Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 27, Issue 4

Volume 27, Issue 4, Autumn 2018

Detection of Ochratoxigenic Potential in some Aspergillus and Penicillium Isolates from Vineyard Soil, Fresh and Dried Grapes by ELISA

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 1-7

Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were isolated and identified from samples of
vineyard soil, fresh grape berries and dried vine fruits collected from grapevine nursery and shops
in Duhok province. The ochratoxigenic potential of some of their strains was evaluated by ELISA
technique. Ochratoxin A (OA) was detected in cultures of two species of section Nigri
(A.carbonarius and A.niger aggreg.), two species of Aspergillus section Circumdati (A.ochraceus
and A.westerdijkia) and one species of OA was found at levels from 0.64 to 0.72 ng ml in
A.carbonarius isolates, from 0.64 to 0.66 ng ml in A.niger aggreg. isolates, from 0.23 to
0.65 ng ml in A.ochraceus isolates and 0.40 ngml in A.westterdijkia isolate, whereas the level was
from 0.61 to 0.64 ngml in Penicillium verrucosum.تم عزل وتشخیص العدید من الأنواع الفطریة العائدة للجنسین اسبرجلس و بنیسیلیوم من عینات ترب حقول الأعناب
فضلا عن ثمار العنب الطریة و الجافة والتی جمعت من محافظه دهوک. تم الکشف عن قابلیه إنتاج هذه العزلات لإنتاج السم
Aspergillus section Nigri تم الکشف عن إنتاج السم من قبل عزلتان من ELISA. الفطری اوکراتوکسین باستخدام تقنیه
Aspergillus section Circumdati (A.ochraceus وعزلتان من (A.carbonarius A.niger aggreg.),
.Penicillium (P.verrucosum و عزله من A.westerdijkiae
A.niger 0.64 نانوغرام / ملغم وفى عزلات - ما بین 0.72 A.carbonarius تراوح مستوى إنتاج السم من قبل عزلات
0.23 و فی عزله - مابین 0.65 A.ochraceus 0.64 نانوغرام/ ملغرام وفى عزلات - مابین 0.66 aggreg.
0.61 نانوغرام/ ملغم فى عزلات - 0.40 نانوغرام/ ملغرام بینما تراوح الإنتاج مابین - 0.64 A.westerdijkiaie
.Penicillium verrucosum

Investigation of some Carboxylic Acids and Phenolic Compounds of Ailanthus altissima Leaves and their its Effect on Italian Cupressus Seedlings Root Rot Fungi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 8-18

The study was carried out for separation and identification of some carboxylic acids such as
Aspartic, Citric, Tartaric, Propionic, Ascorbic, Maleic and Fumaric, Adepic acid, as well as Phenol,
Resorcinol, Hydroguinone, Quercetine, p-Hydroxybenzoic, Benzoic acid and Gallic acid from
Alianthus altissima determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Moreover
the major components of carboxylic acid were presented as Ascorbic acid (86.38%). Also the
phenolic compounds was studied and the results showed that P- Hydroxy benzoic acid (41.99%)
was the highest amount. Isolation results from Cupressus seedlings infected with root rot disease
appearance of the fungus F. solani, F. oxysporum , F. chlamydosporium and Rhizoctonia solani,
the isolation ratios was 41% as amaximum value for F. solani, then F. oxyspoum (27%), F.
chlamydosporium (12%) which was minimum value and Rhizoctonia solani (20%).
Bioassay results of Ailanthus altissima leaves extract showed an increasing inhibition ratio
of fungi growth with increasing leaves extract concentrations, F.oxysporum and
F.chlamydosporium had the highest degree of growth inhibition (100) % for the two fungus at (4%)
extracts concentrations, then followed by the fungus F.solani and Rhizoctonia solani were (84.
78,57) % respectively and Rhizoctonia solani had the minimum inhibition.
The results of average fungus growth treated with several concentrations of Ailanthus leaves
extracts with PDA media showed inhibition of growth with increasing extracts concentration, F.
chlamydospoum had minimum mean growth 7mm at 1% extract conc. whereas the two species of
Fusarium showed maximum inhibition for average growth were zero values at 4% of extract conc.
except Rhizoctonia solani which had a different value (19.67) mm at the same conc.تشیر الدراسة الحالیة الى فصل وتشخیص بعض الاحماض الکاربوکسیلیة کحامض الاسبارتک، الستریک، التارتاریک،
البروبانویک، الاسکوربیک، المالیک، الفیوماریک، وحامض الادبیک، فض ً لا عن المرکبات الفینولیة کالفینول، ریسورسینول،
هیدروکینون، کورستین، باراهیدروکسی بنزویک، حامض البنزویک، حامض الکالیک. وأشارت النتائج الى أن حامض الاسکوربیک ظهر بأعلى نسیة بلغت 86.38 % ، وکذلک تم دراسة المرکبات الفینولیة وأظهرت النتائج ان حامض
.% بارهیدروکسی بنزویک ظهر بأعلى نسبة بلغت 41.99
F. و Fusarium solani أظهرت نتائج العزل من شتلات السرو المصابة بمرض تعفن الجذور فطریات
وبلغت النسبة المئویة للعزل 41 % کحد أقصى مع Rhizoctonia solani و F. chlamydosporium و oxysporum
والذی بلغت نسبته المئویة أدنى F. chlamydosporium بنسبة 27 % و F. oxysporum تلته الفطریات F. solani الفطر
فکانت نسبة العزل 20 %، وتبین من نتائج الاختبار الحیوی لمستخلص أوراق Rhizoctonia solani قیمة ( 12 )%، أما الفطر
F. تأثر الفطریات مع زیادة التراکیز للمستخلص حیث أظهر الفطر Ailanthus altissima لسان الطیر
F. solani أقصى تثبیط بتأثیر المستخلص بلغ 100 % عند الترکیز 4% من المستخلص تلته الفطریات chlamydosporium
Rhizoctonia حیث بلغت قیم تثبیطها ( 84 و 57 و 87 )% على التوالی، فی حین أظهر الفطر Rhizoctonia solani و
أدنى نسبة تثبیط بتأثیر المستخلص. solani
کذلک أظهرت نتائج الاختبار الحیوی لمستخلص أوراق لسان الطیر تثبیطًا معنویُا فی متوسطات نمو الفطریات مع
ادنى میوسط نمو تثبیط بتأثیر مستخلص الأوراق إذ بلغ 7 ملم F. chlamydosporium ترکیز المستخلص حیث أظهر الفطر
أقصى تثبیطًا للنمو بلغت قیمته صفر عند Fusarium عند الترکیز 1% من المستخلص، فی حین أظهرت نوعی الفطر
الذی کانت قیمة متوسط نموه 19.67 ملم عند نفس التر

Survey and Identification of some New Record Mushrooms in Erbil Governorate

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 19-32

Sixteen species of Basidiomycota, which belong to sixteen genera were collected and identified
from various areas in Erbil city of kurdistan region-Iraq, such as: Erbil city center, Barzan, Hanara,
Heran, Khalefan, Koysnjaq, Salahaddin (Permum), Mergasur, Shaqlawa and Tawska. The identified
genera and species include the followings: Agaricus bitorquis, Ampulloclitocybe clavipes, Bovista
plumbea, Coprinus micaceus, Hebeloma mesophaeum, lyophyllum decastes, Mycena inclinata,
Meruliopsis taxicola, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus arcularius, Russula
turci, Schizophyllum commune, Scleroderma verrucosum, Trametes hirsuta and Vascellum pretense.
Seven genera of the mushroom were new record in kurdistan region-Iraq, such as: Ampulloclitocybe
clavipes, Bovista plumbea, lyophyllum decastes, Meruliopsis taxicola, Russula turci, Scleroderma
verrucosum and Vascellum pretense. The aim of this research is to survey and identify Basidiomycota,
which is a wild mushroom that grow in natural form in different seasons and different areas Scleroderma verrucosum ،Russula turci

Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms from Patients with Halitosis

