Volume 27, Issue 2, Spring 2018, Page 1-180

Isolation and Identification of Desulfovibrio spp. from Hammam Al-Alel and Study some of the Environmental Properties of the Water in This Region

Taha A. Al-Tayyar; May A. Al-Allaf; Ghada A. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145385

The study involved natural sulfur springs and their tributaries on the right bank of Tigris river south Mosul city at Hammam Al- Alel region. Seasonal samples were taken through a year from four locations represent: hot, cold water springs, tributaries formed, in addition to Tigris river water.
Desulfovibrio spp. were isolated from Hammam Al-Alel region, which were responsible of clear variability in water color and the sulfur deposits resulted from sulfate oxidation-reduction reactions. Bacteriological, physical, and chemical properties of this acidic sulfur springs were studied.
The study has improved that concentrations average of sulfate ions were high (255 mg/l) led to oxygen decrease and drop in pH to (5.8) compared with Tigris river pH (8.1), the study also has showed that Mg+2, Ca+2, Na+1 and K+1 ions concentrations were increased especially during summer, this caused that the environment surrounded this region became toxic, then it is non-hygienic for utilization by man, animals and cultivation

Comparison of Various Types of Cutting Boards in Bacterial Contamination

Ghada A. Mohammad; Sura M. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 12-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145386

The goal of this research was to compare contamination rates or recovery of bacterial contaminations on four types of cutting boards (CBs). Total plate count was performed after applying food for 15 minutes.
The contamination of plastic boards was greater than wooden CBs for meat and chicken. On the contrary ,application of vegetables showed contamination rate on wooden more than plastic boards. Results also indicated high contamination rate on glass CBs of chicken. Finally stainless steel showed the same degree of contamination with respect to the three types of food applied.
Experimental contamination with E.coli and Salmonella spp. interestingly revealed that contaminated wooden boards with E.coli gave a recovery of less than half the CFU in the control after 5 minutes, and growth was ceased after 15 minutes. Contamination of wooden CBs with Salmonella spp. showed a decrease of CFU after 5 minutes. On the other hand, plastic boards had a high recovery rate after 5 minutes. Results of this study strongly recommends using wooden CBs for a more safe and hygienic nutrition

Effect of Date Seeds Powder on some Biochemical Parameters and Female Sex Hormones of Quail Female

Amina J. Al-hayani; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 19-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145387

The current study was designed to know the effect of dates seeds powder in different concentrations on the levels of glucose, female sex hormones and the total capacity of antioxidants of the female quail eight weeks post treatment. Thirty of local females Quail Coturnix coturnix aged (55-65) days and weight (300-350) g, were randomly divided into five groups six within each, the first group: control group animals were given empty capsules, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups: animals were given capsules contained powder of dates seeds at concentration of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg / kg body weight, respectively for eight weeks.
The results show significant decrease in the concentration of glucose at 5th group compared with the control group, at (P≤ 0.05). While there was significant increase in the level of female sex hormone (FSH), (LH) and estrogen hormone along the periods of treatment in all groups as compared with the control group at (P ≤ 0.05). This was accompanied by an increase of antioxidants total capacity at all treatment groups compared with the control group especially at 5th group

Evaluation of Inhibitory Activity of some Natural Materials on Biofilms Formed on Fresh Fish Cutting Boards

Shafak T. Burhan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 26-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145388

This research tried to evaluate the inhibitory activity of some natural, nontoxic, and inexpensive materials such as Iodized Salt (IS), Concentrated Natural Lemon Juice (CNLJ) and combination of both on one month old biofilm formed on 2cm2 of cutting board. The treatment period ranged from 24 to 72 hours and the results shows that the combination of (IS+CNLJ) for 24 hours have a cidal effect on all microorganisms that formed biofilm on cutting board. Streptococcus pneumonae, E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Pseudmonas spp., Listeria spp. and Candida spp. were isolated from cutting board, Knives, hands and inner surface of plastic container with different percentage ranging from 1.4%to 15.4%

pEffect of Synthesized Oxiranes and Pyrrolidines on KMP II and LPG 3 genes in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

