Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 28, Issue 1

Volume 28, Issue 1, Spring 2019, Page 1-105


Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Estimation of Phenotypic Variance Components, Heritability, Average Degree of Dominance and Genetic Advance for Early Generation in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 11-23

Six early generation (B2,B1,F2,F1,P2,P1) of two crosses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) the first (Intesar × Rabbeaa) and the second (Abo-Greab-3 × Adnanyi) were used to estimate the components of phenotypic variance, heritability, average degree of dominance and expected genetic advance for plant height, number of tillers per plant, grain yield and its components for each cross. The result revealed that additive genetic variance was significant for number of grains per spike, 100 grain weight and grain yield in both crosses while the dominance genetic variance was significant for spike length in the first cross. The studied traits revealed all types of dominance heterosis can be utilized for improve number of tillers per plant in both crosses, plant height, spike length in first cross, number of spike per plant in second cross. The values of broad sense heritability was high for all studied traits in both crosses, the values of narrow sense heritability were high and significant for number of grains per spike, 100 grain weight and grain gield per plant in both crosses, number of spike per plant in first cross, spike length in second cross, medium for plant height and number of tillers per plant in both crosses. The values of expected genetic advance as a percentage of the mean were for number of spikes per plant, 100 grains weight and grain yield per plant in both crosses which indicated that selection in the second filial generation will be effective to improved those traits..

Diode Laser Radiation Effects in Initiation and Growth of Sun Flower Plant (Helianthus annuus L.) Callus

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 24-34

The research involved the studying of the effect of the red laser radiation at wave length 650 nm and power 50 mw/cm2 using a semi-connector laser (diode laser) for different periods of times 5,10,15,20 min. in the initiation and growth of callus sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Exposing of sunflower root, stem and leaf explants to laser radiation leads to clear increase in rate of growth indicators of calli (fresh weight of calli, dihydrofolate reductase activity and the amount of protein, DNA, RNA. folate) especially after 6o days of exposure. It was found that 20 min. duration was ideal to produce maximal activity of dihydrofolate enzyme giving value of 53.411µgm/min./mg protein and an increase in the amount of protein. DNA, RNA and folate to achieve 4.3 mg/gm, 23.311, 221,888, 1.2µgm fresh weight respectively after 60 days of leaf calli growth. These changes in growth indicators reflect on differentiation of stem calli to a group of white roots with dense root hairs after 35 days of stem explants exposure to 10 min. While leaf calli stimulated to form a number of vegetative branches after 50 days of exposure to 20 min. All shoots were rooted easily in hormone free medium. Plants continued to grow to form sunflower disks after 50 days of rooting process and growth.

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Bioaccumulation of Lead and Zinc Elements in Plant Shoot of Phragmatis australis Grown in Wady Al-Kharrzi at Mosul City, Iraq

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 35-44

The quality of Wady Al-Kharrzi wastewater which is considered as one of sources of Tigris river pollution in Mosul city have been investigated, Concentrations of Lead and Zinc tests of wastewater and plant samples which were taken from different sites of the Wady have been conducted to know the degree of contamination and the role of Phragmatis australis in phytoremediation.
The results indicated high concentration of the elements Pb and Zn either in the Wady wastewater (384, 119) ug. L-1 or leaves and stems tissues of Phragmatis australis, which reached to (4.992, 0.719 ) and (7.304, 3.594) ug. Gm-1 dry weight respectively. Also, significant self-purification were noted along the Wady wastewater flow, through the role of phytoremediation of the aquatic plants, with Biological accumulation coefficient of Pb and Zn in stem tissues get to (31.34- 36.33) respectively.
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Estimates of Heritability and Average Degree of Dominance by Complete Diallel Crosses Analysis in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 45-52

Seven varieties of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) JAWAHIR-20, REYNA-27, ACHTAR, REBWAH-12, REBWAH-12, Ibaa 99and Abo-Gharaib and their full dialed crosses were used in this study. Grains of parental varieties and their hybrids were planted at the college of Agricultural and Forestry University of Mosul using randomized complete block design with four replications, during the growing season (2013-2014), depending on rain fed conditions. Genetical analysis was performed to determine the genetic systems for each of plant height, Number of spikes per plant, biological yield, grain yield, weight of (100) grains and number of grains per spike, and also to estimate, genetical variance components average degree of dominance, heritability. Estimation of genetical parameters ratios indicated that there were different degrees of dominance on the studied traits, and irregular distributions of dominat and receive allels among parents for all traits except for (100) grains weight. There were three groups of dominant genes controlled for (100) grains weight and one for other traits. the broad sense heritability estimate were low for 100 grains weight and height for other traits, however narrow sense heritability estimates were: low for number of spikes, grain yield, and medium for others traits.