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 33-39

Twenty-eight patients suffering from oral halitosis were subjected to this study (14 males and 14 females), their ages range between 18 to 65 years were diagnosed clinically. Ninety-five samples were collected by sterile paper points (size 50) or sterile cotton swab and transported in thioglycolate broth and cultured on blood agar in aerobic or anaerobic conditions for (48-72 hours), the identification of the bacteria was carried out using morphological and cultural characteristics, biochemical tests and antibiotics susceptibility tests. The results showed that 13 different bacterial species isolated in this study ((Bacteriodes spp. (14 isolate), Viridans Streptococci (10 isolates), Peptostreptococci spp. (9 isolates), Actinomyces spp. (6 isolates), Porphyromonas spp. (4 isolates), Fusobacterium spp. (4 isolates), Veillonella spp. (4 isolates), Non.coagulase Staphylococcus (3 isolates) Prevotella spp (one isolate), Propinobacterium spp. (one isolate) Tetragenococci spp. (one isolate), Eubacterium spp. (one isolate), and Staphylococcus aureus (one isolate). The conclusion is the dominance of different genera and species of anaerobic bactria in cases of halitosis. Staphylococcus aureus

Bioinformatics: Effect of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Human Immune Gene Expression

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 40-50

Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) cause common infections in humans with a prevalence of over 70% in adults, reaching 90% in poorer communities and developing countries. In immune-compromised and transplant recipients, CMV causes serious complications including pneumonia and ulcerative colitis. Studying the effect of CMV on human immune-inflammatory genes in immune cellular responses is critically important to explore the molecular mechanisms of viral-host interaction. The aim of this study is to explore changes in the mRNA transcripts of a panel of 84 human inflammatory genes. Ninety blood samples were collected from healthy persons used as control samples and compared with acute infection with CMV sample from bioinformatics data (previous researches). Real time-PCR array were performed to determine mRNA levels expression levels of 84 different cytokines and chemokines in control`s leukocytes concentrate. CMV infection caused upregulation (between 44.99 and 0.92 fold change) in the expression of 13 human immune-inflammatory genes (IL-1 alpha, IL10R Alpha, CXCL10, IL10, CX3CR1, CCL2, CCR5, CCR7, CXCL1, IL-1β, TNF, IFN-alpha 2, CCL5). Gene ontology analysis revealed that CMV causes high impact on four key pathways in infected cells. .

Isolation and Biofilm Forming Ability of Bacteria Attached to Urinary Catheter Undergoing Long-Term Bladder Catheterization

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 51-59

Catheter associated urinary tract infections are one of the most common nosocomial infections. This study aims to isolate, identify and biofilm forming ability of bacteria attached to urinary catheters particularly catheters that had been in place for prolonged periods in preventing catheter-associated infections caused by hospitalized ICU patients. Urinary catheters from (Clinical center of University Kebangsaan Malaysia) were used, one from Acute Vascular Rejection patient (Urinary catheter B), and two from Benign Prostate Hyperplasia patient (Urinary Catheter C and D).The urinary catheters and urine evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively used colony-forming unit and bacteriological assessment, respectively for each portions of urinary catheter for identifying infections. Bacterial population on agar plates showed varying density for all parts of three urinary catheters and urine samples. Altogether 100 isolates including 96 bacterial isolates and 4 yeast isolates have been successfully obtained from the three urinary catheters. Pathogens were Proteus 22 isolates followed by E.coli 5 isolates, Enterobacter 4 isolates, Klebsiella 3 isolates, Pseudomonas 1 isolates For UC(B), while in UC(C and D) which represent the catheters to same diseases were Pseudomonas 23 isolates showed the highest isolates followed by E.coli 16 isolate, Proteus 10 isolates, Enterobacter 7 isolates, Klebsiella 4 isolates, Candida 4 isolates, Bacillus 1 isolate. Results of biofilm forming on microtiter plate and sterile Foley catheter revealed that these isolates possess a high capacity for biofilm formation on the both surfaces at different degrees with delay in the initiation of biofilm formation on silicone coated Foley catheter compared to polystyrene microtiter plate. It is concluded that Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for UTI infections in our patients and almost all of the isolates have the abilities to form visible growing biofilms on both surfaces.

Detection of Biofilm Genes (IcaA and IcaD) in Staphylococcus spp.

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 60-63

One hundred thirty one clinical bacterial samples were collected from skin, pus, urine and blood from patients at Al-Salam General Teaching Hospital in Mosul city during March until July/ 2012, The present study included identification using API ID 32 STAPH system to the species Staphylococcus. aureus, Staph. lugdunensis, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. hominis, Staph. auricularis and Staph. haemolyticus, Biofilm formation genes at icaA (188 bp.) were found in 35.7% of Staph. aureus, Staph. hominis, and Staph. xylosus but 42.8 % of Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. hominis, and Staph. xylosus contained icaD (198 bp.) gene only.


Detection of Human Bocavirus Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 64-74

Background: Respiratory tract diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children, and a great variety of viruses are responsible of these infection.
Objectives: To determine the infection rate of human bocavirus in children with lower respiratory tract infection and related with different variable.
Patients and methods: Cross sectional study consists of 122 children under five years old their age ranged between 1 and 60 months and 75 males and 47 females; suffering from lower respiratory tract infection. They were attending respiratory wards in Fatima Al-Zahraa Hospital, Al-Elwiya Pediatrics Hospital, Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital and Pediatrics Protection Hospital in Baghdad, during the period from December 2017 to February 2018. Full information were collected from parents or relevant of each patient use specific formula sheet as well as nasopharyngeal samples were collected and used for DNA extraction and amplification with specific primers by PCR.
Results: Out of all 122 samples, eight samples were positive for HBoV (6.6%). Most infections were recorded in males 5(62.5%) patients aged 1-30 months 7(87.5%) but statistically non-significant. Significant differences (p=0.02) were noticed with nasal discharge 100% and wheezing 100% in HBoV-positive children, while non-significant with other parameter so higher proportion of HBoV-positive children had asthma (62.5%).Exactly 50% of HBoV-positive children were suffering from diarrhea. Nervous manifestation did no differ significantly between positive and negative groups (37.5% and 38.59% respectively). The results of phylogenetic analysis for HBoV DNA isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs revealed that all local isolates (8 isolates) are with HBoV type 1.
Conclusions: Infection rate of human bocavirus was compared with rates of infection from neighboring countries, no significant differences were notice between infection rate and different parameters except with nasal discharge and wheezing.


Detection of mrkA Gene in Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients under Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 75-80

Thirty five sinus samples obtained from endoscopic patients who were suffering from chronic sinusitis and admitted to AL-Jumhori, AL-Rabie private, AL-Zahrawi private hospitals in Mosul city from March 2013 to March 2014 were conducted .Samples were cultured and pure isolates were identified to species level using morphological, biochemical and physiological tests. PCR was done using plasmids isolated from species under study by using primers for mrkA gene .mrkA gene was found in four species: Moraxella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli and Citrobacter freundii.
Nucleotide sequencing was done for isolated mrkA gene and homology searches were conducted between the sequences of standard gene BLAST program which is available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Basic Local Alignment Search program Tool(BLAST). Variations appear as transversion mutation which causes change tryptophan amino acid to leucine amino acid and there was transition mutation which causes change from aspartite amino acid to asparagine..

Serological and Molecular Comparison Study for Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infection in aborted Pregnant Women in Iraq

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 81-89

This study was conducted to investigate the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections of pregnant women. The samples were collected from Mosul and Baghdad hospitals in Iraq for two years and the tested women within the age category of under 20 to above 39 years. One thousand five hundred samples were taken as serum, to use in ELISA (IgM, IgG). EDTA blood, Heparin blood and cervical swabs were used in molecular tests. Three hundred positive samples demonstrating the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies using ELISA test. IgM antibodies were positive in 146 (48.7%) CMV, IgG antibodies were positive in 189 (63%) for CMV. DNA was extracted and Real-Time PCR indicates positive in only four samples (1.3%) in CMV from all 300 positive samples in ELISA tests. CMV

Synthesis and Evaluation the Activity of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as Antibacterial Agent Against Uncommon Bacteria Causes of Urinary Tract Infections

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 90-102

Schiff base compound 5-(benzylideneamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol was prepared from condensation reaction of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole with benzaldehyde. New Schiff bases react with copper (II), Ferric (III), Cobalt (II) and Zinc (II) to form four complexes. The Schiff base complexes were identification by using FTIR and UV-VIS. The antibacterial activity of complexes (Copper (II) LM1, Ferric (III) LM2, Cobalt (II) LM3 and Zinc (II) LM4 complexes) were studied against Kocuria kristinae, Alloiococcus otiti and Aerococcus urinae as a model of Gram positive, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Ochrobactrum anthropic and Pantoea agglomerans as a model of Gram negative to determine the activity of synthesized complexes. Identification of these uncommon bacteria that isolated from urinary tract infection confirmed by using VITEK2 compact system. Several antibiotics have been chosen to investigate the ability of these isolates to resist the conventional antibiotic. The results showed higher activity of the new compounds relative to the chosen antibiotics. .

