Volume 27, Issue 1, Winter 2018

Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Raw Milk

May A. Al-Allaf; Amera M. Al-Rawi; Abdul Muhsin S. Al-Qazzaz

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141180

This study was conducted on different raw milk samples (cow, buffalo, sheep, goat) and pasteurized "Nada" milk was used as a control sample after confirming that it is free from any microbial contamination. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria (microbiota) was enumerated in all raw milk samples. Different concentrations of Listeria monocytogenes were inoculated at different dilutions of raw milk to detect the survival of this bacterium with the presence of microbiota in milk .The results showed the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive in raw milk samples with low levels of microbiota while it can not grow in the samples with high levels of microbiota and this survival differs with different origins of raw milk samples under study

Histopathological Study of Chick Intestine: Effect of Probiotic and Lead Acetate

Sinan Th. Abdullah; Enaas Sh. Mustafa; Nashaat Gh. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 8-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141181

This work was conducted to evaluate the histopathological effects of probiotic (Biomin) and the toxic action of lead acetate on the intestine of one day old forty Ross broiler chicks. The probiotic was used in recommended dose (1.5g/Kg diet), lead acetate was used in toxic dose of (320mg/kg diet). Results show that the histopathological changes of animal group that was treated with lead acetate in toxic dose for 28 days represent the presence of necrosis at the apex of villi with desquamation and hyperplasia in the epithelium of villi and intestinal gland, while sections of chick intestine that were treated with lead acetate at toxic dose and probiotic at recommended dose for 28 days show the infiltration of lymphocyte in submucosal layer and focal area of coagulative necrosis in muscular layer. The group taken probiotic alone shows mild vascular degeneration when compared with the control group.

Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of a New Series of N-4-Chlorobenzamide-5- phenylthiazolidin-3-one

Kezhal M. Salih; Hashim J. Azeez

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141182

A new series of 4-thiazolidinones (4a-j) has been synthesized by cyclocondensation of various acid hydrazones with thioglycolic acid. The intermediate hydrazones (3a-j) were synthesized by the condensation of various substituted benzaldehydes with 4-chlorobenzohydrazide (2). The starting compound 4-chlorobenzohydrazide was prepared from the reaction of ethyl 4-chlorobenzoate and hydrazine hydrate. The structures of the new synthesized compounds had been confirmed by spectral data (FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and 13C-NMR –DEPT and ESIMS). Some of the synthesized compounds (4a-j) were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria staphylococcus aureus and Gram – negative psedomonas aeruginosa

Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Number of 2-Pyrazoline Derivatives

Abdul Majeed M. Dabbagh; Khozan A. Haji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 29-35
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141183

The kinetics of the addition of hydrazine to the double bond of some chalcones have been studied using UV-visible technique. The reaction is considered as a pseudo-first order process which includes a nucleophilic attack by hydrazine at the β-carbon of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system to afford the expected heterocycle “pyrazoline”.
The rate constants were found to depend on different variables such as variation of different substituents. Arrhenius parameters and entropy of activation for all reactions have been computed. A suitable mechanism which is consistent with the experimental results is suggested for the reactions

Determination of Paracetamol and Tramadol Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Green UV Method

Hana Sh. Mahmood; Nagham T. Dawood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 36-42
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141184

A simple, precise, and friendly environmental method for the determination of paracetamol and tramadol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations has been worked out. The method is based on the determination of paracetamol at 242 nm and replaces its concentration in a multicomponent system equation for determination of both paracetamol and tramadol at 227 nm. Beer's law for paracetamol was obeyed over the concentration range 8-25 ppm at 242 nm and 4-16 ppm at 227 nm ,for tramadol it is obeyed over the range 2-14 ppm at 227 nm, water is used as a solvent for dissolution. The method is applicable to the determination of paracetamol and tramadol in their pharmaceutical preparations without prior separation steps from excipients as well as for determination of paracetamol in the presence of tramadol. The average recoveries for determination of mentioned drugs were 94.20-100.14%, and the average relative standard deviation of the method was better than ± 0.646%.

QSAR Studies of some New Synthesized Diacylhydrazine Compounds Derived from Indomethacin as Caspase-1 Inhibitors

Kawther H. Al-Naimi; Haitham A. A-Alwahb; Hyffaa Y. Hussien

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 43-51
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141185

Indomethacin (1) reacts with absolute ethanol in presence of conc. sulphuric acid to form the ester (2). This ester was converted into the hydrazide (3) by treatment with hydrazine hydrate. The reaction of the hydrazide (3) with acid chlorides (of indomethacine, dichlofenac, mefenamic acid, aspirin and ibuprofen) in dry xylene afforded the N,N’-diacylhydrazine compounds (4-8). A series of new 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (9-13) derived from indomethacin (1) was obtained by the dehydrative cyclization of the corresponding N,N’-diacylhydrazines(4-8), in presence of an excess of thionyl chloride. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of the synthesized compounds was also performed to compute the parameters that affect the biological activity (inhibitory activity IC50). Docking analysis was also performed to predict the interactions between the synthesized compounds with Caspase-1 (Interleukin-1 converting enzyme). The study is aimed to predict factor affecting the biological activity of the prepared compounds by employing the QSAR analysis. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by the spectroscopic methods

Synthesis and Structural Studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO2(II) Complexes with 2-Acetylpyridine-4'-methylbenzoyl hydrazone

Abdul Ghany M. Al-Daher; Ahmed A. Hadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 52-64
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141186

A number of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO2(II) complexes with 2-acetylpyridine-4'-methylbenzoyl hydrazone (APMBH), obtained by the condensation of 2-acetylpyridine with 4'-methylbenzoyl hydrazine are reported. The reaction of metal chlorides with APMBH lead to isolation of complexes having the general formulas [M(APMBH)(H2O)nCl2] (n=1, M=Co(II), Ni(II); n=0 , M=Zn(II), UO2(II)), [Ni(APMBH-H)Cl(DMSO)]2, [Cu(APMBH-H)Cl]2 and [Th(APMBH)2Cl2]Cl2. The reaction of metal acetate with APMBH in 1:2 molar ratio yields the deprotonated bis-complexes [M(APMBH-H)2] ( M= Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO2(II)). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis) magnetic and molar conductance measurements, which revealed that APMBH act as neutral tridentate NNO-donor ligand in the metal chloride complexes (1, 2, 5-7) and as a monobasic tridentate ligand in the dimeric complexes (3, 4). The ligand also acts as a monobasic NNO-tridentate in the deprotonated bis-complexes (8-12). Octahedral structure is suggested for Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes (1-3, 8-11), dimeric square pyramidal structure for Cu(II) complex (4) and trigonal bipyramidal structure for Zn(II) complex (5). Uranyl complexes 7 and 12 are expected to have pentagonal bipyramidal and hexagonal bipyramidal structures respectively. Eight coordinate structure is proposed for Th(IV) complexe (6). The antibacterial activity of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes (5 and 10) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been tested and show moderate and high activity respectively

Effect of Fillers on the Adhesion Properties of the Cured Unsaturated Polyester Adhesive

