Volume 28, Issue 1, Winter 2019, Page 1-105

Research Paper

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Studying the Synergistic Effect of both Propolis Extract and Green Apple Peel Extract with Fluconazole against Candida albicans

Mohammed Y. Allawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 7-12
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159396

Candida albicans were isolated from 36 isolates of the mouth people aged (2.5 – 63) years. A crude sample of bees propolis was collected from several apiaries in Mosul city and green apples were collected from the markets, evaluating antifungal of fluconazole, methanol extract of propolis (MPE) and methanol extract of green apples peels (MEGAP) were different concentration (125,250,375,500,750,1000,1500)ug/ml, each one alone and as combination of (fluconazole 50%+ MPE 50%) and of (fluconazole 50%+ MEGAP50%). Each one alone, the fluconazole only had inhibitory effect against C.albicans. As combination, the synergistic effect was observed of both combination (fluconazole 50% + EMP 50%) and (fluconazole 50%+MEGAP 50%) against C.albicans. In comparing between two combination observed that it was outdoing in a synergistic effect of (EMP) compared with (EMGAP) specially at concentrations (750 , 1000, 1500) ug/ml.

Effect of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination on Soil Microorganisms and Biodegradation

Raghad N. Hazim; Mehjin A. Al-Ani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159391

The experiment under lab condition was conducted to investigate the effect of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on soil microorganisms and biodegradation. The experiment was conducted in 12 treatment and three replication. The treatments include soil contaminated with Kerosene, Diesel, lubricate oil and used lubricate oil in three concentration 0%, 5%, and 10%. contamination with hydrocarbons significantly decreased the count of heterotrophic bacteria and there was reversal relationship between the contaminant concentration and the count of heterotrophic bacteria. The results indicated soil contamination with hydrocarbons significantly increased the count of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB). The effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on fungi count differed according to the type of hydrocarbons, concentration of contaminant and the periods of incubation. Our results show that soil contamination by hydrocarbons caused significant increase in actinomycetes count at all hydrocarbon types and concentrations except 5% used and non-used lubrication oil. The higher percentage of biodegradation in hydrocarbons contaminated soil 49.6% was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% kerosene while the lower percentag10.8% was recorded with soil contaminated 10% lubricate oil. .

Serological Study of Human Cytomegalovirus in Thalassemia Patients and Blood Donors and its Relation to IL-6 in Kirkuk City

Neshtiman A. Abbas; Najat A. Zaman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 23-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159397

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of human cytomegalovirus in thalassemic patients and blood donors in relation to IL-6 in Kirkuk City through screening of anti-human cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG antibodies in the serum of thalassemic patients and blood donors by using ELISA technique to detect the IgG and IgM in blood samples. Blood samples were collected from 200 thalassemic patients and 180 samples from blood donor. The study revealed that the positive rates for HCMV-IgG , HCMV-IgM and both HCMV IgM/IgG were positive among 152(76.0%),14,(7.0%) and 3(1.5%) respectively. The rates of HCMV antibodies among 180 blood donors HCMV-IgG was detected in 68 (37.77%), the seropositive for HCMV-IgM was 7(3.88%), while for both HCMV-IgG and HCMV-IgM was 4(2.22%). The HCMV elaborate cellular and immune manipulation strategies to maintain the virus-host equilibrium and the human immune response by humeral and cellular immunity including some cytokines as IL-6, so the rates of increased serum IL-6 was high among most HCMV seropositive subjects enrolled in this study although the highest rate were within thalassemic patients.

