Volume 28, Issue 3, Summer 2019, Page 1-39

Research Paper

Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Cinnamon, Clove, Eucalyptus, and Tea Tree Oils Against Oral Streptococci

Shababa A. Bahjat

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163138

Biofilm formation is becoming recognized as a key step in many infections. Prevention of this process as well as destruction of pre-formed biofilm are considered key strategies in controlling infectious diseases.
The aim of the present work is to study biofilm formation in oral streptococci isolated from children aged 6-10 years and to test the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of four essential oils (Cinnamon, Clove, Eucalyptus, and Tea tree) by using three in vitro methods; Tissue Culture Plate, Tube Method, and Congo red agar for the detection of biofilm formation
Results of this study showed that all oral streptococci exhibited biofilm formation with varying degrees. Also, cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, followed by tea tree oil not only had a distinctive antibacterial activity against oral Streptococcal isolates, but also possessed anti-biofilm activity. These data provide evidence that plant oils could be potentially used as natural additives, clinically effective, inexpensive and safe plaque control supplements in the prevention of oral diseases.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfamethoxazole in Pure and in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Diazotization and Coupling Reaction

Salim A. Mohammed; Nassem M. Al-Hamdany; Asmaa N. Abdulkader

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.163144

A highly sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of sulfamethoxazole(SMX) in both pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. In this method SMX is diazotized with equimolar of sodium nitrite(NaNO2) in acid medium of hydrochloric acid to form diazonium ion , which is reacted with 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid in alkaline medium of NaOH to form a yellow water soluble azo dye that has absorption maximum at 416 nm versus reagent blank. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 0.2-16 µg. ml-1 with an excellent determination coefficient (r2= 0.9996) and molar absorptivity 1.84×104 l.mol-1.cm-1. The recoveries are obtained in the range of 97.8 - 99.8% and the relative standard deviation is better than ±0.23% . The stoichiometry of the resulting azo dye has been also worked out and it is found to be 1:1 SMX: 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid. This method has been applied successfully for the determination of SMX in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets and oral suspension).

Clinical Study of some Biochemical Parameters in Serum of Women Undergoing Uterine Removal

Raghad A. Hammo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163145

The present research includes a clinical study of estrogen hormone and ferritin protein, cholesterol, and some levels of mineral, such as calcium and phosphorus in the serum of women who have undergone uterine removal. The results showed a significant decrease in the estrogen hormone level of serum for women who have undergone  uterine removal (50.3Pg∕ml), in comparison with healthy women (138.65Pg∕ml) at a probability level of P≤0.05. The study also showed a significant increase of ferritin protein level of women who have undergone  uterine removal (64.35mg∕dl) when compared with healthy women (52.10mg∕dl) at probability level of P≤0.05, with a significant increase in the cholesterol level in serum of women who have undergone uterine removal (7.643mmol∕L), in comparison with  healthy women (4.525mmol∕L) at a probability level of P≤0.05. The investigation also discussed the effect of some minerals, like calcium and phosphorous on the serum of women who have undergone uterine removal, and it found significant decrease in calcium level of women who have undergone  uterine removal while compared with healthy women (1.86), (2.41) mmol ∕ L respectively at probability level (P≤0.05), while present slight increase in phosphorous  level compared with healthy women(3.95), (3.731) mmol∕ L respectively.

Structural Properties of Zinc Aluminate ZnAl2O4 Compound

Hothama A. Mohammed; Raad A. Rasool

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163146

Zinc Aluminate, 14 ZnAl2O4">  is prepared using the double sintering heating which is known as the ceramic method at high temperatures 1000 Co.  The structural properties are studied using the X-ray and Infrared techniques at room temperature. It was found that the compound has the spinel face centered cubic structure by showing the diffractions from the main crystalline planes of the spinel structured. The infrared spectrum shows the main absorption bands for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The lattice constant, " 14ahkl"> ", is calculated using Bragg's equation and found to be equal to (8.0573Å).The force constants, the average crystallite size, densities and the porosity are calculated using the X-ray and Infrared results.
Keywords: Spinel structure, Sintering heating, X-ray, Infrared.