Adil K. Hussien; ad F. Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141187

Unsaturated polyester (UP) composed of maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride and 1,2-propylene glycol has been prepared as an adhesive base component. Fillers are widely used in order to reduce cost and to control shrinkage in adhesive formulations.
Four types of fillers of the same particle size (50 mesh) and different chemical properties, silica, alumina, talc, and kaolinwere used. The fillers were mixed with the unsaturated polyesterprepolymer in various contents (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40) part per hundred parts of resin (phr). Their effects on different adhesion properties have been investigated.
Experimental results show, in general, that, the adhesion strength of the unsaturated polyester adhesive measured by the standard lap- shear test method (ASTM D-1002) was increased in accordance with the increase of the weight percentage of the loaded filler. Best results as an adhesion strength were obtained with the kaolin filler

Reduction of Nonlinear Optical Self Phase Modulation in Optical Fiber at 40 Gb/s

Muhammed S. Hameed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 73-81
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141188

A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been solved in order to establish the nonlinear optical self phase modulation (SPM) actual magnitude in fiber (within optical domain), the SPM magnitude was simulated at 40 GHz in relation to normalized time and actual distance within the fiber. When the SPM signal comes out of the fiber and enters a pre-designed transimpedance amplifier (TIA) (electronic domain), and according to simulation, the SPM signal corresponds to an input noise spectral density of 320.3 pA2/Hz (electronic domain) that enters the TIA. A significant reduction in S21 scattering parameter, nonlinear optical power and nonlinear noise figure were registered when the 320.3 pA2/Hz is entered at the TIA input. That effectively means a reduction in SPM value using the TIA at 40 GHz. A Microwave Office software was used for simulation

Quantification of Exopolysaccharide Produced by Bacillus subtilis and the Effect of Different Factors on its Production

Raghad R. Al-Abbasi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 82-91
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141189

The present study included the extraction and characterization of EPS production by a local soil isolate Bacillus subtilis and examine the effect of different factors pH, inoculums size, incubation periods, and carbon, nitrogen and phosphate sources on EPS production. The exopolysaccharide was recovered from the culture supernatant by using a cold ethanol precipitation. The total carbohydrate content was determined by phenol sulfuric acid method at 488 nm, and major structural groups were detected by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at frequency range of 400 to 4000 cm-1. Basal salt solution (BSS) showed higher efficacy in supporting the bacteria to produce EPS (0.986 mg/ml) as dry weight. The study showed that glucose and fructose were gave maximum EPS production as a carbon source along with ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source. The optimal medium conditions were pH 7.0, inoculum size 5-6%, after four days of incubation to promote the maximum EPS production for the bacteria under study

Response of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Plants to Foliar Fertilizer with Different Concentrations of Hoagland Solution

Mohammed Q. Khursheed; Zhian R. Salih; Trefa Z. Saber

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 92-98
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143947

This experiment was conducted in pots with a randomized complete design to study the effects of foliar application with Hoagland’s solution (0, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and full strength) on some morphological, physiological and yield characters of barley cv. Towetha. Both 1/4 and 1/2 strength treatments showed significant increase in all morphological (height of plant, leaves number, flag leaf area, tiller numbers, shoot dry weight), physiological (chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, total nitrogen and total protein) and yield characters (number of spikes/plant, 100-grains weight and grain yield/plant ) compared with the control treatment. It is concluded that barley cultivar gave a clear response to foliar application with Hoagland’s solution and the half-strength Hoagland’s solution was the preferred nutrient solution evaluated in this research

Effects of Saline Water on Shoot and Nutrient Accumulation of Four Wheat Cultivars

Mohammed Q. Khursheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 99-106
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143948

The effect of salinity (0, 4, 8 or 12 dSm-1) induced by NaCl in irrigated water was studied on the shoots of wheat cultivars. After 80 days from sowing, fresh and dry weight of shoot and shoot content of Ntot, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu were significantly decreased as salinity level increased, whereas Na, Cl, Mn and Zn were increased in the shoots of wheat. The highest fresh and shoot dry weight was recorded with Abo-Graib followed by Sham 4 in which both was significantly higher as compared to Rizgary and Semeto. The concentration of Ntot, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl and Zn showed that there were significant differences among the cultivars. The highest content of Ntot, P, K, Ca and Mg were found in Abo-Graib and Sham 4 and the lowest concentration in Semeto and Rizgary, and opposite was true with Na, Cl and Zn. Indeed, Abo-Graib and Sham 4 cultivar showed significant higher K/Na than Semeto and Rizgary. However, non-significant differences were noticed between Semeto and Rizgary cultivars as well as between Abo-Graib and Sham 4 with regarding to the content of studied nutrients. The results shows that Abo-Graib and Sham 4 cultivars are moderately salt-tolerant compare to the other sensitive salt tolerant Rizgary and Semeto cultivars.

Role of Two Different Annealing Temperatures in Genetic Variability Determination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Ghada A. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 107-113
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143949

Seven isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from bacterial strain bank department of Biology/ College of Science/ Mosul University. The DNA was extracted from bacterial culture. Genetic variability was achieved by (RAPD-PCR), and ERIC2 primer was used. Two programs were used in thermal cycling containing two different annealing temperatures, the first was 50o C, its amplification and electrophoresis results showed that all seven isolates had no band except the isolate No. (3) which has revealed a band (approximately 600 bp) when compared with DNA ladder, so this temperature was not suitable for detection of genetic variation for our local bacteria.
The annealing temperature for the second program was 35oC, its amplification and electrophoresis result has illustrated that there are genetic variability among just three isolates which had number 2, 3, and 4, while the other isolates have failed to show any band. So, the 35º C was better than 50º C to determine genetic variation in this study

Extraction and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Exopolysaccharide

Raghad R. Al-Abbasi; Sahira I. Al-Sanjary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 114-122
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143950

This study was aimed to extract exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Listeria monocytogenes and investigate the maximum production by using different culture media and various factors. The EPS was obtained from the culture supernatant by cold ethanol precipitation and yield maximum production (0.368mg /ml ) in basal salt solution (BSS) as dry weight. The total carbohydrate content was determined by phenol sulfuric acid method. The functional groups were detected by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at frequency range of 400- 4000cm-1. Different alcohols were checked for their efficiency on precipitating EPS, those other than ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were able to sediment the EPS, while isoamylalcohol show no effect on precipitation.The results also indicated that the medium volume play an important role in EPS production.

Biochemical Study of Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 from Normal Human Serum

Tareq Y. Ahmad; Fadwa KH. Tawfeeq; Safaa A. AL-Ameen

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 123-132
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143951

The research includes partial purification of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) from serum of normal person aging 14 years in Mosul city. Gel filtration of dialysate precipitate produced by 50% ammonium sulphate saturation has given two major proteinous components. One of them (peak A) possesses a high DPP-4 activity using sephedex G-100. The apparent molecular weight of the isolated DPP-4 was 176.6 KD. High performance liquid chromatography HPLC revealed a single peak à at retention time 5.829 min by application the top of peak A which was isolated from gel filtration. Maximum activity of DPP-4 was obtained using 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8, 40°C, 4 mM of gly-pro-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride as a substrate. The concentration 0.35 mg/ml partially purified DPP-4 was used for next experiments. Maximum velocity (Vmax) was 50 μM according to Line Weaver-Burk plot while Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) was 0.5 mM. Mercuric chloride and strontium chloride hexahydrate at 5 mM revealed maximum inhibitory effect of DPP4 activity by 30.2% and 42.9% respectively.