Biophysical Effect of EMR with 5GHz on Male Reproductive system of Mus musclus Mice

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 103-113

To study the effect of microwave radiation with power density 100,150 and 200 microwatt /
cm2 (μW/cm2) of exposure on male reproductive system of Mus musclus Swiss albino mice. The
results of the first group exposed to 100 μW/cm2 showed a significant decrease(p<0.05) in no. of
sperm cells in epididymis percentage of living sperm cells and percentage of normal sperm cells
respectively while a significant increase(p<0.05) in percentage of dead sperm cells and percentage
of abnormal sperm cells was found. The second and third groups exposed to microwave radiation at
150 and 200 μW/cm2.The 5GHz on microwave radiation has a harmful effects physiologically and
histopathologically for reproductive system. Exposure for long time to radiation from
communication that have this same frequency as WI –Fi or any communication from internet
should be avoided.تمت دراسة تأثیر موجات المایکرویف بکثافة قدرة 150 ، 100 و 200 مایکرو واط/سم 2 على الجهاز التناسلی الذکری
5. بینت النتائج ان GHz لفترة تعریض ( 6) ساعات یومیا لمدة ( 60 ) یوما للتردد Mus musculus للفئران من نوع
فی عدد خلایا النطف فضلا (P< المجموعة المعرضة لجرعة اشعاعیة 100 مایکرو واط/سم 2 اظهرت انخفاضا ملحوظا ( 0.05
عن حصول انخفاض معنوی فی عدد الخلایا الحیة والطبیعیة، بینما بینت هذه النتائج حصول زیادة معنویة فی عدد الخلایا
المیتة والمشوهة.
اما نتائج القیاسات للمجموعتین المعرضتین للجرعتین الاشعاعیتین 150 و 200 مایکرو واط/سم 2 فقد اظهرت نفس
5 لها تاثیرات خطرة فسلجیا GHz التغییر الذی حدث فی المجموعة الاولى. موجات المایکرویف الاشعاعیة عند التردد
ونسیجیا للجهاز التناسلی وان یتم تجنب التعرض لفترة زمنیة طویلة للاشعاعات المنبعثة من الاتصالات التی لها نفس تردد
او أی اتصالات عبر الانترنت

Colon Cancer Early Detection by some Serum's Antigenic, Enzymatic and Free- serum's DNA indicators

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 114-127

This research include (104) patient's blood serum diagnosed with colon cancer proved by
colonoscopy and histopathology. Blood samples had been selected consecutively over the period
March 2013 to April 2014 from patients treated in Oncology and Nuclear Medicine hospital, Al-
Jumhory hospital/Mosul and azadi Teaching Hospital/Kirkuk. All cases and controls were aged (21-
85–years). One hundred normal blood donor individuals had been used as controls. Antigenic tumor
markers which include carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9)
had been measured in blood's serum from 104 patients with colon cancer. Results indicate a significant
elevation (p<0.05) in levels of CEA and C19-9 only in patients with advanced stage C and metastatic
stage D compared with control. Beside biochemical enzymatic tumor markers that included
Cyclooxygenase, Arginase showed significantly increase (p<0.05) of enzymatic activity for colon
cancer patients with early stage (A) compared with controls. While the serum alkaline
sphingomyelinase level was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in colon cancer patients in stage A
compared with controls and this decrease was independent of Dukes’ stage, thus strengthening the
hypothesized validity of these assays to be used as serum test for the early detection of colonic
neoplasia. The results of this research also revealed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the serum's free
DNA in all stages of colon cancer patient's compared with control grope for this it was considered as a
good indicator of early detection of colon cancer.

Analysis of the Oxidative Stress Parameters in Testicular, Hepatic and Renal Tissues Homogenates of Albino Rats after Administration of Imatinib at Peripuberty

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 128-135

Background: Targeted small molecule drugs have revolutionized treatment of chronic
myelogenous leukemia (CML) over the last two decades. The safety zone of imatinib, and
specifically its relevancy to organ toxicity, has been discussed in a controversial manner in current
years. There is a little data on the contribution of oxidative stress in imatinib induced organ
Objectives: This work aims to analyze the possible role of oxidative stress in the occurrence of
testicular, hepatic and renal toxicities induced by imatinib (if present) by analyzing some
parameters including glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in their homogenates.
Study setting and design: This experimental study was conducted on male Albino rats (purchased
from Animal Houses of both Mosul Medical College, and Veterinary College, University of Mosul,
Mosul, Northern Iraq).
Methods: This work included 40- 45 days aged rats (at peripuberty) (n=8) which administered a
single daily dose of 200mg/kg of imatinib mesylate for 30 days (100mg capsule, Glivec®, STI 571;
Novartis) bought from Ibn-Sena Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Northern Iraq, or bought from some
private pharmacies and were dissolved in distilled water (D.W) and given orally by gavage with 24
gage needle. Another group of 8 rats were administered with D.W represents an age matched
control. Testes, livers, parts and kidneys were collected from all rats. Tissue GSH, MDA
concentrations in the homogenates of the three organs were determined by spectrophotometer
according to the methods described.
Results: All rats survived the experimental period. This study revealed a decrease in value of GSH
in the testicular and hepatic tissues of the treated rats, however, the concentrations of this
antioxidant in renal tissue were higher than that of control ones. Briefly, imatinib induced an
elevation of MDA productions in both testicular and hepatic tissues when compared to the control
group. MDA concentrations in renal homogenates in the treated group were lower than that of
control ones.
Conclusion: Imatinib induced a decrease in the level of GSH and increased in level of MDA in
testicular, hepatic homogenates indicating its oxidative effect.الخلفیة: ان الأدویة المستهدفة للجزیئات الصغیرة قد احدثت ثورة فى علاج مرض ابیضاض الدم المزمن خلال العقدین
المنصرمین. ان المنطقة الامنة للایماتنب وخصوصا علاقته مع سمیة الاعضاء قد نوقشت بطریقة متناقضة فى السنوات
الحالیة. هناک بیانات قلیلة عن مساهمة الکرب التاکسدى فی سمیة الأعضاء الناتجة عن الایماتنبأهداف الدراسة: یهدف هذا العمل الى تحلیل الدور الاحتمالی للکرب التاکسدى فى حدوث سمیة الخصیة والکبد والکلى الناتجة
عن الایماتنب (اذا ما کانت موجودة) وذلک عن طریق تحلیل بعض المؤشرات التی تشمل مستویات الکلوتاثایون المالوندالدیهاید
فی مزیج أنسجة تلک الأعضاء.
مکان الدراسة: هذه الدراسة التجریبیة اجریت على الجرذان المهقاء والمهداة من بیتی الحیوانات التابعین لکلیتی طب الموصل
والطب البیطرى، جامعة الموصل فى مدینة الموصل شمالی العراق.
45 یوما (حول البلوغ) وعددهم ثمانیة وذلک عن طریق الفم یومیا - طرائق العمل: تضمن العمل تجریع الجرذان بعمر 40
بمقدار 200 ملغرام لکل کیلوغرام من وزن الجسم ولمدة شهر بعقار الایماتنب مسیلیت (کلیفک، نوفارتس) مهداة من مستشفى
ابن سینا التعلیمى، مدینة الموصل او مشترى من بعض الصیدلیات الخاصة. تم اذابة الدواء فى الماء المقطر وباستعمال ابرة
تجریع قیاس 24 . مجموعة اخرى من نفس العمر جرعوا بالماء المقطر ومثلوا مجموعة السیطرة. تم جمع اخذ الخصیتین
والکبد والکلیتین من کل الجرذان. تم تحدید تراکیز الکلوتاثایون والمالوندالدیهاید فی مزیج أنسجة الأعضاء الثلاثة بجهاز قیاس
الطیف الضوئی وذلک حسب الطرق المعتمدة.
النتائج: کل الجرذان عاشوا خلال طول فترة التجربة. هذه الدراسة أوضحت ان هناک قلة فى مستوى الکلوتاثایون فی نسیج
الخصیة والکبد فى الجرذان المعاملة مع العلم ان مستوى هذا المضاد التاکسدى فی نسیج الکلى قد کان اعلى من مجموعة
السیطرة. بطریقة مختصرة، الایماتنب احدث زیادة فى مستوى المالوندالدیهاید فى کلا نسیجی الخصیة والکبد بالمقارنة مع
مجموعة السیطرة. ان مستوى المالوندالیهاید فى نسیج الکلى فى مجموعة المعاملة کان اقل من ذلک العائد لمجموعة السیطرة.
الاستنتاجات: ان الایماتنب قد سبب انخفاضا فى مستوى الکلوتاثایون وزیادة فی مستوى المالوندالدیهاید فی مزیجی الخصیة
والکبد ممایدل على تأثیره الاوکسیدى.

