examinations (X-ray) to prepare films by (CBD) method have amorphous structure. It has been observed that increasing the time of deposition led to decrease values ​​of the forbidden energy gap, while it was observed that the increase in temperature led to a increase in the values ​​of the forbidden energy gap .

Properties of some Nuclei with Mass Number A=140

Mohammed A. Ahmed; Imad M. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 106-123
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163305

        The positive ground-state band (GSB) of isobars was calculated using the Bohr – Mottelson (BM) model, interacting vector boson model (IVBM), and interacting boson model (IBM-1), while the negative-parity band (NPB) of was calculated using the BM model and IVBM. To determine the properties of the ground-state band, the back-bending curve, the E-GOS curve (Eγ/I), the ratio (r(I +2)/I) and the staggering have been plotted as a function of the spin (I).  The contour plots show that all nuclei under consideration have complicate properties.