Studies on Paraoxonase-1 Isolated from Amniotic Fluid and its Effect Against Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Luay A. Al-Helaly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 133-147
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143952

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) was isolated from the amniotic fluid of normal pregnancies at last week of gestation. One proteinous band had been isolated by gel filtration sephadex )G-50) from the protein precipitate produced by ammonium sulfate saturation (67%) after dialysis. The product from (G-50) gave two bands by sephadex (G-100). It was found that the first peak (Peak A) had higher activity for (PON1). The apparent molecular weights of the isolated PON1 using gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE was (43873 + 350) and (43682 + 278) Dalton respectively.
The results also showed that the optimum conditions of PON1 was obtained at (80 µg/ml) of protein as a source of the enzyme using (10 mmol/l) of paraoxon as a substrate, Tris-HCl buffer (0.14 mol/l) as a buffer at pH (8.0) and incubation for (7) minutes at (45C). Using lineweaver–Burk plot, the values of maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were (80.0 µmol/ min) and (3.79 mmol/l) respectively.
The protective effect of PON1 against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity by intraperitoneal injection of (10mg/kg) cisplatin were evaluated in 35 male albino white rats classified into 5 groups. The rats were treated with 0.5mg/kg/day or 1mg/kg/day of isolated PON1 injected intraperitonealy for 5 successive days before and 5 successive days after induction of toxicity. The results showed a significant reduction in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), total bilirubin(TB) and malondialdehyde(MDA) in comparison with the cisplatin treated animals. It was concluded that (PON1) protects the liver and heart against the toxicity induced by this cytotoxic drug.

Mixed Ligand Complexes of Platinum (IV) with some Amino acids and Dithiocarbamates or Dithiophosphates

Ihsan A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 148-155
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143953

Complexes of the type [Pt(L-Met)(L-orL=)Cl2] and [Pt(Met)(L-orL=)Cl]Cl were prepared, [L= deprotonated amino acids: Glycine(Gly), Alanine(Ala), Valine(Val) or Methionine(Met); L- = N-Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate (N-MeCHdtc) or Benzyldithiocarbamate (Bzdtc) anions and L= =O,O -Dipropyldithiophosphate (DiPrdtp) or O,O - Dibenzyldithiophosphate (DiBzdtp) anions. The prepared complexes were characterized by IR , UV-Vis spectra, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity. Some complexes were characterized by CHNS analysis and (1H-nmr) spectra. All the Pt(IV) complexes showed octahedral structure with the dithiocarbamates or dithiophosphates acting as uninegative bidentate ligands coordinated through the two sulfur atoms and the amino acid anions coordinate through N and O except for the methionine which coordinate through S,N and O atoms.

Determination of Radon Concentration and Annual Effective Dose Inside Houses in Left Side of Mosul City During Winter

Sabah Y. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 156-162
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143954

In this study, radon concentration, annual effective dose, potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), and average of lung cancer per million persons from radon were measured using (closed can technique) containing CR-39 nuclear track detector.
Measurements were carried during winter season inside twenty four hoses in eight locations in the left side of Mosul City. The average radon concentration ranged between (52.97±5.315 to 74.98±5.433) Bq.m-3 with an average value (62.36±7.518) Bq.m-3 which is much lower than the recommended by ICRP action level (200-600) Bq.m-3. The results showed that the potential alpha energy concentration ranged between (5.71×10-3±0.566 ×10-3 to 8.11×10-3 ±0.586 ×10-3) WLM with an average value (6.7×10-3±0.820×10-3) WLM, while the annual effective dose ranged between (1.34±0.134 to 1.89±0.137) mSvy-1 with an average value (1.57±0.189) mSvy-1. It is observed that this value less than the recommended levels (3-10) mSvy-1 reported by ICRP. The average lung cancer cases per year per million persons were found to be 28.3±3.404, there were no induction of existence of radon problems in this survey

Investigating Effect of Ca Content on Electrostatic Potential Energy (EP), Critical Temperature and Structure Parameters on Superconductor

Bassam M. Mustafa; Abbas H. Rostam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 163-172
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143955

In this paper the effect of Ca content in and the relation between electrostatic potential energy, critical temperature lattice parameters , volume lattice parameter , orthorhombicity, and the hole concentration is investigated by applying the ionic model to calculate the change in the electrostatic potential due to increasing the Ca content in the compound in . It is found that Ca2+substitution for Y3+ leads to increase EP caused by increased ion volume and decrease of charge, this explains changes of superconducting structure parameters such as: lattice parameter ,volume lattice parameter , orthorhombicity. Furthermore decreases with increasing Ca content due to increase of EP which leads to change of the crystal structure and thus decreasing oxygen content and as a result decreasing of Finally considering all above effects the increase of EP will increase the superconducting current.

Effect of Substrate Temperatures on the Structural and Optical Properties of Na-Doped ZnO Thin Films

Suha A. Najim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 173-183
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143956

ZnO thin films doped with Na have been prepared by chemical vapor deposition technique on the glass substrate at different temperatures (400, 450, 500 ˚C) for 20 min. By increasing the dopant Na from 0 to 20% in ZnO thin films were found to lead to pronounced changes in their structure. From optical properties the band gap energy of the Na-doped ZnO thin films is affected by increasing substrate temperatures and Na doping. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has shown that the maximum intensity peak corresponds to the (002) predominant orientation for ZnO films. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images reveal the formation of Na-doped ZnO films having better crystalline behavior by increasing the substrate temperature at 500˚C. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) shows that the structure of ZnO contains Zn and O elements for undoped and Na for doping state

Evaluation of Spinodal Pressure for Gallium nitride in the Zinc-blend and Wurtzite Structures by Using Different Equations of State (EOSs)

Salar A. Mawlood; Adnan. M. AL-Sheikh; Mumtaz M. Hussien

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 184-189
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143957

According to the definition of spinodal pressure as the negative pressure at which bulk modulus (of a substance) go to zero. Extrapolation of variation of bulk modulus results with pressure has been used to evaluate spinodal pressure for GaN in zinc-blende and wurtzite structures using different equations of state (EOS) (Birch-Murnaghan, Bardeen, Libby and Libby, and Born-Mie). Result obtained in the present work for GaN in the zinc-blende structure using Born-Mie equation of state shows a good agreement with literature. While results for wurtzite structure, obtained by using Birch-Murnaghan and Bardeen EOSs are in a good agreement with literature. Present results and many literature show that (Jiuxun, 2005) approach for evaluation of spinodal pressure yield results in less agreement with other works