Effect of Triton X-100 on the Spectrophotometric Determination of Aluminium in the Presence of Iron(III) - Application to Various Water Samples

Bassima A. Abed Al-Hadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 29-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159392

An accurate simple, rapid and direct spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminium in presence of iron (III) was developed. The method is based on the reaction of aluminium (III) with xylenol orange at pH 4.3 using potassium hydrogen phthalate buffer solution to form a stable orange-red coloured complex which has maximum absorption at 512 nm. This study is showing the effect of triton X-100 on the spectrophotometric determination of aluminium which effected the stability, limits of Beer's law, blanck value and final absorption spectrum. Beer's law was obeyed over the range of (1-200) μg/25 ml (i.e 0.04-8.0 ppm). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the coloured complex are 1.173×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, 0.00230 μg.cm-2 respectively. The interference caused by iron (III) was suppressed by adding sodium cyanide as masking agent. The method has been applied successfully for determining aluminium (III) in various water samples.
The same work was done for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in the absences of triton X-100. While the analytical parameters recorded are 1.045×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, 0.00258 μg.cm-2, the molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the coloured complex respectively, and limits of Beer's law are (5-100) μg/25ml (i.e. 0.2-4.0 ppm).

Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of New Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Tridentate Hydrazones

Abdul Ghany M. Al-Daher; Dhufr A. Omer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 41-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159398

Hydrazones derived from acid hydrazides and 2-benzoylpyridine namely; 2-benzoylpyridineacetyl hydrazine (BPAH),2-benzoylpyridine-4-methylbenzoyl hydrazone (BPMH) and 2-benzoylpyridine picolinoylhydrazone (BPPH) have been synthesized and used to prepar the corresponding Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes. The ligands undergo deprotonation forming neutral mononuclear octahedral bis-complexes of the type [M(L-H)2] where L-H = deprotonated BPAH, BPMH or BPPH, acting as uni-negative tridentate ligands. The complexes isolated were characterized by elemental analyses, (IR, electronic spectra), molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The bonding and probable structure of ,the complexes are discussed depending on the basis of the spectral and magnetic data. The ligands, as well as some of their complexes, screened against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, The tested compound exhibited moderate activity with respect to ceftriaxone antibiotic and higher activity than the free ligands..

A Creative Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Naproxen

Hana Sh. Mahmood; Thura Z. Al-Sarraj

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 51-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159393

A New, sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of Naproxen (Nap) has been proposed. The method is based on a modification of Naproxen into a hydroxy analog (mNap). The modified compound is coupled with the diazotized p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in alkaline medium, the resulting orange azo dye exhibit a maximum absorption at 500 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range from 10 to 650 µg/20 ml, (i.e. 0.5-32.5 µg/ ml) with a good sensitivity (molar absorptivity 2.14x104 l.mol-1.cm-1), good precision (RSD% better than ±1.93%) and high accuracy (relative error % better than 0.43%), Sandell's sensitivity index is 0.0107µg.cm-2 and the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.024 µg/ml and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.082 µg/ml. The method has been applied successfully for determination of Naproxen in dosage forms after extraction of the active ingredient. .

The Structure Properties of Even-Even 216-226Ra Isotopes

Imad M. Ahmed; Nabaa N. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 61-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159399

The properties of even-even 216-226Ra isotopes were studied and its energy states calculated. To identify the properties of each isotope, the values of the first excited state and the ratio of the second to the first excited state were adopted. The phenomenon of back (or up)-bending, the E-GOS curve, the relationship between successive excited states to those preceding them and the odd-even staggering were studied. The appropriate limit in the interacting boson model IBM-1, the IVBM model and the Bohr and Mottelson (BM) model were used to calculate the energy states for each isotope and compared the results with the experimental values. Due to the inaccuracy of some calculations in the models IVBM and BM, an adjustment term was added for each model and recalculated the energy states and the results were improved .