Effect of some Biological Agents on Pathogenicity of some Root Pathogenic Fungi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 1-16

Results of pathogenicity showed that the three fungi Fusarium culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp.
and Bipolaris spp. were the faster fungi inoculated in the emergence of symptoms as pathological
symptoms in both strawberry varities Hapil and Festival. Hapil was more sensitive than Festival agents
on the three studied fungi. The results indicate that the addition of biological agent T. harzianum and P.aerogenosa and fungicides Azadirachtin to the three fungi F. culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp. and
Bipolaris spp. caused a significant reduction of the pathogenicity compared with fungi alone, and the
results indicated that the biological agent efficiency of high antagonisms ability against the three fungi
F. culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp. and Bipolaris spp., and the results indicated the ability of
biological agent on P. aerogenosa agents the fungus Cylindrocarpon spp., and fungicide Azadirachtin
showed high antagonism against Cylindrocarpon spp.أشارت نتائج اختبار القدرة الامراضیة الى أ  ن الفطریات الثلاثة
وفستفل Hapil تسببت فی ظهور الأعراض المرضیة فی صنفی الشلیک هابل Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و
وکان الصنف هابل اکثر حساسیة من الصنف فستفل تجاه الفطریات الثلاثة المدروسة، فقد بینت النتائج الى ان إضافة .Festival
والمقاوم الکیمیائی Pseudomonas aerogenosa والبکتیری Trichoderma harzianum المقاومین الحیویین الفطری
اعطى انخفاضًا معنویًا فی Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و F. culmorum الى الفطریات الثلاثة Azadirachtin
شدة ظهور المرض بالمقارنة مع الفطریات ک ً لا على حدة وبمفرده. وکان للمقاوم الحیوی الفطری کفاءة تضادیة عالیة ضد
کما تشیر النتائج إلى تفوق القدرة التضادیة ،Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و F. culmorum الفطریات الثلاثة
ایضًا قدرة Azadirachtin معنویًا وأظهر المقاوم الکیمیائی Cylindrocarpon spp. على الفطر P. aerogenosa للبکتریا
.Cylindrocarpon spp. تضادیة عالیة على الفطر

Numerical Taxonomy for Pinus sp. Growing in Northern of Iraq

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 17-31

The present research included numerical taxonomy for (6) species belonging to the genus
Pinus L. (Pinaceae) which are growing in north of Iraq in (11) Sites which were distributed in
Ninavah, Dohuk and Erbil Provinces, five of them were cultivated ( Pinus halepensis Mill., P.
eldarica Medw., P. pinea L., P. canariensis Sm. and P. radiata Son.) and one species grow
naturally ( P. brutia Ten.). By using morphological, and chemical features. The enhanced numerical
comparison (numerical taxonomy) for phenotypic traits and the chemical health systematic of the
species and separation Pinus brutia from P. halepensis and the rest of the species separation from
each other. The results showed that the highest similarity range among the species was 75.47%
between P. brutia and P. eldarica . while the species P. halepensis of the end of Dendrogram by
similarity range with P. brutia at 26.41% . and this result was similar with polygonal

Detection of Active Compounds in Residues some Species of Plant, Isolation and

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 32-41

The research aims to the guarantee detection of some active compounds in plant residues for
crops Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barely (Hordeum Spp. Desf.),Corn (Zea mays L.), Sunflower
(Helianthus annuus L.) using the appropriate chemical reagents, were separated and some estimate
their respective rates, has also been isolated and identified Allelopathic compounds using separation
device High performance liquid chromatography HPLC the results were as follows:
1. The results of initial qualitative statements showed presence most of the secondary metabolic
compounds which includes (glycosides and alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids,
saponins, resins) in the sun flower remnants, while the results of detecting the presence of
steroids in the remnants of barley and Corn did not show, as did not give turbines and steroid
positive and resins when detected in the remnants of wheat, were also measured quantity
(glycosides and alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids) and the results showed that the highest
concentration of (alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids) was in the sun flower residues, while the highest
concentration of Glycosides was in the residues of barley.
2. The results of the analysis devise chromatography High performance liquid HPLC showed
presence 5 phenolic compounds, in residues of wheat (Hydroquinone, P- Hydroxy benzoic acid,
Quercetin, Salicylic acid, Rutin), two compounds in barley residues(Hydroquinone, Caffiec
acid), 5 compounds in Corn residues(Caffiec acid, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, Rutin, Vanillin),
but the sun flower residues continued(Quercetin, Resorcinol, Rutin, Vanillin).

Detection of Positions of Genes of β-Carotene Production by

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 42-52

Two procedures was followed to determine the position of β-carotene pigment coding genes.
The first procedure is curing of plasmid nucleic acid content using ethidium bromide with 150 μg/ml
concentration for each the yeasts Rhodotorula. mucilaginosa BA61, Sacharomyces cervisiae BA179
and Escherichia coli BA252. The results revealed that success of curing of plasmid DNA for
the yeast R. mucilaginosa BA61. The cured colonies was bearing β-carotene pigment production
characteristic and the genes responsible for this characteristic laid on the chromosome, as long
as, the curing did not occur. The curred colonies showed sensitivity against the studied antibiotics
with percentage ranged from 16-80% with exception with Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Lamisil and
Vancomycin. Also results of curing of the yeast S. cervisiae strain BA179 losing of antibiotic
resistance with the range 15-92%. Results of curring of E. coli BA252 strain showed losing of
antibiotic resistance with percentage 15-23%, with exception with the Trimethoprim, Erythromycin
and Lamisil.
The second procedure for determine the position of coding genes was done by conjugation,
which two conjugation attempts was done. The first one for determine the ability of plasmid nucleic
acid for mobilization and transferation in yeast strains. There was success conjugation between donor
yeast strain R. mucilaginosa BA61 and the curred yeast S. cervisiae BA179 as recipient with
conjugation frequency 0.65× 10-8, this study proved that the transferred plasmid nucleic acid from
R. mucilaginosa BA61 bearing Gentamicin antibiotic genes, but not genes responsible for β-carotene
pigment production, as well as, two attempts of conjugation was done through kingdoms between
R.mucilaginosa BA61 as a donor and E. coli BA252 as recipient. Results revealed that plasmid
nucleic acid bearing Rifampin resistance genes has the ability ofmobilization and transferation from
the yeast to the bacteria with conjugation frequency 3.05×10-8. Results also showed that the curred
bacteria has the ability of receiving and stability of plasmid from the yeast by conjugation,
whereas the resulting was not bear production of the β-carotene pigment characteristic and this
confirm that the genes coding for pigment production characteristic bearing laid on chromosomal
nucleic acid.