Detection of IMP-Metallo Beta-lactamase in Some Gram Negative Bacteria Using Morphological and Molecular Methods

Sahar L. Al Saleem; Adeeba Y. Sharif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141067

This study detected the ability of some gram negative bacteria isolated from different clinical specimens to produce Metallo Beta Lactamase (MBL) using phenotypic and molecular methods. The ratio of the presence of these enzymes was (23.3%) using the Imipenem EDTA-Disk method and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the highest producer 10% then Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.6%) and (3.3%) for Enterobacter colcoae, while the molecular method was used for the detection of gene for this enzyme, the results showed that Ps.aeruginosa produces the enzyme at (11.1%) while the rate of this gene produced by Acinetobacter bumannii was (5.5%)

The Effect of Citric Acid on some Biochemical Parameters in Male Rabbit

Intisar G. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 10-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141068

The research includes the study of side effect of citric acid by giving different concentrations at various duration time on some biochemical parameters which has related to the liver function in serum and tissue of liver.
Six month aged healthy male rabbits with weight ranged between 1-1.5 kg were used in this research. They were distributed randomly into four groups; The first group was given distilled water as a control group, the second group was given a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight of citric acid, the third group was given a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight of citric acid and the fourth group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg of body weight of citric acid.
Acid was added to drinking water of all groups for 30 days with providing food freely to the animals as long as the experiment lasted. After blood was drawn out and serum was taken male rabbits were killed.
The results showed that no signification in level of total protein and albumin in different concentration and different duration time comparing with the control group. A lso the results showed significant increase of alanine aminotransferase ALT and aspartate aminotransferase AST activity, and malonaldehyed MAD in liver tissue compared with the control group. A significant decrease in the level of glutathione GSH in liver tissue was also seen comparing with the control group with increase concentration of citric acid and increase duration time of treatment

Using of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to Confirm the Diagnosis of Listeria monocytogenes and Determination its Antimicrobial Resistanc

Hiba Kh. Mahmud; Adeeba Y. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 17-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141069

PCR technique was used for the identification of (14) strains of L.monocytogenes obtained from department of Biology/college of Science/university of Mosul isolated from soil animal barns and grazing areas in Nineveh governorate, that had been identified previously by traditional methods and API Listeria. The presence of the first identification gene hlyA had been detected, (13) strains exhibited positive result, but when PCR used for detection of second identification gene iap, all strains showed positive result.The third identification gene that have been detected was inlA, (11) strains were clear positive, while (3) strains have weak positive results, so (14) strains were positive.
The resistance of L.monocytogenes strains was determined to a number of antibiotics: Tetracycline, Trimethoprim and Erythromycin, it was 78.6%, 35.7% and 57.1% respectively. PCR technique was used to detect antibiotic resistance genes like tet(S) for Tetracycline resistance, (2) strains gave positive result, the gene dfrD for Trimethoprim resistance has also detected and (3) strains showed positive result. The presence of ermB for Erythromycin resistance was studied, (2) strains showed positive result.

The Effect of Passive Smoking for Different Periods on Histopathological Central Nervous System of Male Mice Mus musculus

Shereen M. Al-Jarba; Qusay M. Al-Dakheel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 31-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141070

The research aims to show the histopathological changes caused by passive smoking in the central nervous system tissues. Laboratory animals were offered for (10, 20) weeks for a period of passive smoking (2,4) hours per day. Histopathological examination of brain and spinal cord showed the presence of degeneration and necrotic neurons in the brain tissue and spinal cord in addition to vacuolation and heavy hemorrhage in the brain tissue and congestion of blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord and clarity clot inside the blood vessel of the brain tissue.

Allelopathic Effect of some Crops Residues on Germination and Growth of Four Weed Species

Wasan H. Salih; Janan A. Saeed; Amer M. Al-Mathedy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 42-53
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141071

This study was conducted in the glasshouse in Biology Depertment College of Sciences Mosul University to study the effect of the crops (wheat, Barley, corn) residues that added to the soil at ratio (10,15%) W:W in seed germination and growth of four weeds includes (Silybum marianum L., Lolium rigidum. L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Panicum Spp.). The results showed inhibition in seed germination and growth of the weeds growing in the soil containing the crops residues compared with the plant (weeds) growing in control soil (with out residues). Also the result showed variation in the crops allelopathic effect on germination and growth of the weeds treated with the crops residues. Moreover, the results show a difference in allelopathic effect of the crops residues, in addition the weed species differ in their response to the effect There is significant difference between the type of residues rather than weed species, it was found that the highest inhibition in seed germination was in (Panicum) seeds affected by corn residues added at ratio 15% which reached up to (44.4), while in the growth of the weeds, the highest reduction in shoot length recorded (78.4) noticed in Lolium at the ratio 15% of Wheat residues but in the root length highest reduction recorded (58.4%) noticed in Panicum at the ratio 15% of Barley residues ,in dry weight the highest inhibition noticed in Lolium affected by Wheat residues added at ratio 15% whicht reached up to (95.18). The initial detection of the active compounds in the crops residues indicate the exsistance of the compounds include (Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins and Saponins) which had inhibition effect and can be converted to simpler or more complicated forms after being released to the soil.

The Effect of Flaxseeds on some Physiological and Biochemical Characters in Liver Tissue of Quail Birds

Muntaha M. Al-Kattan; Zahra I. D. Bashi; Abeer A. Katheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 54-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141072

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of flaxseed on some biochemical characteristics represented by ALT, AST ALP, enzymes, as well as to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde levels and body weight of birds which ranged between (175-200)g, (60-70) days old. Male Quail birds were divided into five groups 5 birds-group.
Flaxseeds were used after grinding in different concentrations as capsules of (250, 500, 1000, 2000) mg/kg of body weight. The birds were treated daily with that flaxseeds powder.
Results showed a good improvement in the biochemical qualities as well as a rise in the level of glutathione and the reduction of MDA level in addition to lowering the body weights of birds, especially in the group given 2000 mg/kg of body weight.
Histological examinations showed no differences in comparison with the control group in birds given 250mg/kg body weight of the flaxseeds while other groups showed pathological changes in liver tissue.

Sewage Water Purification Through Direct Exposure to Solar Radiation

Abdul-Aziz Y. Al-Saffawi; Reem A. Talaat

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 64-75
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141073

The study deals with ecofriendly treatment of sewage water by direct exposure to solar radiation, The water was put in 5 liter plastic containers covered with transparent covers, the experiments were conducted with four treatments [ t1: with out aeration, t2: continuous aeration, t3 and t4 : with 5,3 hour aeration daily] respectively, in order to investigate the quality variation of the polluted water, periodical measurements of the parameters: Salinity, pH, T. Hardness, T. Alkalinity, HCO3- ions, PO4-3 ions, BOD5, total count of bacteria, E. coli and faecal coliform bacteria according to international standard methods.
The results showed that after treatment occurred with significant improvement in transparency and water quality, removal percentage of BOD5 68 – 72% after one week of treatment, T. alk. and PO4-3 65 – 67% and 95 – 97 % respectively in the end of the treatment. Also, high decreasing percent in number of TPC 99%, F. coliform and E. coli 100% after four days of treatment.