Estimation of some Enzymes Activity of Sheep and Cattle Lungs Infected with Hydated Cysts

Mohammad Al-Salihi; Hussain I. Al-Khan; Fulk A. Khattab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163147

Enzymatic activity of Aspartate transferase (AST), Alanine transferase (ALT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Gluocose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PH) were evaluated in lungs tissues and protoscoleces of cattle and sheep infectd with hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus
The result showed that there was a significant increase in ALT and G-6-PH activity; decrease in AST and ALP activity, while there were no difference in LDG activity in sheep lungs infected with protoscoleces when compared with control group.
In case of cattle lungs, no significant differences of G-6-PH, ALP, LDH and ALT enzymes activity when compared with control group.
When both infected lungs of sheep and were compared in their enzymatic activity significant differences were noticed in ALT, G-6-PH and ALP but with not in LDH and AST.
The enzymes enzymatic activity of protocoleses itself when isolated from both sheep and cattle showed no differences in ALT, AST and G-6-PH as well as there was no increase in ALP or decrease in LDH in cattle compared with these in sheep.
From all above it could be concluded that sheep infected lungs with Echinococcus granulosus affected the enzymatic activity of ALT, AST, ALP and G-6-PH.

Detection of Cryptospridium sp. Oocysts in Drought Horses in Mosul, Iraq

Dhiyaa A. Moosa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163148

The aims of the present work were to detect Cryptospridium sp. oocysts in drought horses from different regions in Mosul city, Iraq as Bab-Sinjar region in addition to horses which were brought to Veterinary Teaching Hospital in College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Fifty fecal samples were collected from horses with different ages and both sexes (25 fecal samples from foals aged less than one year and another 25 fecal samples from adult horses 3-10 years old). Diseased horses showed severe signs of diarrhea with offensive odor, anorexia, dehydration and emaciation with generalized debility. Diagnosis of Cryptospridiumoocysts were confirmed by two methodes Modefied acid fast stain and Lugol’s iodine stain. Results showed that out of 50 fecal samples 15(30%) were positive for oocytes, and the results also showed an increase in the percentage of infection of foals compared to adult horses (26%, 4%) respectively. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain proved to be more efficient revealing (24%) followed by Lugol’s iodine stain (6%) Microscopical examination revealed thatCryptospridiumoocysts have small spheric shape with pink color, 4-5 micron in diameter. It has been concluded that Cryptospridium infection is an important disease affected horses in Mosul, Iraq and the percentage of infection was high in foals compared to adults horses, and Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain for detection of oocysts could  be authenticated. 

Effect of Formaldehyde Treated Barley in Awassi Ewes Rations in Milk Production and some Chemical and Microbial Traits of Yogurt

Ghanim M. Hassan; Omar D. Almallah; Nadir Y. Abo; Mohammed N. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 17-23
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163153

  This study was conducted in research department of animal resource/ Al-Rashidiya, at ministry of agriculture by using 14 of genetically improved awassi ewes, average body weight 56.00 ± 2.10 kg and age ranged between 3-5 years. Ewes were allocated according to their weight and milk production into two groups. The first was control (T1), fed on ration consist mainly of untreated barley and contain 9.69% of degradable protein and 3.77% of undegradable protein as dry matter. The second group (T2) was fed on same control ration but barley grain were treated with formaldehyde and contain 9.63% degradable protein and 6.37% of undegradable protein as dry matter, the two rations are nearest in its content of metabolizable energy. Results are indicated to a significant increase ( p > 0.05 ) in milk production in T2 which were 1.322 kg/day as compared to T1 which were 1.128 kg/day, milk components did not differ significantly between the two groups, but the quantity of lactose, fat and protein increased significantly ( p > 0.05 ) in T2 as compared to T1. No significant differences were noted in yogurt composition, but the total number of bacteria and colonic bacteria decreased in T2 ( 52.10 x 103and 4.16 x 101) compared to T1 ( 55.66 x 103 and 5.33 x 101) respectively.

An Epidemiological and Diagnostic Study of Toxoplasma gondii by Serological and Molecular Methods Using nPCR Technique in Pregnant and Abortive Women in Mosul and its Environ

Aws Al-Safar; Shihab A. Mohammed; Abdulrhem Th. Al-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 24-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163154

The study examined 120 samples of blood and serum of pregnant women who miscarriaged in Al Salam Educational Hospital to investigate their incidence of Toxoplasma gondii since 1/5/2013 to 1/5/2014, using latex test and The Enzyme -Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the Enzyme-Linked Fluorescence Assay, in addition to Toxoplasma gondii (B1) gene by the Nested polymerase chain reaction technique. The results of the study showed that the best technique for acute T.gondii was nested PCR with 36.6% followed by ELISA 31.6%, ELFA 26.6% and Latex 18.3%. ELISA and ELFA tested high sensitivity to anti-IgM (85% and 73%, respectively), based on the results of the nPCR test as a positive control group, Where as latex test revealed a sensitivity of 50%. The acute infection in Mosul and its suburbs was 36.6%. The results showed no significant differences in different age groups, the housing area has an impact on the incidence rates in the suburbs and villages of Mosul, 42%, while in the city 32.8 %, infection rates rise, with the lower educational level of women. The friction of women with animals and cats raise the infection rate to 53.8%, while the percentage dropped to 23.5%  in women who did not treat or contact with animals and cats.

