Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 27, Issue 3

Volume 27, Issue 3, Summer 2018


Detection of some Biochemical Indicators and Auto-Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of Kidney Disease and Renal Failure Patient's Urine

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159383

The use of reliable biomarkers is becoming increasingly important for improved management of patients with acute and chronic kidney diseases. Recent developments have identified a number of these novel biomarkers in urine that can determine the potential risk of kidney damage. This research have elucidated that there are some biochemical enzymatic markers that have strong relationships with kidney disease and renal failure and could be used for diagnostic purposes, such as arginase and carbonic anhydrase that show a significant activity increase in both male and female patient's urine in all age stages at probability P<0.001 compared with normal one, this increase due to changes in kidney's histopathological changes such as apoptosis and inflammation in addition to the damage in renal's distal tubules.
Fluorescence spectrophotometric technique reveals that some natural urine's fluorophores intensities changed according to the clinical state of the persons, for this it can be utilized as a diagnostic indicator of some diseases such as kidney diseases and renal failure as shown in this research which indicated that the intensities of patient's urine emission fluorescence peaks have changed in both males and female patient's urine especially at 352, 353, 363 nm,401, 425,438,445 nm, 438-445nm and 703nm compared with healthy ones at fixed excitation wavelength 350-400 respectively.
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Synthesis of some New Schiff Bases Containing Acridone Moiety

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 12-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159387

The 2-[(4'-amino-3,3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4-yl)amino]benzoic acid (II) was synthesized by Ullmann-Goldberg coupling by reaction of 3,3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diamine (I) with 2-chlorobenzoic acid. The compound (II) was cyclized by poly phosphoric acid (PPA) to give 2-[(4-amino-3-methyl)phenyl]-4-methylacridin-9 (10H)-one (III). New Schiff bases (IVa-j) and (Va-d) has been prepared by reaction of compound (III) with aromatic aldehydes and cyclic ketones respectively.

Partial Purification and Study of Osteocalcin from Blood of Human and Rats

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159384

This study is concerned with attempts to isolate and purify osteocalcin from healthy human blood plasma and healthy rats blood serum using different biochemical techniques. This included precipitation by cold acetone and gel filtration chromatography. It was found that only the second peak (peak B) from human and rats had concentration of osteocalcin, and showed that fold of purification of isolated osteocalcin 57 and 43 for human and rats respectively.
The results obtained from electrophoresis showed that one single band for isolated osteocalcin (peak B) from human and rats, and from high performance liquid chromatography showed that there was a good identical in retention time between the standard and isolated osteocalcin (peak B) from human and rats. The comparative molecular weight of partially purified osteocalcin from human plasma and rats serum was (6011.73 ± 400 Da) and (5248.07 ± 400 Da) respectively using gel filtration chromatography, and (5807.64 Da) and (4786.30 Da) respectively using electrophoresis technique.
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Spectrophotometric Determination of Hydroxyurea in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 29-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159388

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of hydroxyurea has been developed. The method is based on the oxidation of hydroxyurea with iron(III) in acidic medium, and the liberated iron(II) reacts with 1,10-phenanthroline to form the orange-red chelate which has a maximum absorption at 510 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 5-160 μg of hydroxyurea in a final volume of 25 ml, with a molar absorptivity of 2.36×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0032 μg.cm-2, a relative error of -2.4 to +1.6% and a relative standard deviation of ±0.32 to ±1.5%, depending on the concentration level. Interferences due to excipients have been examined. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of hydroxyurea in pharmaceutical formulations (capsules). ).

Biochemical Studies on Synovial Fluid and Serum from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159385

The research included biochemical studies on synovial fluid (SF) samples collected from (48) RA patients. Moreover, blood samples from (158) RA patients and (196) healthy as control were collected.
These patients were divided according to disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) into two groups which comprise severe and moderate.
Physical and chemical analysis of SF revealed of the presence of more than 1 ml, yellow green to gray color, cloudy to opaque, low viscosity, with large fat droplets, bloody fluid, low pH degree, low glucose level, high total protein and albumin levels.
The results revealed that all RA patients had a positive rheumatoid factor (RF+) and the concentration of C- reactive protein (CRP) was found to be (36.73 ± 14.397 and 54.27 ± 17.856) mg/l in serum and SF respectively. Also, the level of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was found to be (54.85 ± 22.903) mm/hr.
Additionally, there were low significant levels of hyaluronidase (Hylase) activity in SF when compared with the serum of RA patients. Also, there was a highly significant increase in levels of Hylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum of RA patients when compared with the serum of healthy control.
Moreover, there were highly significant levels of CRP, ESR, Hylase, ALP and LDH in the serum of RA patients with severe when compared with a moderate. Also there were highly significant levels of CRP, ESR and ALP in the SF of RA patients with severe when compared with a moderate
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The Effect of the Geometrical Parameters on the Characteristics of the Saddle Magnetic Deflector