A Study of Endoparasites of Pigeons in Mosul City

Manal H. Hasan; Asmaa E. Al Abbadi; Nawzad R. Abdul Ruhman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 76-81
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141074

The study was conducted to detect the internal parasites in 65 pigeons
(Columbi livia) obtained from different regions in Mosul City, from September 2007 to December 2008. The total rate of infection was 47.7%. These include different percentage of infection with Nematodes (Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaridia columbae) from Cestodes (Raillietina tetragona,R.echinobothridium).
The intestinal protozoa were (Eimeria columbae, Cryptosporidium baileyi). While tissue and blood protozoa include (Haemoproteus columbae, Plasmodium gallinacium, Leucocytozoon marchouxi, Sarcocystis spp.).
Mixed infection with three or more different species was the highest with the percentage of 41.9%.

Isolation and Identification of Fungi From Strawberry Seedlings and its Biological Agent and Fungicides

Hadeel A. Al-Ameri; Zuhair A. Dawood; Fatin N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 82-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141075

Results of isolated fungi from seedlings of three Strawberry varieties Sweet Charlie, Hapil and Festival showed that the root zone in the three varieties contained the largest number of fungi. The fungus F. culmorum was the highest existence in three areas roots and runners and crown. The isolation percentage was 66.15% in the runners zone of Hapil and 36.15 % in the root of Sweet Charlie, while the existence percentage of the fungus above was 55.76% in the crown area and 35.79% in the root zone of Festival, while the fungi Cylindrocarpon spp. appeared at 38.60 % in runners of sweet charlie and 35.91% in the root of Hapil, while fungus isolated from Festival in 23.60% in root zone, and the lowest rate was in fungus A. alternata in the root of sweet charlie with 2.32% and the fungus Phytophthora spp. in Hapil. In Festival fungi St. herbarum appeared lowest ratio 3.47 % in the root, the different percentages for the isolation of the fungi differed with the differentiation of varieties studies of Strawberry plant and isolation areas.
The testing biological agent Trichoderma harzianum Indicates that his high efficiency against fungi F. culmorum and Cylindrocarpon spp. and Bipolaris spp. its degree antagonistic to 2, 2 and 2 respectively. Inhibition percentage was 88.88% and 87.77 % and 86%, respectively, for three fungi. For ability of bacterial biological agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed significant inhibition to the growth of three fungi. The study of the bacterial biological agent and fungus Cylindrocarpon spp. showed significant inhibition as well as bacterial biological agent and fungus Bipolaris spp. with inhibition percentage 100%
Finally the results showed that the fungicides Azadirachtin in concentration 5cm3/liter inhibited significantly the growth of three fungi, and the highest percentage inhibition was with the treatment of fungicides and fungi Cylindrocarpon spp. with inhibition percentage 80 % while the lowest percentage of inhibition was 21.87% in Fungi F. culmorum.

Test of Potential Adaptation of Local Isolates of Blue Green Algae and its Effects on Cellular Constituents

Yousef J. Al-shaherii; Hiba K. Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 95-117
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141076

In this study, pure isolates of blue green algae (Oscillatoria limnitica , Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena helicoidea) were obtained from alocal environment in Nineveh province (AL-Shlalat and AL-Hamdania regions). The effect of different concentrations of heavy metals on growth and number of cellular constituents were studied for the locally isolated blue green algae. The results showed that the best growth was achieved when not adding heavy metals to the medium and reduction of growth and cellular constituents were noticed with continuous addition of each heavy metal to the medium although the isolates were able to grow and survive under relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The daily growth rate reached (0.122, 0.330, 0.510)as an optical density and biomass (223, 300, 900mg/l), chlorophyll content (22.32, 60, 60.15 mg/l), protein content(79, 152, 71mg/l), carbohydrate content (101, 72, 330mg/l) and final pH reached (7.7, 7.80, 7.90) for O. limnitica, N. muscorum and A. helicoidea isolates respectively after fifteen days of incubation when iron was used at concentration (2.37%) in the form of iron chloride, and it was noticed that the growth of N. muscorum was more stimulated when iron was used at concentration (0.71%) while growth of O. limnitica isolate was stimulated at concentration (0.23%) related to control treatment.
It was found that the growth reached to( 0.990,0.870,0.350) as an optical density, biomass (910, 905, 700 mg/l), chlorophyll content (21.15, 42.09, 31.56 mg/l), protein content (73, 70, 70 mg/l), carbohydrate content (133, 132, 160 mg/l) and final pH reached (8.20, 7.90, 7.80) for O. limnitica , N. muscorum and A. helicoidea respectively. When copper was used at concentration (3.72%) in the form of copper chloride it was found that the growth of (O. limnitica and N.muscorum) were more adapted when copper was added to the medium at concentration (0.74%) compared with control treatment. Also noticed that the growth rate reached to (0.101, 0.71, 0.330) as an optical density, weight of biomass (260, 400, 270mg/l), chlorophyll content (10, 10.12, 42.32 mg/l) protein content (67, 46, 47mg/l) carbohydrate content (71, 210, 130mg/l) and final pH (7.30, 7.7, 7.80) for O. limnitica , N. muscorum and A. helicoidea cultures respectively at (2.46%) in the form of nickel chloride.Also it was noticed that the reduction of growth and cellular constituents of the studied algae when nicke and cobalt used at concentration (6.12,4.5%) respectively as compared with control treatment.

The Use of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) as a Diffusion Barrier in Aluminized Coating on Cobalt Alloy Fsx414

Yahya A. Al-Salman; Adel M. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 118-124
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141104

The research includes the preparation of aluminum coatings by method of pack- cementation on the surface of the alloy of the cobalt (Fsx 414) which doping with a thin layer of oxide yttrium. These coatings have been exposed to rotating oxidation process at a high temperatures to determine the range of resistance and to identify its behavior and studying the structures of these coatings by method of microscopic test. The results refer to that these coatings have good resistance for oxidation at high temperature 1000° C, and this may explain the role which barrier oxide played as a Y2O3 by it behaving as (Thermal Barrier) ones and as (Diffusion Barrier) another time.

The Use of Dy2O3 as Thermal Barrier in Aluminide Coating on One Type of Stainless Steel

Mahmood A. Hamood; Rana H. Mahmood; Edrees E. Kidder

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 125-134
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141105

The working hard conducts that some material suffer from lead us to protect it from corrosion and give long life. When we select protective system we shall take three points, the work place, base structure and the protective system it self. In this study, we test two types of diffusion coated by cementation (Single Aluminized Coating, Thermal Barrier Coating) at (1000 0C) with (2,4,6 h). The up take of aluminum and coating thickness obeys the parabola rule so that the coating process obeys diffusion process and the weight gain rate increase with the temperature increased. The other objective of this study was to see the degradation behavior of the systems during thermal cycling (three hour cycles in enhanced hot – salt solution). The single aluminized has good protects while the uncoated sample failed after five cycles. The thermal barrier coating has an excellent protection during the test time because of the good adhesion of Al2O3 layer.