Haitham L. Al-Hayali; Abdulwahhab J. Al-Hamadany; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 35-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145389

The research includes synthesis of some heterocycles: oxiranes (O1-O3) through the reaction of chalcones with hydrogen peroxide, and pyrrolidines (P1-P3) by the condensation of chalcones with Schiff bases. The structures of these synthesized heterocycles had been supported by spectral data (1HNMR, IR, UV) and observed their effect on KMP II and LPG 3 genes. The results showed that some compounds gave genetic heterogeneity in these genes suggesting that it could be a good target for treatment of L. infantum.

The Effect of some Variables on the Quantity of Exopolysaccharide Produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae

Sumaya A. Al- Hamdoni

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 47-57
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145390

The current study attempted to compare the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) by a clinical isolate Klebsiella pneumoniae under different selected conditions using the colorimetric method, phenol-sulfuric acid. The results revealed that the chemically defined medium was the most efficient for the production of free bacterial exopolysaccharide. The type and concentration of carbon source were of critical role in determining the amount of the yield EPS. The elevated fructose concentration furnished the highest level while lactose promoted the lowest yield. The pH ranges between 6- 8 of the medium promote the maximum production; lower and higher than this range the production will decrease. In the batch culture vessel used in the current study, a bacterium inoculum of 3-5% (v/v) produced a valuable amount of EPS after three days of incubation

Effect of Physical Properties on Conductivity Measurements of Acetyl acetonylbinylidine 4-aminosalycilic Acid in Different Percentages of Ethanol/ Water Mixture

Yaser O. Alallaf; Sahbaa A. Ahmed; Rana H. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 58-68
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145391

The effect of physical properties on solute solvent interaction were studied by conductivity measurements of acetylacetonylbinylidine 4-aminosalycilic acid in different percentages of ethanol- water (5,10, 15, 20, 25% of ethanol) at 298.15K using Lee-Wheaton equation of conductivity. The results show that the association constant (KA) increase with increasing ethanol percentages and viscosity and decreasing dielectric constant of the solvent and the distance of ion in solution (R). On the other hand, the equivalent conductance at infinite dilution (Λo) increases with increasing ethanol percentages due to the decreasing of the distance between ions in solution (R), which means that ion pairs convert from solvent separated ion (SSIP) to contact ion pairs (CIP) at best fit value of σΛ.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Mesalazine via Chromate-1,5-Diphenyl carbazide Complex

Enam A. Hamdoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 69-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145392

A simple and rapid indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of mesalazine is developed. The method is based on the rapid reduction of known large amount of chromate CrO4-2 in the presence of mesalazine in acidic medium of 2N H2SO4. The excess amount of chromate is measured after it's reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide which finally gives a pink-violet, water soluble and stable complex, which exhibit a maximum absorption at 546 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range from (5-900) µg of mesalazine in a final volume of 25 ml (0.2-36 ppm) with a molar absorbtivity of 1×105 l.mol-1.cm-1, Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0015 μg .cm-2 and relative standard deviation ± 0.0848 to ± 0.3155 depending on the concentration level. The proposed method is applied successfully to the assay of mesalazine in its pharmaceutical prepearation (capsules).

High Perfarmance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Preparations, Fruit Juices and Human Serum

Hana Sh. Mahmood; Rabah R. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 79-92
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145393

A high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ascorbic acid is described. The analysis is achieved using cosmosil 5C18-MS-II column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) at room temperature. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile (ACN), dichloromethane (DCM), and 0.25% K2HPO4 solution in the ratio (90:5:5)(V:V:V). The flow rate is set to 1.0ml.min-1 with UV-detection at 246 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 0.05-30 µg.ml-1. The method is accurate (relative error % is less than 0.12%), precise (RSD better than ±1.25%), successfully applied to the determination of ascorbic acidin its pharmaceutical preparations, fruit juices, and human serum

Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt(II) with Mordant Blue 9 -Application to Vitamin B12 (Injections and Powder)

Saddalah T. Sulaiman; Tamathir A. Hamoudi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 93-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145394

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cobalt with Mordant Blue 9 in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in order to form an intense violet-colored chelate which exhibits maximum absorption at 586 nm at pH 3. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range of 0.004 -1 ppm with a molar absorptivity 3.97×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, Sandell’s sensitivity index of 1.484 ng.cm-2, while LOD (limit of dedication), LOQ (limit of quantitation) are found to be 4.006 ng/ml (n=10) and 13.353 ng/ml (n=10), respectively. The method has been applied for determination of Co(II) in pharmaceutical preparations.

Preparation, Characterization and Study of Ethyl Pyruvate Aroyl Hydrazone Metal Complexes

Abdul Ghany M. Al-Daher; Ammar H. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 103-110
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145395

Hydrazones derived from aroyl hydrazides and ethyl pyruvate namely; ethyl pyruvate benzoyl hydrazone (EPBH), ethyl pyruvate salicyloyl hydrazone (EPSH), ethyl pyruvate-2-furoyl hydrazone (EPFH) and ethyl pyruvate-2-thiophenoyl hydrazone (EPTH) have been synthesized and used in preparing the corresponding Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes. The ligands undergo deprotonation forming neutral mononuclear octahedral bis-complexes of the type [M(L-H)2] where L-H = deprotonated EPBH, EPSH, EPFH or EPTH, acting as uni-negative tridentate ligands. The complexes isolated were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, electronic, 1H-NMR spectra, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The bonding and probable structure of the complexes are discussed on the basis of the spectral and magnetic data. The ligands, as well as some of their complexes, screened against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Bromhexine-HCl in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Salim A. Mohammed; Rana F. Almukhtar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 116-126
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145396

A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of bromhexine-HCl in aqueous solution has been described. The proposed method is based on the reduction of cerium (Іν) in acidic medium into cerium (Ш) by the drug followed by the complex formation of cerium (Ш) with arsenazo Ш to form a greenish-blue water soluble, stable complex that has a maximum absorbance at 651nm against the reagent blank. Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 10 to 200μg of bromhexine-HCl /20 ml (i.e. 0.5-10 ppm) with molar absorptivity of 1.48×104 l.mol-1. cm-1 and a good determination coefficient (R2=0.9978). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.408 and 1.394μg ml−1, respectively. The relative error and a relative standard deviations are found in the range -0.354 to1.93 % and ± 0.135 to ± 1.033%, respectively, depending on the conc-entration level. The method is suitable for the determination of bromhexine-HCl in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms. This procedure is applied successfully for the analysis of bromhexine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection) without prior separation and with acceptable errors

Spectrophotometric Assay of Yttrium(III) with Alizarin Red S in the Presence of etyltrimethylammonium Bromide -Application to Water Samples

Salim A. Mohammad; Sammei Y. Zebary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 127-137
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145397

A simple, accurate and sensitive procedure for spectrophotometric determination of yttrium (III) in aqueous solution has been developed. The method is based on the reaction of yttrium (III) with alizarin red S (ARS) reagent in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and triton-X-100 surfactants at pH 4.7 to form a red carmine complex which has maximum absorption at 520 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 2.5-75 µg yttrium (III) /20 ml, (i.e. ,0.125-3.73 ppm) with a determination coefficient of (0.9954) and molar absorptivity of 1.16×104 l.mol-1.cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.1009 and 0.323 g.mL-1, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the stoichiometry of the reaction between yttrium (III), alizarin red S and CTAB is found to be 1:2:2, respectively. The recoveries are obtained in the range of 98.07 - 100.63% and the relative standard deviation is better than ±2.33%. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of yttrium(III) in natural waters

Employment of Nuclear Track Detector CR-39 as a Radiation Dosimetry of Incident Alpha Particles at Different Angles