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 47-56
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159389

In this research work the saddle magnetic deflector has been designed, and studied the effect of the geometrical parameters on the characteristics of the magnetic deflector by using one of the simulation programs known as Electron Optical Design (EOD), which is written in Compaq Visual Fortran 6.6 uses the finite elements method. It has been found that the variations of the axial bore diameter and length of deflector have a great effect on its properties as well as the amount of magnetic deflections. The effect of variation of the thickness of deflector was very small. The effect of the angle of the deflector and its excitation was also studied and found that there is a direct effect on the value of a magnetic deflection only.

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Calculate and Analysis of Air Mass and Solar Angles of Mosul City

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 57-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159386

The solar radiation energy of the city of Mosul was calculated according to the value of AM = 1.24 on 21 March and September, theoretically using formula 7 and measuring it practically using the radiometer of the intensity of the optical radiation emitted from the solar simulator that was designed in the laboratory. There are values of 982 W / m2 and 996 W / m2 , respectively, comparing these values in Table 1 with published values for other sites. Table (1) AM values and solar radiation intensity theoretically using formula (7) and practically for different angular values.
For the purpose of solar simulators manufacturing, the air mass (AM) were calculated for the city of Mosul at Altitude line (36.35o) and Longitude line (43.100) and at a height of 220 meters above sea level, this required the computation of the Solar inclination angle (δ), the hour angle ( , the Solar elevation angle (h) and the zenith angle (Z), in addition to that, the calculations were studied in specified day, chosen at the 21st of each month From sunrise to sunset, which is the daylight hours. The study showed that, the values of AM become equals to one at twelve o'clock and 1.24 on the 21st of March and September when the sun at the zenith angle 36.35o. Also it has been found that the variation of the angle of solar elevation and daylight hours rise to its maximum values at noon and then decreases gradually with daylight hours even the sunset hours. Also the zenith angle and daylight hour's decreases gradually to its minimum value at solar noon time and then rise again at the sunset hours. also it has been found that the relationship between the air mass values vary daily by changing the values of daylight hours.
The results show Vary daily by changing the values of daylight hours the AM values decreases with the solar elevation angle while its values increase with zenith angle. The values of AM have been computed for both daylight hour and hour angle its value decreases to minimum value at noon and raise the value of AM again at the end of daylight hour. The curves profile of AM variation with solar angle and zenith angle are of similar behavior with the published for other locations. The standard value of AM for Mosul City that adopted in this research work at altitude line 36.35o is equal to 1.24 on the 21st of March and September and 1.03 on the 21st of June and 1.8 on the 21st of December.
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Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Salicylic acid and Resorcinol in Callus of Calendula officinalis L. Using HPLC Technique

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159375

Parts of leave of Calendula officinalis plant before and after blooming were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 30 g / l scores, 6 g / l agar, pH was 5.7± 0.1, in addition to 2,4-D at (0.0 , 0.1 , 0.2 , 0.5) mg/ l for callus induction, produced callus recultured on medium supplemented with ( 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg/ l NAA interaction with 0.1 mg/ l BA for three times three weeks for each one. Salicylic acid and Resorcinol were stimulated and identified in callus using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The data indicate: highest fresh weight of callus 13.04 gm achieved from cultured parts of leaves before flowering on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/ l NAA and 0.1 mg/ l BA after nine weeks, and the highest fresh weight of callus 20.50 g obtained from cultured parts of leaves during flowering on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/ l NAA and 0.1 mg/ l BA after nine weeks, highest quantity of salicylic acid 30.02 mg/gm dry weight was obtained from callus produced from parts of leaves before flowering cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/ l NAA and 0.1 mg/ l BA after six weeks, highest quantity of Resorcinol 139.28 mg/ gm dry weight was obtained from callus produced from parts of leaves took during flowering cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l NAA and 0.1mg/ l BA after six weeks.