Fabrication of Hetrojunction Detector ZnO0.95Mg0.05/Si Using Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method and Studying Electrical Characteristics

Rafea A. Monef; Riad A. Asmiel; Sabre G. Mohmmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 135-144
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141106

In this work ZnO0.95Mg0.05/Si hetrojunction detector was fabricated using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) method. The thin films were deposited on n-type silicon using Zn(NO3)2.6H2O, for molarity (0.2 M) and substrate temperature 673 K. The carrier gas is Nitrogen.
The electrical properties, voltage and short circuit current are calculated. Ideal factor was 1.8, quantum efficiency was about 65.55% at wavelength 859 nm with a value of specific defectively of (0.911012cm.HZ1/2.W-1). The maximum spectra responsively was 0.4 A/w. The calculated rise time of the detector was found to be around 50 ns.

The Use of Alpha and Gamma Spectroscopy to Determine the Annual Dose Due to Consumption of some Food Materials Containing lead Isotopes 210Pb and 214Pb

Assima M. Al-Emam; Ahmed K. Mheemeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141107

The current study aims to determine the radioactivity concentrations of 210Pb and 214Pb isotopes in food used by Iraqi people. Thirty four samples were collected, some are produced inside the country and others are imported and available in local markets at some Iraqi governorates, these foods are Potatoes, wheat, milk and fishes. To estimate the radioactivity concentration of 210Pb, the chemical separation method was used and 210Pb and 214Pb isotopes were deposited on silver disks. Alpha spectroscopy was used to find the spectrum of alpha particles emitted from 210Pb and 214Pb isotopes. Gamma ray spectroscopy was used to determine the radioactivity concentration of 214Pb. The annual intake and radiation dose due to the consumption of foods containing 210Pb and 214Pb isotopes were calculated. The total annual dose from the ingestion of 210Pb and 214Pb isotopes in foods are 99.01 μSv/y and 22.49 nSv/y, respectively

The Effect of Coils Area's Ratio and their Separated Distance on the Optical Performance of the Condenser-Objective Magnetic Lens

Muna A. Al-Khashab; Thamer J. Al-Khaldey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 158-167
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141108

The work handles the design of an asymmetric double polepiece magnetic lens for the condenser-objective mode having optimum properties through the change of coils area's ratio and their separated distance, which leads to a highest flux density peak of the magnetic field with a lowest spherical aberration coefficient, at the relativistic corrected voltage (Vr=200 kV) and excitation of (NI=10.5 kA-t). The calculation has been made for the magnetic flux lines trajectories and optical properties to limit the defects in the lens and consequently improve the optical performance of the condenser-objective magnetic lens

Studying the Effect of Fertilized Soil by Comparing of some Indicators of Radioactive Contamination

Hana I. Hasan; Saba S. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 168-182
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.141109

The current research aims to compare some of the indicators of radioactive contamination, contained, absorbed dose (D), radium equivalent, (Raeq), index of external and internal radiation hazard, (Hex , Hin ), and gamma activity concentration index, (Iγ), in five soil samples unfertilized and other five fertilized with Iraqi origin fertilizers, to find the effect of fertilization on how much increases the radioactive contamination, the concentration of radioactive elements 226Ra,232Th and 40K in these samples estimated by using gamma ray system NaI (Tl). It has been reached that the values of indicators of the fertilized and unfertilized soil that the rate of absorbed dose 0.0819 μSv / h and 0.133 μSv/h, radium equivalent 138.56 Bq / kg and 319.31 Bq / kg, gamma activity concentration index, (Iγ) 0.987 and 2.23, the internal radiation hazard index 0.488 and 1.326, the external radiation hazard index 0.374 and 0.862 ,respectively. The surface exaltation rate of 222Rn was estimated after finding the radon concentration by using nuclear track detector CR-39, the emission from the soil surface in general was less than the recommended value by UNSCEAR

Prunus necrotic ring spot virus: Transmission and Movement in Tissue of Stone Fruit Trees

Nadeem A. Ramadan; Nabil A. Kassem; Khalid M. Al-Baringy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 183-192
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143928

The results showed that Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV) was carried internally and externally in seeds of many types of stone fruit trees in different ratios. The seed transmission ratios were 5.2, 28.4, and 19 % in seeds of apricot, peach and plum trees, respectively.
The results also declared the existence of PNRSV in various parts of the infected trees in different ratios in buds, petals, leaves, pollen grains, fruits and roots. The viral symptoms on the leaves disappeared and virus concentration is decreased (OD= 0.160,0.310,0.140in mid of July while virus concentration increased (OD=0.160., 0.290 ,0.160 ) in the roots of apricot, peach and plum trees, respectively.

Effects of fungal infections and its resistance in plant hormones of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) varieties Hapil and Festival

Hadeel A. AL-Ameri; Zuhair A. Dawood; Fatin N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 193-213
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143929

Quantitative estimation of growth regulators results Indol Acetic acid (IAA) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) using technology high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in strawberry plants (variety Hapil and Festival) treated with three fungi Fusarium culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp. and Bipolaris spp.The results varied depending on the variation of ments, as the level of the growth regulators IAA and GA3 increased in fungal biocontrol Trichoderma harzianum and bacterial biocontrol Pseudomonas aerogenosa and chemocontrol Azadarachtin, compared with the non -treatment plants infected with three fungi above, the highest concentration of the growth regulator IAA was 921.81 ng/g wet weight in plants treatmed with fungal biocontrol and less concentration in the plants treated with fungus F. culmorum alone, the level was 10.20 ng/g wet weight in strawberry variety Hapil while Festival variety was the highest concentration of plant growth regulator in fungal biocontrol and less level was in the treatment with Cylindrocarpon spp. the concentrations in the rest of the transactions between the two in both varieties.
The concentration of the growth regulator GA3 differed with the differentiation of the concentration of the growth regulator IAA in strawberry variety Hapil and Festival and all the transactions studied, the highest concentration of it in strawberry variety Hapil were treated bacterial biocontrol, the level was 341.97 ng / g wet weight while the level in strawberry variety Festival is 897.62 ng / g wet weight in plants treatmed with fungal biocontrol while the less level of the growth regulator GA3 in strawberry variety Hapil and Festival was 30.29 ng / g wet weight and 20.34 ng / g wet weight in the treatment with the fungus Cylindrocarpon spp. alone, the concentrations in other treatments ranged between the two in both varieties

Salicylic Acid and Acetylsalicylic Induced Resistance to Powdery Mildew Disease of Milk thistle (Syllibium marianum)

Nadeem A. Ramadan; Safa R. Abd-Alela; Nebras N. Saaed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 214-221
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143930

Microscopic examination showed that Erysiphe cichoracaerum is the causal agent of Milk thistle powdery mildew and its symptoms begin to appear in the middle of March.
Plants sprayed with Neem (5%) had no effect on the percentage of chlorophyll, but reduced the severity percentage infection to 2.2, 50.0% respectively. The use of different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) led to an increase in wet and dry weight and higher plants hieght. One spray with 1 mmole ASA increased the wet weight to10.9 g. In the meantime, the dry weight differed significantly from other treatments except of 1 mmole SA once spray.
The better concentration was (24%) for increasing the percentage of chlorophyll in infected plants with powdery mildew was observed with 5 mmole SA once spray and significantly different from the rest of the treatments other than 5 mmol SA sprayed twice which was 21%. The concentration of 1 mmol. SA also was found the best in inducing resistance resulting in a reduction of the infection severity to 0.2 and percentage of infection severity to 95%.
Spraying of Milk thistle plants with SA increased the activity of peroxidase enzyme (60%) in plants sprayed twice with SA 5 m mole (0.089) comparing to the control (0.053).
Also, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was increased (0.618) in plants sprayed twice with 5 mmole SA (53%) and hence significantly different from other treatments other than SA 10 mmole sprayed twice.