Abdulmomen H. Moshawah; Hana I. Al- Baroudi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 138-145
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145398

The work includes the use of nuclear track detector CR-39, to study the absorbed dose of incident alpha particles at different angles (30˚, 60˚, 90˚), and different irradiation time (1, 2, 3, 4) min, after etching with 6.25N of NaOH solution at 70˚ C, and etching time of 8h. It was noted that when the irradiation time increased, the tracks number per unit area increased as well, and the absorbed dose rate also increased. When the angle of irradiation increases the absorbed dose rate increased and reached the maximum value at an angle 90˚ and it was 9.4865x10-5 Gy/s, while it reached the lowest value at an incidence angle 30˚, 4.7432x10-5 Gy / s

The Effect of Ag Doping on the Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of CdSe Thin Films

Nawfal Y. Jamil; Ammar Y. Burjus; Heba M.T. Khalil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 146-152
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145399

This work includes a study of the effect of Ag doping in CdSe on optical, structural and Electrical properties, through changing the ratio of the added Ag with (0, 1, 5, 10) % to the final prepared CdSe solution. Measurements of the transmittance, absorption of the prepared samples of CdSe for wave lengths in the band (400nm-750nm) is carried out. It is found that the band gap decreased (Eg=(1.97,1.92,168,152)eV) respectively as Ag concentration increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements shows that the deposited pure CdSe thin film is polycrystalline with hexagonal structure, whereas doped films with Ag shows cubic structure in the[111] direction. Electrical conductivity measurement of the films showed an increase with increasing the Ag concentration, also an increase in crystal alignment found.

Optimization of the Electrodes Geometrical Shape for the Electrostatic Deflector in the SEM

Rafa Y. Al-Salih; Muna A. Al-Khashab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 153-163
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145401

The quadruple electrostatic deflectors has been designed and studied in this paper. Three different geometrical shapes of electrodes were handled; Planar, concave, and convex. Wide comparison between these electrodes was realized using a new version of finite element method magnetics (FEMM) to analyze their properties. The optimized geometrical shape of the deliberated electrodes will be chosen to use it as an electrode in the electrostatic deflector inside the objective lens for low voltage scanning electron microscope (SEM) to directing the charged particles electron beam passes throughout the optical axis of the lens towards the tested specimen

The Effect of Al Doping on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of CdSe Films

Suha A. Najim; Nawfal Y. Jamil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 164-172
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145400

CdSe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique. The deposited CdSe thin films were annealed by thermal evaporation for (1h) at 250 ˚C. The samples were then coated with a different thicknesses of thin Al films (50, 100, 150, 200) Å by thermal evaporation method which then annealed at (1h,250˚C). The structural, optical, and electrical properties of deposited and doped samples were studied. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films have polycrystalline structure of hexagonal type. From optical properties, the band gap energy of undoped CdSe thin film was 2 eV and it is decreased by increasing of Al doping. Electrical resistivity of the doped films showed a decrease with the increase of the Al concentration. The doped and undoped samples revealed that the conductivity was n-type

Effect of γ- Irradiation on the n- Porous Silicon Structures Prepared by Electrochemical Etching

Abdulkahlig A. Sulaiman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 173-180
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145402

Porous Silicon has been prepared by using electrochemical cell at room temperature with etching time (20 min), current (30 mA) and fixed electrolyte solution HF:C2H5OH(1:4). The samples are irradiated by γ-ray with various doses (50,100) Gy. Several techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Ramman Spectrum were used to study the influence of the γ- irradiation of porous silicon (PSi). SEM images show the random distribution of pores that cover all the surface which have different sizes and spherical shapes. XRD analysis, which indicated that n- type porous silicon and the samples irradiated at 50 and 100 Gy of γ- ray grow in hexagonal structure having preferred orientation along (002) plane in c-direction. An extremely symmetric band shape were recognized from Raman spectra of PSi