Bioaccumulation of Zinc in Four Tissues of Local Fishes Collected from Tigris River in Mosul City

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 15-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159379

The study determined the concentration of Zinc in local fish tissues (liver, muscle, gills). The local fishes (Cyprinuscarpio, Condrostomeregium, Liza abu and Carassiuscarassius). All of this samples were collected from Mushirfa, which considered as a control, Middle of the city (near the old bridge of Ninevah ) and Al-Busaif locations. The results showed that the accumulation of Zinc in fish tissues was followed descending order: Liver > Gills > Muscle. While depended on fish collected locations, the bioaccumulation of this metals has followed the order, Al- busaif area > Middle city >Mushirfa area. .

Identification of Vinblastine and Vincristine in Callus of Catharanthus roseus L. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Apparatus

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159376

Parts of leaves, nodal explant, and internodes of Catharanthus roseus were cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with 30 gm / L sucrose, 6 mg / L agar with addition BA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 mg/ L with 0.75 mg /L 2,4-D for callus initiation and growth. Vinblastine and Vincristine were identified in these calli by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.(HPLC). Data refers: highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 1.907 gm, 14.47% were achieved respectively from cultured parts of leaves on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D. cultured nodal explant on MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/ L 2, 4-D produced highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 0.496 gm, 9.15% respectively, culture internodes explant on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D produced highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 0.717 gm, 11.90 % respectively. The callus produced from cultured parts of leave on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D gave highest absorption value for Vinblastine at retention time (13.536) with detected area (255647). highest detected area was (975021) at retention time (18.886) for Vincristine assessed from callus produced from cultured parts of leave on MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D, callus produced from cultured nodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D gave highest detected area for Vinblastine (318395) at retention time (12.809) but culture nodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D gave highest detected area (577979) for Vincristine at retention time (18.139), callus produced from cultured internodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D gave highest absorption value for Vinblastine and Vincristine (1892650) and (964402) at retention time (13.632) (18.309) respectively..

Effect of Pomegranate Juice (Punica granatum L.) on some Hormones and Histological Features of Aorta in Healthy and Ovariectomized White Female New Zealand Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159380

This study was conducted to invistigate the effect of pomegranate juice which contains active compounds that stimulate necessary hormone production to reduce the effect of ovariectomy in initiate and development of atherosclerosis, female New Zealand rabbits had been divided randomly into four groups (5 rabbits/ group), all groups had been given a standard ration with free water, first group had been drenched normal saline by mouth and considered as a control group, while the second group drenched 6ml pomegranate juice /Kg body weight, third group eradicated ovaries by laparoscopic surgery, fourth group eradicated ovaries then drenched 6ml pomegranate juice /Kg body weight, the drenching contentious for 60 days.
The results showed positive effects as a significant increase (P≤0.0001) in Adiponectin hormone, Thyroid stimulating hormone (T.S.H) and Thyroid hormones T4 and T3 in rabbit's serum that drenched 6ml pomegranate juice /Kg body weight, in contrast there is a negative effects as a significant decrease in Adiponectin hormone, T.S.H,T4 and T3 in ovariectomized rabbit's serum, while tend in ovariectomized rabbits to be in near with normal concentration in control.
Histological sections of aorta artery in ovariectomized rabbits showed atherosclerotic lesions between the muscle fibers in media of aorta in contrast with the normal structure of aorta in rabbits drenched pomegranate juice so as in control, also observed improve the histological picture of aorta in ovariectomized that drenched pomegranate juice represented by decrease the atherosclerotic lesions between the muscle fibers in tunica media.
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Effect of Thymus and Anis and Mixture on some Physiological and Productive Traits of Quail

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 49-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159377

The experiment was carried out on quails (unsexed, one day old), to evaluate the effect of supplementation of thymus and anise to ration in physiological, productive traites, birds weight and divided to 4 treatments, three replicate and 20 birds for each replicate for 7 weeks. The experimental treatments were, T1(control): reared on standard ration, T2 reared on standard ration supplemented thyme with 10 g/kg ration, T3 reared on standard ration supplemented anise with 10 g/kg ration and T4 reared on standard ration supplemented with 10 g thyme and 10g anise/kg ration.
Statistical analysis of data showed significant increase in live body weight and weight gain for T4, and significant increase in feed intake in for T2 and T4. significant improvement in feed conversion ratio for T3 and T4. Also, improved mean egg weight, dressing percentage, heart, liver, gizzard, breast, thighs, wings and neck in 4th treatment. And 3rd treatment improved weight of carcass, red blood cell (T.RBC count), hematocrit values (PCV) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), while decrease mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). 2nd and 3rd and 4th treatment decrease glucose concentration and bacterium number in intestine, but show significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in total protein, albumin, globulin, triglycerides and cholesterol concentration. Also, length and improved 2nd , 3rd and 4th treatment egg quality. It concluded from this study that the thyme and anise plant supplement to dieted quail bird improved some of the physiological, productive and reproductive characters and egg quality
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Isolation and Identification Species of Vibrio Genus from Fresh and Frozen Shrimp and Confirmation the Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159381