Investigate about some of Fatty Acids in Callus Cultures of Corylus avellana L. Induce by Phenylalanine (Phe.)

Rehab A. Al-Bker; Hana S. Al Salih; Faris T. Al Abachi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 222-234
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143931

Oleic, linoleic, palmitic, lauric and stearic acids were isolated and identified in the callus culture of hazelnut Corylus avellana L., which were induced and grown on MS media supplemented with l.5 and l.0 mg/l of BA and 2,4-D respectively, as well as the callus cultures that grown on the same medium in addition to different concentration of Phenylalanine (Phe.), Callus grown on MS medium without addition of growth regulators (MSO) was used as control. Fresh weights of callus were recorded after 40 and 80 days of culture.
Gas chromatography was used for identification of the fatty acid, and found that both oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most common in the callus cultures of hazelnut, also found that fatty acids identified in callus culture of hazelnut vary in their types as well as their quantity according to the concentration of Phenylalanine added with plant growth regulator to the medium, and that concentration of fatty acids in callus cultures increased with the increase of callus age

Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on some Hormonal and Biochemical Tests in Blood Serum of Pregnant Rats Rattus norvegicus

Yasir A. Abdullah; Janan H. Abdul-Fattah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 235-245
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143932

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of electromagnetic waves of mobile phone on some hormonal and biochemical tests in blood serum of pregnant rats. 60 pregnant rats were used and divided in to 6 groups, including control and five experimental groups: switch off mobile phone for 1 hrday, switch on and connect mobile phone for 12 hr, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hrday. The exposing period was 18 days starting from 1st day to 18th day of pregnancy. (5 – 6) ml of blood were drawn from the eye orbital to measure the concentration of estrogen, progesterone, glutathione and malondialdehyde in blood serum.
The results showed that exposing of pregnant rats to electromagnetic waves of mobile phone caused significant lowering of both estrogen and progesterone hormone concentration, and caused significant decreasing of glutathione concentration and significant increasing of malondialdehyde concentration in blood serum in comparison with control group

Effects of Vigna radiate Seeds Treatment by Aminoptrine and Trimethoprim in the Activity of Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzyme and its Seedlings, Calli Growth

Sajida A. Abood; Nihal E. Al - Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 246-253
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143933

The results of Vigna radiate seeds treatment before planting with aminoptrine and trimethoprim at 10-1, 10-2,10-3,10-4 and 10-5 molar to decrease in the rate of germination, average length of roots and growth of seedlings and calli derived from Vigna radiate seedling segments that grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplement with 2.0 mg/l benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5mg/l naphthalene acidic acid (NAA).The sensitivity of DHFR, isolated from Vigna radiate callus, to aminoptrine or trimethoprim varied depending on the type and concentrations of inhibitor used. Aminoptrine caused 53% inhibition of DHFR at 10-4 M, however the inhibitory effect of trimethoprim on DHFR was less than that of aminoptrine.
Also addition of inhibitors to the media greatly affected the fresh weight and other cell constituents. There was a 51% decrease in the total folate content in the presence of 10-4M aminoptrine or 10-3M trimethoprim. Addition of aminoptrine at 10-1M caused a 100% inhibition in the folate, proteins, nucleic acids content and callus death after 30 days of growth.
The pattern of changes in cell constituents of callus grown on media with inhibitors was similar to that of DHFR activity and fresh weight of callus

The Mutagenicity of the Herbicides Glyphosate and Paraquat and Haloxyfop-p-methyl in Conidia of the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Hanaa R. Abd Al-Kareem; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 254-265
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143934

The study was aimed to investigating the ability of the herbicides Glyphosate, Paraquat and Haloxyfop-p-methyl to induce point mutation in conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for the herbicides were determined and three sublethal concentrations of each herbicide was tested. They were (2880, 3840, 4800 μg/ml) for Glyphosate; (200, 280, 400 μg/ml) for Paraquat; and (4.32, 10.8, 21.6μg/ml) for Haloxyfop-p-methyl. Three protocols; pretreatment, plate incorporation and growth- mediated were used to select mutation resistant to 8-azaguanine (azgA) in the sensitive wild type strain A1. Glyphosate was negative in this respect and in all three protocol of mutagenesis. Paraquat, on the other hand, gave inconclusive results, where it was negative in the pretreatment and the growth-mediated methods, but it reduced the mutant frequency in the plate incorporation method. Haloxyfob-p-methyl, gave positive results in the growth mediated method and negative results in the other two protocols.

Detection of rol B and rol C Genes in Callus Tissues Derived from Co-cultivation of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Cell Suspension With pRi

Mozahim K. Al-Mallah; Amjad A. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 266-276
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143935

Cell suspension cultures were produced from stem calli of carrot seedlings. Exposure of suspension of 3.4 x 105 cell ml-1 to 250 V/ 5 msec. stimulate their divisions producing 168 callus primordia, which developed to culture of callus. Whereas exposure of the mixture of cell suspension with 50 µl of pRi plasmid, which isolated from Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601 promoted the sequences of cellular division producing 232 callus primordia successed in forming cultures of callus as well. Addition of PEG (Mwt.6000) solution to cell suspension-plasmid mixture accelerate the colony formation which developed to callus culture as well. Data of the amplified (PCR) DNA electrophoresis demonstrated the development of two bands represented the rol B and rol C genes. Their molecular weight was 850 bp and 650 bp which are similar to the m wt. of the used primers. These results demonstrated the inclusion of these genes in genomic DNA of produced callus

The Design of the Iron Shroud Geometrical Shape in the Condenser-Objective Electromagnetic Lens

Muna A. Al-Khashab; Thamer J. Al-Khaldey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 277-289
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143936