Isolation of Protein Compounds from Elettaria cardamomum Fruits Plant and

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 53-63

This study included preparation of aqueous extract for fruits of Elettaria cardamomum plant,
isolation of their proteins and precipitation takes place by using acetone. The precipitate of the
isolated proteins were purified using gel filtration chromatography depending on the volume of
their molecules (proteins) and their molecular weights by a gel of Sephadex G – 75. The results
were shown that there are two protein compounds A and B isolated from the protein precipitate
resulted from cold aqueous extract for this plant by gel filtration chromatography. Then the
molecular weight was determined for these compounds isolated using the same techniques (gel
filtration) by comparison these compounds with proteins known molecular weights. The
approximate molecular weight of two compounds A and B are 29940, 10627 Dalton respectively

Effect of Organic Fertilizer of Potasium Humate and Sea Weed Extracts on some

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 64-75

The study was conducted in the forest nursery at college of agriculture and forestry/ University of
Mosul during the mid of April 2012, to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer Pow humus with three
concentrations (0 , 1 , 2) g L. In addition to Hypra tonic and Alga 300 with three concentration
(0 , 1 , 2 ) ml L. on some chemical and physiological characteristics of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. The
results showed that the highest significant increase was caused by Pow humus fertilizer in the leaves
content of phosphorus, potassium, carbohydrate, total chlorophyll and phenols, as well as the root
content of nitrogen and potassium. While Hypra tonic fertilizer has the highest significant increase in
the root content of phosphorus. In addition spraying by Alga 300 fertilizer gave the highest significant
increase in leaves content of nitrogen and it is effect was significant in stability of membranes.أجریت هذه الدراسة فی مشتل قسم الغابات/ کلیة الزراعة و الغابات، جامعة الموصل، فی منتصف الشهر الرابع عام 2012
لمعرفة تأثیر السماد العضوی فی البوهیومص بثلاثة تراکیز ( 2 ، 1 ، 0 ) غم/ لتر، الى جانب الهایبراتونیک و الجا 300 و بثلاثة
.Pinus pinea L. تراکیز ایضا ( 2 ، 1 ، 0 ) مل/ لتر على بعض الصفات الکیمیائیة و الفسلجیة لشتلات الصنوبر الثمری
وأظهرت النتائج ان اعلى زیادة معنویة سببها سماد الباوهیومص فی محتوى الاوراق من الفسفور و البوتاسیوم و الکاربوهیدرات و
الکلوروفیل الکلی و الفینولات فضلا عن محتوى الجذور من النتروجین و البوتاسیوم، فی حین سبب سماد الهایبراتونیک حصول
اعلى زیادة معنویة فی محتوى الجذور من الفسفور، کما أعطى الرش بسماد الجا 300 اعلى زیادة معنویة فی محتوى الاوراق من
النتروجین و کان تأثیره معنویًا فی ثباتیة الأغشیة

Genotypic and Phenotypic Behavior for Quantitative Traits of some Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) and their Half Diallel Crosses

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 76-87

A field experiment was carried out at the research station of the field crops department
college of agricultureuniversity of Tikrit during (2011-2012 and 2013 winter seasons, included
crossing according half diallel cross in the first season and evaluating parents and their crosses in
the second season to study the genotypic and phenotypic behavior for the traits: days to anthesis,
plant height (cm), no. spikes. plant-1, no. grains. spike-1, 1000 grains weight (g) and individual grain
weight. Results showed highly significant differences for whole studied traits, many parents have
high significant means and agood combiner in many traits especially ACS-W-J19-9148 parents in
plant height and grains. spike-1 , ACS-W-J14-9143 parent in days to anthesis and 1000 grain weight
and ACS-W-J15-9144 in no.grains.spike-1 and individual grain weight. Many crosses have better
performance and affected positively to wards desired direction of significant hybrid vigor (ACS-WJ19-
9148 X sham 6) in no. grains. spike-1 and individual grain yield, (ACS-W-J15-9144) in 1000
grain weight and individual grain weight. Whole traits were controlled by dominance type of gene
action and that adequate with the ratio of the degree of dominance which were more than one.
Consequently heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance were low. The last two
crosses can be useful through the application of pedigree selection on the late segregation
generations to improve bread wheat cultivars

Study of the Effect of Black Leg Disease in Potato Production

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 88-94

The susceptibility of 8 cultivars of potato to infection by black leg disease was studied using
artificial inoculation with 10- 4 CFU/ml from isolated bacterial. The results showed that all cultivars
were susceptible at different levels, under greenhouse and filed condition. Diamond was found to be
the most susceptible cultivar to blackleg disease while Desiree was the least susceptible .Different
method to treat the blackleg disease. The symptoms were reduction in the production of tubers and
the appearance of infected of leaves and the reduction in different plant heights. The bacteria that
cause this disease were isolated from potato tubers, shoots, soil and water. The mother tubers were
found to be major source of inoculums for blackleg disease.تمت دراسة قابلیة ثمانیة اصناف من البطاطا للإصابة بمرض الساق الأسود وکانت جمیعها قابلة للإصابة بدرجات
4 وحدة مکونة للمستعمرات - متفاوتة تحت ظروف البیت الزجاجی والحقل باستخدام العدوى الصناعیة بمعلق البکتریا بترکیز 10
البکتیریة لکل مل وکان الصنف دایمونت اکثر الأصناف حساسیة للإصابة أما الصنف دیزاری فهو اقلها حساسیة. کما تم عزل
البکتریا المسببة لهذا المرض من درنات البطاطا وسیقان النباتات الهوائیة والأوراق والتربة ومن میاه السقی وقد تبین أن
الدرنات الأم تعد المصدر الأهم لحدوث الإصابة ومن اعراض المرض انخفاض إنتاجیة الدرنات وظهور الأوراق المصابة
واختلاف أطوال النباتات نتیجة الإصابة بالبکتریا

Regeneration of White Lupin, Lupinus albus, Plants form Hypocotyl Stems

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 95-102

This study succeeded in regenerating the white lupin, Lupinus albus, plants from
differentiated the hypocotyl stems callus of its sterilized seedlings. The results indicated to superior
the solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium provided with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA in callus initiation
with 90% after 20 days of culture from the other of selected media. The rate of the value of the
callus fresh weight was 3.3 gm after 40 days of growth, which gives indication on the viability and
activity of callus. The continued of callus subculture on the same its initiated medium led to
spontaneous production of 22 shoots. These regenerated shoots rooted when cultivated in MSO
with its full strength at ratio 50% after 26 days, producing the whole lupin plants in the culture
media. .

Effect of Spray with Benzyladenine and Soil Texture in Growth and some Physiological Characters for Oat Plant (Avena sativa L.)

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 103-114

This Study include cultivating of Qat (Avena sativa L.) in two different soils texture Sada wa
Baweeza soil (Silty Clay Loam) and Hamam Al-Aleal Soil (Silty Sandy Loam) with spraying the
plants with concentrations of Benzyladenine [0.0, 100,150] ppm and its effect on some growth and
physiological features of oats plant. Results were analyzed using the Complete Randomized Design
(C.R.D) as a factorial experiment, and the results showed surpass plant cultivated in clay loam soil
were in plant height, leaf area, relative water contain and plant pigments content (8.3, 20.6, 2.3,
20.3, 17.5 %) Respectively compared to the plant cultivated in the Silty Sandy Loam texture. Plants
treated with BA (100, 150 ppm) surpassed in all of measurement growth and physiological features
compared with untreated plants.

Molecular Identification of the Local Isolated Fungi Aureobasidium pullulans

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 115-128

Twenty fungal isolates of Aureobasidium were isolated from many healthy leaves of
different citrus trees. Fungal isolates understudy were identified by using morphological and
cultural characters. The results revealed that the isolates are belonged to the species A .pullulans.
Molecular identification of the isolated fungi were carried out using the specific-PCR reaction. The
results showed 17 bands of purified genomic DNA from local fungal isolates of similar size ranging
(500-600)bp. These bands have the same size to that obtained from the standard strain A. pullulans
NRRL 58560. On the other hand, it did not show any band of the DNA as a result of the Specific-
PCR reaction specialize of isolates (Ap15 and Ap17 and Ap18) in the agarose gel.
The sequence of the nitrogenous bases for the Specific PCR products were determined for
three chosen local isolates. The results were analyzed using DNA Blast / NCBI program revealed
that there is a similarity higher than 95% between these sequences and those of the standard
strains of A. pullulans already recorded in the Gene Bank. Additionally, the point mutations
whether they are substitution or addition or deletion were observed in some positions of the
nitrogenous bases after comparing the sequences of the tested local isolates and the standard.
These mutations may occur spontaneously.
This analysis results sent to GenBank using the website of the NCBI and introduced in
GenBank record as standard isolates and given a cod number in the GenBank as follows: Ap1.sqn
Ap1 KX964610, Ap7.sqn Ap7: KX964611, Ap14.sqn Ap14 KX964612 This confirms the validity
of the results obtained in this study and diagnosis of the validity of the local isolates under study..