This research was concerned with the isolation and identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from seafood (shrimp) samples. (40) samples of freshly harvested shrimp from the local markets in Al-Basra city and twenty (20) samples of frozen shrimp (Turkey origin) were collected. Two enrichment methods were used for the enhancement of the growth and isolation of vibrio species, which include enrichment in non selective medium Alkaline peptone water (APW) for 8 hours and then in selective broth salt polymyxin broth (SPB) and then plated on two solid selective media, ThioSulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose agar (TCBS) and Arabinose Ammonium Sulphate Cholate agar (AASC) and morphological, cultural and biochemical tests were performed on the colonies grown on selective media, then we confirmed the identification by using the chromogenic medium ChromagarTM Vibrio for the first time locally. Finally tox R based polymerase chain reaction was used to cofirm the identification of V. parahaemolyticus. The results showed the isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus in percentage 45%, 20%, 37.5%, 17.5% from fresh shrimp, 35%, 20%, 25%, 15% from the frozen shrimp respectively. The results also showed that there is an accordenance between biochemical tests and ChromagarTM Vibrio. The results of tox R based PCR revealed that 22l25 of V. parahaemolyticus contain the tox R gene which is species-specific gene.

Isolation and Identification of some Microorganisms Causing Vaginitis and Cervicitis and Relationship of Risk Factors with these Infections

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 77-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159378

This research was performed to isolate and identify the Microorganisms causing vaginitis and cervicitis and relationship of some risk factors with these infections. Two hundred and seventy high vaginal specimens were collected during the period from December 2012 until the end of May 2013, from pregnant and non- pregnant women of different ages, who had the clinical symptoms of vaginitis and cervicitis infections.
Isolation and identification results showed that (252) specimen (93.3%) were positive for microbial culture, these specimen distributed among (152) specimen (60.3%) appeared single bacterial growth, (13) specimen (5.2%) were mixed bacterial growth, (36) specimen (14.3%) mixed bacterial with candida growth and (51) specimen (20.2%) candidal growth only.
Gram positive bacteria formed the high percentage (63.8%) compared with Gram negative bacteria (36.2%). Staphylococcus spp. were the most isolate among Gram positive bacteria and E.coli were the most isolate among Gram negative bacteria. Candida albicans showed significant appearance among positive microbial cultures either as single or mixed with bacteria.
Results showed relationship between some risk factors with studied infections, it was found that almost all infections were in the married women, aged (20-50) years (93.3%) and the most infections in non- pregnant women (66.7%), in addition to the role of other diseases (such as UTI, diabetes) ,various contraceptive methods and other risk factors.

The Effect of Adding Different Proportions of Ginger Powder on Production in Performance and Carcass Characteristics and Egg of Quail Strains

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 95-106
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159382

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding different levels of ginger powder to the lying Quail rations of three strains (white, gray, black). 297 Quail bird (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly distributed into 3 treatments with 3 and 3 strains, replications of 11 birds/ replication The addition of G.P to the treatments T1 (control), T2 and T3was (0,0.5 and 1%) respectively. The results revealed a significant increase (P≥0.05) in feed consumption and body weight at age of 5 weeks, and relative weight of chest, back and thigh as well as body and carcass weight, and significant increase (P≥0.05) in egg yolk weight and shell thickness in favor to T2. As for strain both white and black strain showed a significant increase (P≥0.05) in carcass percentage fragments, gnat ratio, carcass weight and fragment weights of chest, back and thigh compared to gray line, a significant increase (P≥0.05) in egg length and width in favor to black strain. while there were no significant differences of the ginger in average daily gain, coefficient of food conversion, gnat ratio, egg, white and shell weight respectively and egg white and yolk height between addition levels. As for the interaction between ginger addition and strain, the results revealed a significant differences (P≥0.05) in body weight and feed consumptions in fevor to interaction between gray, white strain, and between T2 and white, black strain of feed conversion efficiency and significant differences (P≥0.05) in egg width in favor to the interaction between T3 and gray strain, and egg produced for favor to the interaction between white strain and T1,T2, egg yolk and white weight and yolk height for favor to the interaction between B.S and both T1and T2. For shell thickness the interaction between W.S. and T1 was significantly superior (P≥0.05) than other treatments.