Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 28, Issue 2

Volume 28, Issue 2, Summer 2019, Page 1-111

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Studying the Synergistic Effect of both Propolis Extract and Green Apple Peel Extract with Fluconazole against Candida albicans

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 7-12

Candida albicans were isolated from 36 isolates of the mouth people aged (2.5 – 63) years. A crude sample of bees propolis was collected from several apiaries in Mosul city and green apples were collected from the markets, evaluating antifungal of fluconazole, methanol extract of propolis (MPE) and methanol extract of green apples peels (MEGAP) were different concentration (125,250,375,500,750,1000,1500)ug/ml, each one alone and as combination of (fluconazole 50%+ MPE 50%) and of (fluconazole 50%+ MEGAP50%). Each one alone, the fluconazole only had inhibitory effect against C.albicans. As combination, the synergistic effect was observed of both combination (fluconazole 50% + EMP 50%) and (fluconazole 50%+MEGAP 50%) against C.albicans. In comparing between two combination observed that it was outdoing in a synergistic effect of (EMP) compared with (EMGAP) specially at concentrations (750 , 1000, 1500) ug/ml.

Effect of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination on Soil Microorganisms and Biodegradation

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 13-22

The experiment under lab condition was conducted to investigate the effect of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on soil microorganisms and biodegradation. The experiment was conducted in 12 treatment and three replication. The treatments include soil contaminated with Kerosene, Diesel, lubricate oil and used lubricate oil in three concentration 0%, 5%, and 10%. contamination with hydrocarbons significantly decreased the count of heterotrophic bacteria and there was reversal relationship between the contaminant concentration and the count of heterotrophic bacteria. The results indicated soil contamination with hydrocarbons significantly increased the count of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB). The effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on fungi count differed according to the type of hydrocarbons, concentration of contaminant and the periods of incubation. Our results show that soil contamination by hydrocarbons caused significant increase in actinomycetes count at all hydrocarbon types and concentrations except 5% used and non-used lubrication oil. The higher percentage of biodegradation in hydrocarbons contaminated soil 49.6% was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% kerosene while the lower percentag10.8% was recorded with soil contaminated 10% lubricate oil. .

Serological Study of Human Cytomegalovirus in Thalassemia Patients and Blood Donors and its Relation to IL-6 in Kirkuk City

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 23-28

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of human cytomegalovirus in thalassemic patients and blood donors in relation to IL-6 in Kirkuk City through screening of anti-human cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG antibodies in the serum of thalassemic patients and blood donors by using ELISA technique to detect the IgG and IgM in blood samples. Blood samples were collected from 200 thalassemic patients and 180 samples from blood donor. The study revealed that the positive rates for HCMV-IgG , HCMV-IgM and both HCMV IgM/IgG were positive among 152(76.0%),14,(7.0%) and 3(1.5%) respectively. The rates of HCMV antibodies among 180 blood donors HCMV-IgG was detected in 68 (37.77%), the seropositive for HCMV-IgM was 7(3.88%), while for both HCMV-IgG and HCMV-IgM was 4(2.22%). The HCMV elaborate cellular and immune manipulation strategies to maintain the virus-host equilibrium and the human immune response by humeral and cellular immunity including some cytokines as IL-6, so the rates of increased serum IL-6 was high among most HCMV seropositive subjects enrolled in this study although the highest rate were within thalassemic patients.

Effect of Triton X-100 on the Spectrophotometric Determination of Aluminium in the Presence of Iron(III) - Application to Various Water Samples

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 29-40

An accurate simple, rapid and direct spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminium in presence of iron (III) was developed. The method is based on the reaction of aluminium (III) with xylenol orange at pH 4.3 using potassium hydrogen phthalate buffer solution to form a stable orange-red coloured complex which has maximum absorption at 512 nm. This study is showing the effect of triton X-100 on the spectrophotometric determination of aluminium which effected the stability, limits of Beer's law, blanck value and final absorption spectrum. Beer's law was obeyed over the range of (1-200) μg/25 ml (i.e 0.04-8.0 ppm). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the coloured complex are 1.173×104, 0.00230 μ respectively. The interference caused by iron (III) was suppressed by adding sodium cyanide as masking agent. The method has been applied successfully for determining aluminium (III) in various water samples.
The same work was done for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in the absences of triton X-100. While the analytical parameters recorded are 1.045×104, 0.00258 μ, the molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the coloured complex respectively, and limits of Beer's law are (5-100) μg/25ml (i.e. 0.2-4.0 ppm).

Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of New Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Tridentate Hydrazones

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 41-50

Hydrazones derived from acid hydrazides and 2-benzoylpyridine namely; 2-benzoylpyridineacetyl hydrazine (BPAH),2-benzoylpyridine-4-methylbenzoyl hydrazone (BPMH) and 2-benzoylpyridine picolinoylhydrazone (BPPH) have been synthesized and used to prepar the corresponding Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes. The ligands undergo deprotonation forming neutral mononuclear octahedral bis-complexes of the type [M(L-H)2] where L-H = deprotonated BPAH, BPMH or BPPH, acting as uni-negative tridentate ligands. The complexes isolated were characterized by elemental analyses, (IR, electronic spectra), molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The bonding and probable structure of ,the complexes are discussed depending on the basis of the spectral and magnetic data. The ligands, as well as some of their complexes, screened against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, The tested compound exhibited moderate activity with respect to ceftriaxone antibiotic and higher activity than the free ligands..

A Creative Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Naproxen

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 51-60

A New, sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of Naproxen (Nap) has been proposed. The method is based on a modification of Naproxen into a hydroxy analog (mNap). The modified compound is coupled with the diazotized p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in alkaline medium, the resulting orange azo dye exhibit a maximum absorption at 500 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range from 10 to 650 µg/20 ml, (i.e. 0.5-32.5 µg/ ml) with a good sensitivity (molar absorptivity 2.14x104, good precision (RSD% better than ±1.93%) and high accuracy (relative error % better than 0.43%), Sandell's sensitivity index is 0.0107µ and the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.024 µg/ml and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.082 µg/ml. The method has been applied successfully for determination of Naproxen in dosage forms after extraction of the active ingredient. .

The Structure Properties of Even-Even 216-226Ra Isotopes

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 61-72

The properties of even-even 216-226Ra isotopes were studied and its energy states calculated. To identify the properties of each isotope, the values of the first excited state and the ratio of the second to the first excited state were adopted. The phenomenon of back (or up)-bending, the E-GOS curve, the relationship between successive excited states to those preceding them and the odd-even staggering were studied. The appropriate limit in the interacting boson model IBM-1, the IVBM model and the Bohr and Mottelson (BM) model were used to calculate the energy states for each isotope and compared the results with the experimental values. Due to the inaccuracy of some calculations in the models IVBM and BM, an adjustment term was added for each model and recalculated the energy states and the results were improved .

The Effect of Glass and Carbon Fibers and Powders Addition on the Sliding Wear Behavior of Unsaturated Polyester Resin

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 73-84

The current investigation is interested in studying the wear phenomenon for unsaturated polyester resin reinforced by a different weight fraction of glass and carbon fibers and powders. The prepared specimens were tested according to standard (ASTM-D5963) using a dvice pin-on-disk, at room temperature. The influence of wear parameter like, applied load, sliding speed on the wear rates were investigated. It was observed that the carbon and two types of glass fibers composite shows lower wear rates than the carbon and glass powders composites, under varying the loads and sliding speeds. In the case of sliding speed increased the results show that the increased of the weight fractions of carbon and glass powders will decrease the wear rates of composites prepared from this powders, while in the case of loading increase the wear rates increased when the weight fraction increased up to (4.16 Wt.%) for both carbon and glass powders. .

Improvement of the Optical Performance of the Geometrical Parameters of Snorkel Magnetic Lens

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 85-97

Two models of asymmetrical magnetic objective lens geometries have been designed and studied. These two models are called Pinhole and Snorkel lenses. The comparison between these models was realized by the aid of simulation EOD program (Electron Optical Design), using the finite element method to analyze the magnetic flux density and optical properties at constant excitation (NI=2000A-t). The optimal model (Snorkel Lens) gives the best characteristics that were compatible with the research purposes in details, such as the changing of air gap and the axial polepiece bore diameter on the optical performance of the snorkel magnetic lens. This type of lens was used in low energies scanning electron microscope (SEM), which achieved the lowest values of the aberrations coefficient at long working distance.

Correlations between Wind Power Density and Different Meteorological Parameters in Nineveh Governorate

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 98-111

The aim of this paper is to estimate the mean monthly values of wind power density in four meteorological stations in Nineveh Governorate (Mosul, Rabea, Talafar, Sinjar) for the period (1980 – 2010) using different meteorological parameters. Five different models (Linear, Quadratic, Logarithmic, Linear Logarithmic, power) were used to estimate the wind power density. The performance of this regression models were evaluated. Several statistical test were used to control the validation and goodness of the regression models in terms of (R, R2, MAE, RMSE). Linear model gave the best fit for the relation between WPD and (P, n, H, C) in all stations. Quadratic model and Linear model gave the best fit between WPD and (Rad. RH, T) in all stations. Logarithmic model give the best fit between WPD and Rad in Mosul station .