Induced of Systemic Resistance in Tomato Plant Against Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus by Bion and Riboflavin

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 129-137

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of abiotic agents Bion and Riboflavin in
inducing resistance in tomato plant Geesy cultivar against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), under plastic house conditions. The experiment was included two application with induce resistance agents:
Bion & Riboflavin used by two concentration for foliar spray before and after 3,6 and 2,4 days artificial
inoculation with virus. The treatment was evaluated by using several parameters such as estimation of
percentage and severity of disease infection, serological evaluation by DAS-ELISA, estimation of
peroxidase absorbance change and some of the plant growth parameters. The best treatment was foliar
spray with Bion 1 mg/ml before 6 days of virus inoculation showed reduction in the percentage of
disease infection which was 37.1% compare with control treatment, on the other hand above treatment
was caused high inhibition activity of virus (TBSV) multiplication which was 70% as demonstrated by
ELISA absorbance values 0.296 nm compare with control treatment which inoculated with virus only
was 0.972 nm. Results also indicated that the treatment by spray Riboflavin concentration 10 mM
before (4 days) the inoculation of virus was inhibition of percentage of disease was 35%. On the other
hand the treatment was used of Riboflavin 10 mM spray gave significant increase in the activity of
peroxidase after 14 days of virus inoculation which was give 71.172 absorbance compare with control
treatment which was 28.193.).

Morphological and Molecular Diagnosis of Root Knot Nematode Species Associated with Olive Seedling and Trees in Baghdad, Babil and Karbala/ Iraq

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 138-150

The study was aimed to conduct a field survey to identify the Root knot nematodes species
associated with olive trees and nurseries in provinces of Baghdad /Al- Zaafaraniya, Babil /Al- Sada,
Karbala /Al-Atishi and Al-Hindiah Horticulture Center. Baghdad /Al- Zaafaraniya had the highest
percentage of disease incidence (100%) and root-knot index (3) in the field, while nurseries under
shade conditions in the same region had the least percentage of disease incidence and root-knot
index (6.6% and 0), respectively.
Two species of root-knot nematodes M. javanica and M.incognita were identified in all study
location, the perineal pattren technique was used for identification .M.incognita identification was
molecularly confirmed by the PCR to be used in all study trials.

Effect of Amcocombe and Topaz Pesticide in Fungus Causing Contract Failure and Syphilis of Pumpkin Plant

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 151-161

In this study isolation from squash flowers which showed blossom end rot and male flowers
during fall and spring seasons showed the appearance of the following fungi Alternaria alternata,
Choanephora cucurbitarum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium
sporotrichioides. A. alternata record the highest isolate percentage 30.86% , 32.82% in fall and
spring respectively, followed by F. proliferatum which only isolated from male flowers during fallseasons in addition to F. culmorum, F. sporotrichioides The results also showed that Amkucombe
caused significant inhibition in fungi dry weight ,the highest inhibition was in F. sporotrichioides
where percentage was 91.66 followed by F. culmorum with 50%. Amkucombe also discourage
significantly mycelium growth of F. proliferatum. lowest inhibition percentage in mycelium growth
was recorded with A. alternata 4.83%, Treatment with fungicide Topaz caused significant reducing
to blossom end rot where inhibition percentage was 46.49% Amkucombe also caused significant
increasing on squash fruit number/ plant 11.55 and wet weight.أوضحت نتائج الدراسة ان العزل من الازهار المصابة بفشل العقد وتعفن الطرف الزهری والازهار الذکریة للموسمین
Alternaria alternata, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Fusarium الخریفی والربیعی أدى الى ظهور الفطریات
ومن نتائج نسبة العزل سجل الفطر culmorum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides
32.82 % للموسمین الخریفی والربیعی على التوالی وتلاها الفطر ، % اعلى نسبة عزل بمقدار 30.86 A.alternata
وتکرر عزله من الازهار الذکریة للموسمین الخریفی ولم یسجل ضمن الفطریات الموسم الربیعی تلاهما F.proliferatum
وتبین النتائج ان مستحضر امکوکومبی أدى الى تثبیط معنوی فی الوزن F.culmorum, F.sporotrichioides الفطرین
اذا بلغت النسبة المئویة للتثبیط 91.66 F. sporotrichioides الجاف للفطریات الممرضة وکان اشدها تثبیطا معنویا للفطر
وبنسبة تثبیط 50 % وادى مستحضر امکوکومبی أیضا الى تثبیط معنوی فی نمو الغزل الفطری F. culmorum تلاه الفطر
83 %، ویعد تأثیر المعاملة بالمبید توباز افضل . اذ بلغ 4 A. alternata وسجل أدنى تثبیط للفطر F.proliferatum للفطر
المعاملات فی خفض فشل العقد فی القرع وبفارق معنوی عن معاملة المقارنة الإیجابیة إذ بلغت نسبة الخفض 46.49 % ومن
دراسة تأثیر امکوکومبی فی الوزن الرطب للثمار فقد تفوق معنویا مع جمیع الفطریات وأیضا أدى الى زیادة عدد الثمار اذ بلغ
عددها 11.55 ثمرة لکل نبات

First Record of Fusarium poae, Wheat Root Rot Fungus in the North of Iraq

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 162-168

The Results of field survey conducted in Ninevah and Erbil governorates to assess the
distribution of root rot disease in wheat have shown variability in infection levels. In Ninevah; the
highest infestation of %27.5 was reported from Bashika, and lowest of %16.9 from Hamdaniyeh,
and in Erbil;the highest infestation of %25.8 was reported in Grdy Mawan and lowest of %21.5
was in Khalwan. Isolates from root rot infected wheat plants shown the appearance of Bipolaris
sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shomaker, Fusarium graminearium (Schwabe ), F. culmorum (Wm. G. Smith )
Sacc and and F.poae (Schwabe ) as first found and recorded on wheat in Iraq, the fungus B.
sorokiniana recorded the highest isolation rate of %54.1 in Tallafar and lowest rate of %37.1 in
Qapakian, followed by F.culmorum which recorded a range of isolation between % 22.1 and
%25.4. Identification of isolated fungi were confirmed by conducting Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR) molecular test using 2 specific primers FP82F and FP82R. The expected PCR product (220
bp) obtained from a specific molecular marker (FP82), confirmed that they belong to fungus F.
Poae. However, this is the first molecular study indicates clearly the presence of F. Poae in Iraq.

Separation and Identification of some Phenolic Compounds and Maleic Acid from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Study its Effect on the some Types of Pathogenic Bacteria

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 169-180

Separated of some free phenolic compounds from flowers of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. by
column chromatography (CC). So, the acid hydrolysis was carried out for acetonic, ethanolic and
ethanolic fraction for them and the ethanolic-acetonic fraction for aqueous extract, the results of
chromatographic identification were appeared by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
(HPLC) that all separated parts of Rosella contained on P-hydroxybenzoic acid, also H3b and H4F2b
contained of thymol as well as of the presence of vanillic acid in H3b, so cinnamic acid also was
appeared, and coumarin compound in H3F2b were appeared, and thymol in H5F2b, as well as the
identification of Maleic acid in all fractions H3b, H3F2b. The crude extracts and which contained on
free isolate phenolic compounds were showed various inhibitory effect against of some bacteria
under study, using disc diffusion method compare with some antibiotic standard.

Environmental Impact of Cara Saray Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality of Tigris River in Mosul City/ Iraq

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 181-192

The present study was conducted on discharged sewage water at Cara Saray disposition in
Tigris River. It is one of the main sewage water disposal in Mosul city. Samples were taken from
four stations along the river which began at the discharge position. According to international
standard methods; physical, chemical and bacteriological properties were analyzed.
It was found that the sewage water characterized by; diminution of dissolved oxygen and it
depleted within summer season, high content of organic load and ions of phosphate and sulfate.
Also, significant increases in total count bacteria, total fecal coliforms bacteria and bacterium E.
coli as indicator of pathogenic existences. The previous bacterial parameters were significantly
increased of the 100m (third) station. Thus, the mild increments were continue till the last (300)m
station with values 11×106 cell /ml, 93×103 and 93×103 cell /100ml.

Application of the CCME WQI to Evaluate Water Quality for Drinking Purpose: A Case Study for Groundwater Quality of Al-Mahalibiyah SubDistrict, Nineveh Province/ Iraq.