Capacity Growth of Mycorrhiza Species at Different Concentrations of Heavy Metals

Mazin N. Fadhel; Mawj R. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 38-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163155

     The study investigates the possibility of three types of R.rosulus, S.varigatus, P.involutus in removing and lowering the ascending concentrations of copper and zinc elements, and during three incubation and contact periods (5,7 and 10 days) and comparing the growth of isolates with control samples. Type P.involutus is the most efficient in the removal by observing the growth of isolates by increasing its diameter compared to the control samples and the concentrations of copper and zinc and for all the days of incubation, while the type S.varigatus was the highest growth at the low concentrations of copper and zinc only and for all periods of incubation, the type R.rosulus. The diameter  was smaller as compared to control samples All elemental concentrations of copper and zinc except at concentration (2.5 ppm), and is generally observed increase diameters of the isolates of the three types of increasing periods of incubation and all elemental concentrations of copper and zinc, and this increase is less than at high concentrations of these elements and of all species studied.

Diagnosis of some Bacteria Causing Gingivitis in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Investigating some of Their Biochemical and Immunological Parameters

Marwa J. Aljumaily; Najdat B. Mehdi; Sahla KH. Abbas

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 48-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163156

  The study aimed to isolate and identify of the types of bacteria which cause gingivitis. Gram positive bacteria were isolated by 89% more than gram-negative bacteria, 60 isolates were Streptococcus viridans and 5 isolates were Escherichia coli. The biochemical study showed a significant increase in concentration of total cholesterol (P 14≤"> 0.05) in the gingivitis and diabetes groups, as well as in very low density lipoproteins showed a significant increase in gingivitis and diabetes group (P 14≤"> 0.033), High-density lipoproteins showed a significant decrease in the group of gingivitis and diabetes compared to the control group at a significant level (P 14≤"> 0.018). In the immunological parameters, the results showed a significant decrease in the concentration of IL-10 in the group gingivitis and diabetes (P 14≤"> 0.05). The concentration of TNF-α increased in gingivitis and diabetes at a significant level (P 14≤"> 0.05).

Effect of Different Level of Iron and Vitamin B12 Injection on Production Performance and some Physiological Characteristics of Blood in Awassi Lamb

Wasem K. Ahmad; Wissam J. Mohammed; Mohammed S. Abrahem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 55-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163158

       This study was conducted on 15 Awassi lambs with an average weight 11kg and with average age (1 month) these lambs were randomly divided into three groups, (5 animal/  group) 1st  group as control, The 2nd group was injected subcutaneously once every ten days with Iron and vitamin B12 (4.54 mg/kg body weight/a living animal, 4.54 mg/kg body weight / a living animal) respectively, the 3rd group lambs were injected with iron and vitamin B12  (9.09 mg /kg body weight /a living animal 9.09 mg/kg body weight /a living animal) respectively. The results showed a significant effect (p<0.05) for 2nd and 3rd group compared with control group in (red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, Glucose, Triglyceride, body weight) and the result show the 3rd group had a significant effect (p<0.05) compared with control group in (packed cell volume) there was no significant effect (p<0.05) between the groups in (Albumin, globulin and total protein concentration, in conclusion The enhancing of iron level and vitamin B12 led to improvement, body weight and some blood characteristics in awassi lambs.                  

Influence of Spraying with Water Extracts of Liquorice and Animals Wastes on Yield, Yield Components for Trigonella foenum - graecum L. Local Variety

Maha Z. Al Hialy; Saad Adeen M. Al Hafodhi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 61-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163159

         The study was conducted in wire house of biology department/ college of Education for pure sciences / University of Mosul during the winter season (2017- 2018). The seeds were planted on 25/11/2017 and the plant was harvested on 24/5/2018. The aim of the study was to study the effect of spraying with water  extracts  of  liqurice Glycyrrhizin glabra, and manure (cow, sheep, poultry and their mixture) with concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30) g / L and three spray periods once every 2, 4 and 6 weeks in the growth and yield seeds of  Trigonella foenum - graecum L. In order to obtain a product free from the chemical effects of mineral fertilizers or industrial growth regulators to obtain a low-cost product, this experiment was designed, according to the design of stochastic sectors full RCBD with three replicates according to the program SAS. The results were analyzed by the Duncan test at a probability level of 0.05. The results of the study of Yield and its quality showed that spraying the plants with the chicken manure solution at the highest concentration (30 g / L) led to significant increasing in the number of pods, number of seeds per pods, number of seeds per plant, seed index, seed weight and total seed yield. In addition, spraying with liquorice root extract (30 g / L) showed significant increases in seed weight in pods, number of seeds per plant and total seed weight per plant.