The Effect of Glass and Carbon Fibers and Powders Addition on the Sliding Wear Behavior of Unsaturated Polyester Resin

Edrees E. Ghadeer; Ismail K. Al-Dahmashy; Yahya I. Abdul-Rahman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 73-84
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159394

The current investigation is interested in studying the wear phenomenon for unsaturated polyester resin reinforced by a different weight fraction of glass and carbon fibers and powders. The prepared specimens were tested according to standard (ASTM-D5963) using a dvice pin-on-disk, at room temperature. The influence of wear parameter like, applied load, sliding speed on the wear rates were investigated. It was observed that the carbon and two types of glass fibers composite shows lower wear rates than the carbon and glass powders composites, under varying the loads and sliding speeds. In the case of sliding speed increased the results show that the increased of the weight fractions of carbon and glass powders will decrease the wear rates of composites prepared from this powders, while in the case of loading increase the wear rates increased when the weight fraction increased up to (4.16 Wt.%) for both carbon and glass powders. .

Improvement of the Optical Performance of the Geometrical Parameters of Snorkel Magnetic Lens

Muna A. Al-Khashab; Marwa T. Al-Shamma

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 85-97
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159400

Two models of asymmetrical magnetic objective lens geometries have been designed and studied. These two models are called Pinhole and Snorkel lenses. The comparison between these models was realized by the aid of simulation EOD program (Electron Optical Design), using the finite element method to analyze the magnetic flux density and optical properties at constant excitation (NI=2000A-t). The optimal model (Snorkel Lens) gives the best characteristics that were compatible with the research purposes in details, such as the changing of air gap and the axial polepiece bore diameter on the optical performance of the snorkel magnetic lens. This type of lens was used in low energies scanning electron microscope (SEM), which achieved the lowest values of the aberrations coefficient at long working distance.

Correlations between Wind Power Density and Different Meteorological Parameters in Nineveh Governorate

Fatin M. Hamam; Waleed I . AL-Rijabo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 98-111
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159395

The aim of this paper is to estimate the mean monthly values of wind power density in four meteorological stations in Nineveh Governorate (Mosul, Rabea, Talafar, Sinjar) for the period (1980 – 2010) using different meteorological parameters. Five different models (Linear, Quadratic, Logarithmic, Linear Logarithmic, power) were used to estimate the wind power density. The performance of this regression models were evaluated. Several statistical test were used to control the validation and goodness of the regression models in terms of (R, R2, MAE, RMSE). Linear model gave the best fit for the relation between WPD and (P, n, H, C) in all stations. Quadratic model and Linear model gave the best fit between WPD and (Rad. RH, T) in all stations. Logarithmic model give the best fit between WPD and Rad in Mosul station .

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Estimation of Phenotypic Variance Components, Heritability, Average Degree of Dominance and Genetic Advance for Early Generation in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Mohammed H. Ayoob

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 11-23
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159406

Six early generation (B2,B1,F2,F1,P2,P1) of two crosses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) the first (Intesar × Rabbeaa) and the second (Abo-Greab-3 × Adnanyi) were used to estimate the components of phenotypic variance, heritability, average degree of dominance and expected genetic advance for plant height, number of tillers per plant, grain yield and its components for each cross. The result revealed that additive genetic variance was significant for number of grains per spike, 100 grain weight and grain yield in both crosses while the dominance genetic variance was significant for spike length in the first cross. The studied traits revealed all types of dominance heterosis can be utilized for improve number of tillers per plant in both crosses, plant height, spike length in first cross, number of spike per plant in second cross. The values of broad sense heritability was high for all studied traits in both crosses, the values of narrow sense heritability were high and significant for number of grains per spike, 100 grain weight and grain gield per plant in both crosses, number of spike per plant in first cross, spike length in second cross, medium for plant height and number of tillers per plant in both crosses. The values of expected genetic advance as a percentage of the mean were for number of spikes per plant, 100 grains weight and grain yield per plant in both crosses which indicated that selection in the second filial generation will be effective to improved those traits..