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 193-202

The current study aims to applying the Canadian water quality model on water of twelve wells
distributed in Al-Mahalibiyah sub district, north-west of Mosul, to be evaluated for drinking
purposes, Monthly water samples were collected from each well, (From June to December 2012) to
estimate the followings: PH, Total dissolved solids, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Anions and
Cations concentrations.
The results indicated a rise in some studied characters, especially Total dissolved Solid,
Calcium and sulfate ions, that reached to (33909.673, 2271) mg / L, respectively, which have a
negative impact on the CCMEWQI values, which ranged between (42.41 - 60.45) and this indicates
that %83 of the water samples were classified as Marginal water category and the rest were
classified as Poor water quality of drinking, this deterioration in water quality reflects the nature of the geological formations that water passes through, which requires some treatments such as
freezing and slow melting to improve their quality before drinking.تهدف الدراسة الحالیة الى تطبیق الدلیل الکندی لنوعیة المیاه
المحلبیة شمال غرب مدینة الموصل لتقیمها لأغراض الشرب، وقد جمعت عینات میاه الابار شهریا من کل بئر ( من حزیران
T. والقاعدیة الکلیة TDS والمواد الذائبة الصلبة pH لغایة شهر کانون الاول 2012 ) لتقدیر کل من: قیمة الأس الهیدروجینی
.Cations والموجبة Anions والایونات السالبة T. Hardness والعسرة الکلیة Alkalinity
وتوصلت نتائج الدراسة الى ارتفاع ترکیز بعض الصفات المقاسة، ولاسیما الاملاح الذائبة الصلبة وایونات الکالسیوم
2271 ) ملغم. لتر- 1 على التوالی مما سیوثر فی قیم مؤشر نوعیة المیاه , 673, والکبریتات التی بلغت ( 3390
60.45 ) وهذا یشیر الى ان 83 % من العینات المائیة المدروسة من صنف – التی تراوحت بین ( 42.41 (CCMEWQI)
للشرب وهذا التردی فی نوعیة المیاه یعکس طبیعة Poor quality والبقیة ردیئة النوعیة Marginal المیاه المشکوک بها
التکوینات الجیولوجیة التی تمر بها المیاه، مما یتطلب بعض المعاملات البسیطة لها کعملیات التجمید والانصهار البطیء
لتحسین نوعیتها قبل استخدامها للشرب

Isolation and Diagnosis Indoor/ Outdoor Fungi of Schools in Tikrit City

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 203-211

Fungi plays an important role in the infection of humans with many diseases, including
allergies. It has been found that there are many fungi in schools air in the city of Tikrit during the
first season (Autumn) and the second season (Spring) to 24 genera as well as sterile mycelium and
yeast. Cladosporium was found to be the most common fungus in schools air in Tikrit
(kindergartens and primary schools for boys and girls and secondary schools for boys and girls) in
the first season in indoor air (39.13, 30.76, 35.93, 24.56 and 43.75%, respectively). And outdoor air
(45.16, 17.64, 25.63, 5.63 and 16.66%, respectively). There was also a repeat of the second season
in the air of kindergartens and primary schools for girls (61.29 and 16.9%, respectively) then the
fungi Penicillium, Alternaria, Rhizoctonia and Stemphylium. The total number of colony formation
units for Cladosporium 99 CFU and followed by Penicillium (58CFU) in Autumn, in Spring
Cladosporium (124 CFU) and Alternaria is 104 CFU. Cladosporium

Comparison Between some Water Characters of the Lesser Zap with anImpoundment Ground Water Close to it

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 212-222

The current study is a comparative between the quality of water in the river lesser Zap with an
impoundment ground water close to it, The two sampling areas are located in the Kirkuk city. In
2011, monthly samples were collected from both sites for a period of six months. Some physical
and chemical analyzes were conducted (water and temperature, electrical conductivity and
hardness). As well as positive and negative ions). On the biological side, the total number of
bacteria was numerated.
The results of the present study showed clear variations in the values of these variables in some
months of the year. The total hardness values in lesser Zab ranged between (150 – 233) mg/ l
compared with their values in an impoundment ground water (1075 – 1820) mg/l. The chloride ion
concentration showed clear rise in an impoundment ground water 2749 mg/ l during September
month compared with water tributary Zab reaching 80 mg/ l. The positive ions, sodium and potassium, showed a clear increase in an impoundment ground water (1375- 1800) and (4-18) mg /
l compared with their concentration in the water lesser Zab (34-87) and (1.6- 2.6) mg / l
respectively, while the highest count of bacteria in an impoundment ground water were (30 × 103)
cells / ml (11 × 103) cells / ml in lesser Zab.تناولت الدراسة الحالیة مقارنة بین نوعیة میاه نهر الزاب الأسفل مع تجمع لمیاه العین القریبة منه فی ناحیة الزاب
الأسفل/ محافظة کرکوک. من عام 2011 تم جمع عینات شهریة من کلا الموقعین ولمدة ستة اشهر وأجریت علیها بعض
التحلیلات الفیزیائیة والکیمیائیة وهی (درجة حرارة الماء والهواء وقابلیة التوصیل الکهربائی والعسرة بأنواعها فضلا عن
الأیونات السالبة والموجبة) أما من الجانب البیولوجی فقد تم حساب العدد الکلی للبکتیریا.
بینت نتائج الدراسة الحالیة حصول تغیرات واضحة فی قیم هذه المتغیرات فی بعض أشهر السنة، إذ تراوحت قیم
(1820 – 233 ) ملغم / لتر مقارنة مع قیمها فی تجمع ماء العین ( 1075 – العسرة الکلیة فی نهر الزاب الأسفل بین ( 150
ملغم / لتر، فی حین اظهر ترکیز أیون الکلورید ارتفاعا واضحا فی تجمع ماء العین بلغ ( 2749 ) ملغم /لتر خلال شهر ایلول
مقارنة مع میاه الزاب الأسفل إذ وصل إلى ( 80 ) ملغم / لتر. أما الأیونات الموجبة الصودیوم والبوتاسیوم فقد أظهرا ارتفاعا
18 ) ملغم / لتر مقارنة مع ترکیزهما فی میاه الزاب الأسفل - 1800 ) و( 4 - واضحا فی تجمع ماء العین حیث وصل ( 1375
103 ) خلیة × 2.6 ) ملغم / لتر على التوالی فی حین وصل أعلى عد للبکتیریا فی تجمع ماء العین إلى ( 30 – 87- 34 ) و( 1.6 )
103 ) خلیة / مل فی ماء الزاب الأسفل. × / مل و(

Effects of Paracetamol in Non-Specific Immunological Parameters

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 223-231

Our study includes follow up the effect of excessive dose of paracetamol in some individuals on non- specific immunological parameters, the study estimates total white blood cell count and calculates the absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes in blood, and estimation of the effectiveness of phagocytic cells of neutrophils. The study included the collection of (30) blood samples from individuals used paracetamol with excessive dose with age range between (20-40) years of both sexes, blood samples individuals donors do not use paracetamol as control samples were used as well. The results showed no significant differences in number of total white blood cell count and number of lymphocytes for individuals with excessive dose of paracetamol compared with control, on another hand the results showed a significant increase in number of neutrophils and monocytes compared with control, concerning the phagocytic activity, the results showed a significant reduction in phagocytic activity in individuals with excessive dose of paracetamol compared with control.