A Study of Physiochemical Characteristics of Al- Khoser River Effluent and its Effect Upon Tigris River Quality within Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 77-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163161

Many of the physio-chemical characteristics of Al- Khoser water effluent have been studied for the period from October 2017 to June 2018. Some of the physio- chemical charachteristics which represented by Temperature, pH, E.C, D.O, BOD5, T.H, 14NO3-1"> , 14PO4-2">  ,and 14SO4-2">  were measured. The results showed that most of these characteristics have high values, within the first location in comparison with the international maximum allowable limits, this is due to the discharge of sewage and wastes into the river without treatment. Whereas the second and third locations, after mixing with water of Tigris River, showed low concentrations of pollutants due to the influence of precipitation, dilution, diffusion and high flow.
Al- Khoser water was considered very hard in comparison with the water of TigrisRiver. It is worth mentioning that the amounts of human industrial, agricultural and human detached pollutants have severely impacted the water of Al-KhoserRiver, which finally considered the more hardness in comparison with the water of the TigrisRiver.

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Preparation Polymeric Composites from Epoxy with Randomly Woven Fiber Glass and Studies the Mechanical Properties

Ebtahag Z . Sulyman; Rwaa E. Ibrahiem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 104-115
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163163

         In this study, polymer compositions of epoxy resins were prepared as a base material with fiber glass at different weight ratios (4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 11%) as reinforced materials. Polymeric compositions were compared before and after reinforcement. Fibers have increased the values of all mechanical properties (Impact resistance, hardness, elasticity, compressive strength). The values (elasticity coefficient, compressive strength, hardness) are reduced by increasing the temperature.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Sulphacetamide Sodium in Ophthalmic Preparation Using 2,6-Dihydroxytoluene as a New Coupling Agent

Saad H. Sultan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 116-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163164

        A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of sulphacetamide sodium (SAS) in aqueous solution. The proposed method depends on diazotization of drug compound using sodium nitrite in acidic medium to produce the corresponding  diazonium salt which coupled with 2,6-dihydroxytoluene reagent in presence of sodium carbonate to form              a colored water soluble and stable azo-dye, which has a maximum absorption at 435 nm with          a molar absorptivity and Sandalʼs sensitivity of 4.6×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and 0.00543 µg.cm-2 respectively. Beer's law is valid over the concentration range  0.25-12.5 µg.ml-1. The relative error is in between -0.40 and +3.60 % and the relative standard deviation from ±0.13 to ±1.25 % depending on the concentration level. The proposed method was applied successfully to determine sulphacetamide sodium in its pharmaceutical formulation as ophthalmic drops.

Operating Specifications for Double Polymeric Thin Films Capacitors

Ahmed N. Mahmmood; Asmaa E. Abid; Yahya A. Salman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 128-140
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163165

In this research two groups of parallel plates capacitors (MIM-Device) with thin polymeric film, were prepared. The first group with a single polymeric film of materials (PMMA) with long saturated chain, (PC) with short saturated chain and (PS) with short unsaturated chain and the thickness is about ((300± 10 )µm(. The second group where the insulating film is of double type of material (PMMA//PS) and (PC//PS) with total thickness about ()300± 10 )µm(. The results showed that the used double thin films may lead to redistribution of the raing of regions of (I-V) characteristics equally which were different when the thin films  were single and there was a difference in the raing of regions of (I-V) characteristics of linear polymer chain and these differences are created due to length or shortness of polymer chain and for saturated or unsaturated for this chain, also the results have shown that there is an interface in double polymeric thin film cause and distortion in (C-V) characteristics and it is gone by increasing the amount of thermal energy and the induce electrical filed con be created by effect of external filed and with help of interface in double thin films, the existence of this filed can lead to mismatch in the value of capacity between increase and decrease stages except low values of external field. The increasing of the thermal energy lead to deformation in (C-V) characteristics gradually with increases difference in capacity between increase and decrease stages. The latter strengthens the hypothesis of induced electric field.