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A Study of Heavy and Essential Metals in the Amniotic Fluid for Pregnants Associated with High Blood Pressure

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 53-68

The research includes studying of some heavy metals and metal elements in amniotic fluid for pregnant associated with high blood pressure, which includes these metals: Lead (Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Chromium(Cr), Aluminum(Al), and essential metals for Magnesium(Mg), Calcium(Ca), Zinc(Zn), Iron(Fe), Copper(Cu) and Manganese(Mn). The study was done in Mosul city on (75) samples that had hypertension, and (78) with healthy pregnancies as control group, the age of pregnant women with hypertension and control group ranged from (16-45) year, then specimens divided into three age groups: The first group (16-25) year, the second group (26-35) year and the third group (36-45) year.
The results showed that there was a significant increase in heavy metals in pregnant women associated with high blood pressure in the levels of Pb, Cd, Cr and Al compared with the group of normal pregnant women, as well as a significant increase in the levels of essential metals of Cu and Fe and a significant decrease in levels: Mg, Ca, Zn and Mn.
Moreover, it was noted that there is a significant increase in the levels of heavy metals for Pb, Cd and Cr in pregnant women smokers with the pressure associated with pregnant women compared to non-smokers group and a significant decrease in essential metals for both Zn and Mn levels.

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The Effect of the Light Diffusers on Spatial Uniformity of the Solar Simulator

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 69-80

In this study, the effect of using photovoltaic light diffusers on the performance of the solar simulator has been demonstrated, which consists of a 20-watt halogen lamp combined with white, green, and blue light emitting diodes of high-power capacities, which has been arranged in this research work so that the halogen lamp is centrally positioned on the unit of the solar simulator and the light emitting diodes distributed regularly around it, where the solar simulator consists of eight solar simulator units. The optical system of the solar simulator include: light diffusers, lenses and filters for the purpose of obtaining better spatial uniformity. The outer structure is built so that the source height is made to be adjustable to control the power light intensity. The spatial uniformity is the main parameters in the development of a solar simulator to obtain the best match for solar radiation in the laboratory environment and to meet the international standard (IEC 60904-9), where the class (A) has been achieved according to this standard. This study presents a practical investigation of the effect of photovoltaic light diffusers on the spatial distribution of the intensity of the radiation produced by the halogen lamp solar simulator with a set of high-energy light-emitting diodes consisting of nine solar simulators..

A Study of Solar Activity Effect on the Total Electronic Content of Ionosphere above Iraq for the Solar Cycle 24

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 81-93

In this study, the effect of the CMEs and the sunspots on the parameter TEC of the ionospheric layer for the earth atmosphere has been achieved for solar cycle 24 ( Rising phase, peak and part of the down phase). 110 solar events of halo type with CAP 360º were analyzed for the years (2009-2016), data were extracted from LASCO system and ERNE system on board SOHO, while the SSN related to some cycle 24 were extracted from (Silso). The values of TEC parameters of ionosphere above Iraq were calculated through the mathematical method of dependent equations. All of these parameters were statistically analyzed using the statistical program (SPSS statistics 23.0 IBM), and according to the statistical results for this study, it has been found that there is a weak relation between the energy and the velocity of CMEs with TEC, while there was a strong relation between the SSN and the TEC of the ionosphere layer. (TEC).

A Study of the Effects of the Aging Factor on the Efficiency of the Fatigue Performance for Polymer Matrix Composites

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 94-105

In this research a study of the effect of aging factor on behavior of binding fatigue of resin (Dia Ethylene Bisphenol Epoxy-A) which is reinforced by adding volume ratio (33.3%) of (SiO2) powder and (44.4%) of (Al) powder, those samples were kept under open conservation condition for different time periods (2,4,6) years. Fatigue test was conducted for unreinforcement and reinforcement samples. The results have shown that there are an improvement in fatigue life in reinforcement matrix and this improvement depend on the nature of reinforcement material. and the results have shown that the efficiency of fatigue life for unreinforcement and reinforcement matrix is decreased with increasing age of aging and the matrix which is reinforced by (SiO2) powder be less sensitive from matrix which is reinforced by (Al) powder and both are less sensitive from unreinforcement matrix . Finally, the results show that the damage to the material is the type of quantitative damage and that is likely to be the matrix is responsible of such damage