Diode Laser Radiation Effects in Initiation and Growth of Sun Flower Plant (Helianthus annuus L.) Callus

Sara N. Ghanem; Sajida A. Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 24-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159402

The research involved the studying of the effect of the red laser radiation at wave length 650 nm and power 50 mw/cm2 using a semi-connector laser (diode laser) for different periods of times 5,10,15,20 min. in the initiation and growth of callus sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Exposing of sunflower root, stem and leaf explants to laser radiation leads to clear increase in rate of growth indicators of calli (fresh weight of calli, dihydrofolate reductase activity and the amount of protein, DNA, RNA. folate) especially after 6o days of exposure. It was found that 20 min. duration was ideal to produce maximal activity of dihydrofolate enzyme giving value of 53.411µgm/min./mg protein and an increase in the amount of protein. DNA, RNA and folate to achieve 4.3 mg/gm, 23.311, 221,888, 1.2µgm fresh weight respectively after 60 days of leaf calli growth. These changes in growth indicators reflect on differentiation of stem calli to a group of white roots with dense root hairs after 35 days of stem explants exposure to 10 min. While leaf calli stimulated to form a number of vegetative branches after 50 days of exposure to 20 min. All shoots were rooted easily in hormone free medium. Plants continued to grow to form sunflower disks after 50 days of rooting process and growth.


Bioaccumulation of Lead and Zinc Elements in Plant Shoot of Phragmatis australis Grown in Wady Al-Kharrzi at Mosul City, Iraq

Abdul-Aziz Y. Al-Saffawi; Waffaa E. Al Sinjari

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 35-44
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159407

The quality of Wady Al-Kharrzi wastewater which is considered as one of sources of Tigris river pollution in Mosul city have been investigated, Concentrations of Lead and Zinc tests of wastewater and plant samples which were taken from different sites of the Wady have been conducted to know the degree of contamination and the role of Phragmatis australis in phytoremediation.
The results indicated high concentration of the elements Pb and Zn either in the Wady wastewater (384, 119) ug. L-1 or leaves and stems tissues of Phragmatis australis, which reached to (4.992, 0.719 ) and (7.304, 3.594) ug. Gm-1 dry weight respectively. Also, significant self-purification were noted along the Wady wastewater flow, through the role of phytoremediation of the aquatic plants, with Biological accumulation coefficient of Pb and Zn in stem tissues get to (31.34- 36.33) respectively.

Estimates of Heritability and Average Degree of Dominance by Complete Diallel Crosses Analysis in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Manal A. AL-Hayali; Najeeb K. Yousif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 45-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159403

Seven varieties of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) JAWAHIR-20, REYNA-27, ACHTAR, REBWAH-12, REBWAH-12, Ibaa 99and Abo-Gharaib and their full dialed crosses were used in this study. Grains of parental varieties and their hybrids were planted at the college of Agricultural and Forestry University of Mosul using randomized complete block design with four replications, during the growing season (2013-2014), depending on rain fed conditions. Genetical analysis was performed to determine the genetic systems for each of plant height, Number of spikes per plant, biological yield, grain yield, weight of (100) grains and number of grains per spike, and also to estimate, genetical variance components average degree of dominance, heritability. Estimation of genetical parameters ratios indicated that there were different degrees of dominance on the studied traits, and irregular distributions of dominat and receive allels among parents for all traits except for (100) grains weight. There were three groups of dominant genes controlled for (100) grains weight and one for other traits. the broad sense heritability estimate were low for 100 grains weight and height for other traits, however narrow sense heritability estimates were: low for number of spikes, grain yield, and medium for others traits.


A Study of Heavy and Essential Metals in the Amniotic Fluid for Pregnants Associated with High Blood Pressure

Eman S. Mahmood; Luay A. Al-Helaly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 53-68
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159408