The optimization of the main polepiece structure and the geometrical shape of iron shroud in the asymmetric double polepiece magnetic lens for the condenser-objective mode led to the possibility of the higher resolution lens design for the electron microscope.
This work is handled by three steps, the designed lens having optimum properties through the construction of a fine geometrical shape of the iron shroud which results the highest flux density peak of the magnetic field with a lowest spherical aberration coefficient, at (Vr =200 kV) and excitation of (NI=10.5 kA-t). In the first step the thickness of the iron shroud was studied whereas the optical properties of the lens were studied, by putting west point in the iron shroud in the second step. Moreover, the effect of the height of the west point position on the optical performance was studied in the third step. The Calculation has been made for the axial magnetic field distribution, the magnetic flux lines trajectories and the optical properties to limit the defects in the lens and consequently improve the geometrical shape of the iron shroud. It was found that the focal length inversely proportional to the thickness of the iron shroud and the best depth for the west point equals (dpw=13 mm), beside that the west point position was (h=35 mm) which gave the best resolving power (δ= 0.2 nm).
The obtained results of the preferred properties in the present work have been compared with those of the published results, and it was found that both results are in a good agreement with each other

The Effect of Thickness and Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO: Al Thin Films

Maysam Sh. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 290-306
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143937

ZnO: Al transparent conductive thin films was prepared by home-made chemical vapor deposition system at (500oC). Zinc acetate dehydrate precursor was used to obtain ZnO films and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as a dopant source to prepare different thickness (0.539µm, 0.369µm, 0.227µm, 0.057µm) of ZnO: Al thin films. In this study the structural and optical properties of thin films were investigated. X-ray measurements revealed that films structure was polycrystalline of hexagonal quartzite type with preferential orientation along (002) direction. The surface morphology of the films was determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and the measurements indicate an increase in the smoothness of the upper surfaces after annealing (2.93 nm-1.6nm), and the grain sizes of the sample was in the Nano metric scale. The effect of thickness and annealing time on optical properties of the films were investigated. From the measurements, it was found that the transmittance decrease with increasing thickness. On the other hand, the transmittance and the optical gap increase with increasing the annealing time for low thicknesses, while for the higher thicknesses, a little changes were observed

Effect of Double Partial Substitution of Ag and Sr on Structural and Electrical Properties of High Temperature Bi2-xAgx Ba2- y Sry Ca2Cu3O10+ Superconductors

Mahmood A. Hamood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 307-316
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143938

Solid state reaction method has been used to prepare samples with double partial substitution of Ag and Sr in Bi and Ba respectively, within the compound Bi2-xAgx Ba2- y Sry Ca2Cu3O10+ . The crystal structure has been studied by using X- Ray diffraction. The study has found that the prepared sample is tetragonal containing high percentage of Bi-2223 phases. As a result of partial substituting of Ag and Sr in Bi and Ba, it has been noticed that there is increasing in the grains size for super conducting as well as increasing in density which lead to the raising of the critical temperature and arrangement of crystal structure. Also the magnetic suscepitibility has been studied under normal atmosphere pressure and room temperature.

Transfer Factor of Radioactive Elements 226Ra، 40K and 232Th from Soil to some Local Vegetables at Different Regions in Nineveh Governorate

Ali K. Hussein

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 317-332
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143939

In this study the activity concentrations of natural radioactive elements 226Ra، 40K، 232Th and their transfer factor for 36 samples of soil and vegetables in four agriculture locations (Rabea، Al-Rashedia، Hamam Al-Aleel and Al-Salamia) were calculated. The average activity concentrations of 40K، 226Ra، 232Th in soil were found to be 624.66±75.4، 20.64±3.63 and 6.73±1.84 Bq/kg respectively in the four locations. Their values in dry vegetables were found to be 314.07±36.3، 7.9±1.63 and 1.68±0.92 Bq/kg and in fresh vegetables were found to be 31.2±7.9، 0.74±0.23 and 0.175±0.07 Bq/kg respectively. The average transfer factors of 40K، 226Ra، 232Th from soil to dry vegetables were found to be 0.507±0.04، 0.386±0.06 and 0.216±0.03 while their values to fresh vegetables were found to be 0.05±0.014، 0.037±0.013 and 0.022±0.007 respectively in the four locations also. The average values of absorbed dose and the total annual dose were found to be 0.04±0.0037 μGy/h، 70.93 μSv/y respectively

Determination of the Energy Resolution for Nuclear Track Detector LR-115 Using Matab Software

Firas M. AL-Jomaily; Kasim Y. Kasim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 333-353
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143940

The aim of this research to determine the energy resolution of the nuclear detector LR-115 to distinguish between the different energies of alpha particles which were obtained from the source amiricium(241Am ) as well as improve its efficiency through investigation and detect the number of deposited tracks on the material detector which was shown after the chemical treatment of the detector when the etching conditions (NaOH, 2.5N, 60O C).We have been using computer programs named (Gauss Track) and (Wbl Track), which can handle a lot of data and thus measure parameters of nuclear track as numbers of tracks (N) and average diameters (D) and its average area (A). Where the Energy resolution of detector (R) was determined by the equation of energy resolution in terms of the diameter's track (ΔE / E)D and by the two programs mentioned above and which contain Gauss distribution function and distribution function of Weibull respectively. This has been done at the optimum time of etching,where the least standard deviation of the spectrum distribution happened.We also prepared a program named (Edge Track) and by using the operators (Roberts, Prewitt, Canny, Sobel, Zero-cross, Log) to detect the edges of tracks and theor circumference to study the effect of that technique on the properties of the detector via its analysis ability and efficiency to detect another tracks. It has been shown that the operator (Roberts) has a high potential to detect the tracks which reflected positively on the efficiency of the detector. It also showed this technique has a positive effect on the ability of the energy resolution of the detector through improvement qualitatively (decreasing numerically) when we use Gaussian function. Also a modified operation has been done on the Gauss Track program to obtain a program similar to it, we called (Area Gauss Track) after making a fitting between replicates of the intensity of the tracks according to its area which has been done before and after the using the Edge detection technique which showed a qualitative improvement on the property analytical detector. It has been found that the ability of energy resolution at higher energies better than with lower ones within the range of user.

Effect of Piezoelectric Parameters on Phonon Focusing in Cubic Semiconductor Crystals

Abeer B. Ibrahim; Mumtaz M. Hussien

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 354-363
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143942

In this paper, the effect of piezoelectric parameters on the phonon focusing of some semiconductor cubic crystals has been studied. These properties has an evident effect on the transverse modes of the phonon focusing images for these crystals these effect is increased as the factor k44 of these crystals is increased. Numerically two methods for computing the phonon focusing images has been applied in this work, the first depends upon the detailed calculations of group velocity while the second method (suggested algorithm) depends upon the calculation of direction of group velocity from the slowness surface only, the suggested algorithm has been tested with piezoelectric and when the piezoelectric properties is ignored.

Radio Frequency Discharge Under the Effect of Magnetic Field

Haitham A. AL-Rawachy; Eman Y. Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 364-377
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.143943

In this study We tested the effects of external magnetic field (0-571 G) in dry air on the characteristic of capacitive radio discharge at 13.56MHz in a discharge chamber prepared for this purpose under different low pressure (1.0-0.05 Pascal) and different radio waves fallen. The technique which used in this study was the electrostatic probe down to see the I-V characteristic properties of this sensor to calculate the electrons energy distribution function inside the discharge system.