The research includes studying of some heavy metals and metal elements in amniotic fluid for pregnant associated with high blood pressure, which includes these metals: Lead (Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Chromium(Cr), Aluminum(Al), and essential metals for Magnesium(Mg), Calcium(Ca), Zinc(Zn), Iron(Fe), Copper(Cu) and Manganese(Mn). The study was done in Mosul city on (75) samples that had hypertension, and (78) with healthy pregnancies as control group, the age of pregnant women with hypertension and control group ranged from (16-45) year, then specimens divided into three age groups: The first group (16-25) year, the second group (26-35) year and the third group (36-45) year.
The results showed that there was a significant increase in heavy metals in pregnant women associated with high blood pressure in the levels of Pb, Cd, Cr and Al compared with the group of normal pregnant women, as well as a significant increase in the levels of essential metals of Cu and Fe and a significant decrease in levels: Mg, Ca, Zn and Mn.
Moreover, it was noted that there is a significant increase in the levels of heavy metals for Pb, Cd and Cr in pregnant women smokers with the pressure associated with pregnant women compared to non-smokers group and a significant decrease in essential metals for both Zn and Mn levels.


The Effect of the Light Diffusers on Spatial Uniformity of the Solar Simulator

Abdullah I. Mustaffa; Taha M. Al-Maula

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 69-80
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159404

In this study, the effect of using photovoltaic light diffusers on the performance of the solar simulator has been demonstrated, which consists of a 20-watt halogen lamp combined with white, green, and blue light emitting diodes of high-power capacities, which has been arranged in this research work so that the halogen lamp is centrally positioned on the unit of the solar simulator and the light emitting diodes distributed regularly around it, where the solar simulator consists of eight solar simulator units. The optical system of the solar simulator include: light diffusers, lenses and filters for the purpose of obtaining better spatial uniformity. The outer structure is built so that the source height is made to be adjustable to control the power light intensity. The spatial uniformity is the main parameters in the development of a solar simulator to obtain the best match for solar radiation in the laboratory environment and to meet the international standard (IEC 60904-9), where the class (A) has been achieved according to this standard. This study presents a practical investigation of the effect of photovoltaic light diffusers on the spatial distribution of the intensity of the radiation produced by the halogen lamp solar simulator with a set of high-energy light-emitting diodes consisting of nine solar simulators..

A Study of Solar Activity Effect on the Total Electronic Content of Ionosphere above Iraq for the Solar Cycle 24

Wafaa H. Ali; Laith Y. Yaseen

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 81-93
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159409

In this study, the effect of the CMEs and the sunspots on the parameter TEC of the ionospheric layer for the earth atmosphere has been achieved for solar cycle 24 ( Rising phase, peak and part of the down phase). 110 solar events of halo type with CAP 360º were analyzed for the years (2009-2016), data were extracted from LASCO system and ERNE system on board SOHO, while the SSN related to some cycle 24 were extracted from (Silso). The values of TEC parameters of ionosphere above Iraq were calculated through the mathematical method of dependent equations. All of these parameters were statistically analyzed using the statistical program (SPSS statistics 23.0 IBM), and according to the statistical results for this study, it has been found that there is a weak relation between the energy and the velocity of CMEs with TEC, while there was a strong relation between the SSN and the TEC of the ionosphere layer. (TEC).

A Study of the Effects of the Aging Factor on the Efficiency of the Fatigue Performance for Polymer Matrix Composites

Ahmed N. Mahmmod; Asmaa E. Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 94-105
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159405

In this research a study of the effect of aging factor on behavior of binding fatigue of resin (Dia Ethylene Bisphenol Epoxy-A) which is reinforced by adding volume ratio (33.3%) of (SiO2) powder and (44.4%) of (Al) powder, those samples were kept under open conservation condition for different time periods (2,4,6) years. Fatigue test was conducted for unreinforcement and reinforcement samples. The results have shown that there are an improvement in fatigue life in reinforcement matrix and this improvement depend on the nature of reinforcement material. and the results have shown that the efficiency of fatigue life for unreinforcement and reinforcement matrix is decreased with increasing age of aging and the matrix which is reinforced by (SiO2) powder be less sensitive from matrix which is reinforced by (Al) powder and both are less sensitive from unreinforcement matrix . Finally, the results show that the damage to the material is the type of quantitative damage and that is likely to be the matrix is responsible of such damage