Heterokaryon Formation from Color and Nutrient Mutants Resistant to Chlorate and Selenite in Fungus Alternaria alternate

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 232-242

The frequency of spontaneous mutants resistant to both chlorate and selenite was compared with the frequency of mutations induced by ultraviolet rays. The results showed that, the frequencies of chlorate resistance strains which isolated from two different parenting strains, AA1 and SW1, were higher than 27 and 23 times from spontaneous frequencies respectively, so as for selenite resistant results, the induced and isolating mutants of two different parenting strains, AA1 and SW3, were about 5 and 8 times higher than their spontaneous frequency, respectively. The mutant strains (Chl5-Chl9) and (Chl13-Chl27) were all resistant to chlorate-nitrate auxotrophic but they were distributed between spontaneous and induced as well as white or black conidia, while the mutants sel1-sel5 resistance to the selenite are color mutants (white conidia) and sulfates auxotrophic at the same time. Heterokaryon was also formed in Alternaria alternata between the two black Chl10 strains, nitrate auxotrophic, have the genotype (nit10, w2 +, s2 +) and the white Sel2 strain, have the genotype (nit10 +, w2s2) which represent important Preliminary event at the beginning of a para-sexual analysis in this plant pathogen fungus

Spread and Distribution Antibiotics and Heavy Metals Resistance and Virulence Factors Possession in some Members of Enterobacteria Isolated from Various Sources

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 243-257

This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the spread and the distribution of antibiotics and heavy metals resistance characteristic and virulence factors possession in some Enterobacteria Escherichia coli & Salmonella typhimurium isolated from various sources.
The results of antibiotics sensitivity test showed a clear variation in the distribution and the spread of the resistance feature these antibiotics whether in the isolates from the same source or within different sources for both E. coli and S. typhimurium. Moreover, most of the isolates showed multiple resistance feature against the antibiotics and resistance against Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Erythromycin was the most common amongst the studied isolates.
The heavy metals(CuSo4,CoCl2,NiCl2,CdCl2 and HgCl2) sensitivity results showed a clear resistance against these metals salts and the highest percentage of the E. coli and the S. typhimurium was against NiCl2 which was (93.3%) and (73.3%) respectively. Also the distribution and the spread of this feature was variant based on the isolate and the source of the isolate.
From the results of investigating some virulence factors (Haemolysin, Protease, Urease and Gelatinase) results showed that the production of Haemolysin was common amongst many isolates of the two types of bacteria and the same was for the Protease in the Escherichia coli. The distribution of the virulence factors varied according to the isolates and the sources of these isolates, while results showed that the isolates do not have the other studied virulence factors

Sensitivity Testing of Acinetobacter baumannii and Detection of some Resistance Genes Affiliate of blaoxa and adeABC

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 258-270

Eight isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii showed absolute resistance (100%) to Ampicillin, Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Gentamicin, Piperacillin, Ticarcillin, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol, while it showed moderate resistance (50%) to Tobramycin and low resistance to each of Amikacin and Netillin (37.5%).
For the detection of the causes of resistance blaoxa51 genes, blaoxa53 genes were detected at a rate of 100% and 87.5% respectively, while the gene blaoxa58 was not detected in all A.baumannii isolates which confirmed its resistance to B-lactam antibiotics, the results also confirms the presence of the gene adeB which plays role in efflux pump mode of resistance as well as the regulatory genes of adeR and adeS of which their presence confirm the bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
The results showed that the resistance of A.baumannii to B-lactam and Carbapenem antibiotics were mediated by blaoxa23, blaoxa51 and the role of AdeABC was restricted due to the absence of the AdeS regulatory gene from most isolates.

Biochemical Study of Alkaline Phosphatase inStaphylococcus aureus

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 271-286

The present research aimed isolating and purifying Alkaline phosphatase enzyme from crude protein extract (Lysate supernatant) of Staphylococcus aureus by using different biotechnologies. To proceed, the following steps were achieved:Firstly, The verification of the existence of enzyme in bacteria, the bacteria were diagnosed by using the API 20 stripe that consists of (20) items. It had been detected that the experimented bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus, the enzyme was isolated from this bacterium to ensure its availability in it within the logarithmic phase and this was done through growing it for 18 hours in a suitable growth medium. It had been detected that the enzyme was intracellular because of the occurrence of enzyme activity in the lysate supernatant without occurring it in the cell free culture supernatant.
Secondly, Enzyme purification, the enzyme had been purified through three stages: precipitation of protein by ammonium sulphate, dialysis and finally, the protein extract was passed through column chromatography by using Sephadex G-100 gel, the estimated enzyme activity after this step was 16.2 in comparison with its activity before the purification processes (crude protein extract). The approximate molecular weight of alkaline phosphatase was estimated by using gelatinous filtration technique and it was 51.000 Dalton.
Thirdly, Measuring of the enzyme activity in the experimented animals, the results showed an increase of enzyme activity in the blood serum of mice injected with pathological bacteria in comparison with its activity in the blood serum of healthy mice, i.e. the intact ones.

Hematological Tests for Patients of Autoimmune Hepatitis and its Relation with HCV Infection

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 287-296

One hundered sixty seven blood samples from patients with autoimmune hepatitis type -1 were collected, and reviewers of the Aleppo University Hospital clinics and hospital Zahi Asrac (Fever Hospital) in Aleppo, during the period between 4-2008 and 4-2009 of conducting blood tests and by using New techniques, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and-WBC counts were done 72.22%, 28.57%, Hb conc84.1%. and, platelet count, prothrombin time increased by 17.07% and 84.85% respectively. Statistical difference were determined using statistical analyses the results showed significance and clear distinction between autoimmune hepatitis and count of white blood cells at the level of less than 0,001 0,001.

Inhibition Activity of Cobalt (II) Complexes Derived from Acid Hydrazide on Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and its Protein Contents

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 297-311

The work reported deals with the preparation characterization and studies of a number of new complexes of cobalt (II). with three ligands type of Schiff base dihydrazide the ligands are: dibenzoinlidenemalonoyldihydrazide (L1‌H4), dibenzoinlidenesuccinyldihydrazide (L2H4) and dibenzoinlidenephthalolyldihydrazide (L3H4). The prepared complexes have been characterized the different studies by molar conductance, electronic spectra, and magnetic susceptibility measurements and infrared spectra. The different studies suggest that in neutral medium the ligands formed cationic complexes of the type [M(LH4)]X2. While in a basic medium anionic complexes of the general formula K2[M(L)] were obtained the complexes formed are also hexacoordinated with octahedral structures. Further study was conducted to have an idea about the biological activity of the ligands and their complexes against species of gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus It was found that these complexes have certain degree of reactivity, which they are more active in comparison to their ligands. Also the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined for some complexes. In addition to that, the effect of these compounds at the molecular level was studied by measuring the changes of total protein for Staphylococcus aureus bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.

Effect of some Antiseptics and Ultraviolet Ray Light on Growth Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Operation Theatres in Mosul Hospitals

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 312-320

This study aimed to determine the inhibitory affect of antiseptics (Actosept, actosed, hexatane20, settol) and ultraviolet ray on growth of Staph. aureus, Ps. aeruginosa which were isolated from operating theatres in Mosul hospitals. The results showed sensitivity of most isolates against these antiseptics, The minimum inhibitory concentration were 3500 m ml, 1500 mml and 2500 mml of the tested isolates, while the actosed level of the MIC was 250 m ml and 500 mml against Staph. aurous and Ps. aeruginosa respectively.
The results demonstrated that exposing period of isolates to ten minutes for ultraviolet ray had effective action on inhibition of the growth of those bacteria.

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Effect of Adding Chamomile Flowers, Oak Leaves and Probiotics to Quail Ration on Antioxidant Status Lipid Profile

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 334-342

أجریت الدراسة لمقارنة تأثیر اضافة کل من ازهار البابونج
Matricaria chamomilla
Quercus aegilopsl واوراق البلوط
والمعزز الحیوی والمضاد الحیوی الى علائق السمان فی حالة مضادات الاکسدة وطبیعة الدهون لمصل دم aegilops l
استخدم فی هذه التجربة 450 طائر سمان مقسمة على خمسة معاملات ( 90 Coturnix coturnix طیور السمان
طائر/معاملة) بعمر 10 ایام وستمرت التجربة لغایة عمر 90 یوم، قسمت کل معاملة إلى ثلاث مکررات وبواقع 30 طائر/
مکرر( 20 اناث و 10 ذکور) اذ غذیت المعاملة الاولى على علیقة المقارنة اما المعاملة الثانیة فقد تم اضافة ازهار البابونج
5غم/ BioSB-Gold 5غم/ کغم والمعاملة الثالثة احتوت على اوراق البلوط 10 غم/ کغم بینما استخدم المعزز الحیوی نوع
کغم فی المعاملة الرابعة اما المعاملة الخامسة فاحتوت على المضاد الحیوی کولستین 0.5 غم/کغم من العلیقة. یلاحظ من نتائج
التحلیل الاحصائی ان جمیع الاضافات قد حسنت من حالة مضادات الاکسدة متمثلة بانخفاض مستوى المالوندایالدیهاید وارتفاع
مستوى الکلوتاثیون وقد لوحظ ان اضافة ازهار البابونج الى علائق السمان قد کان لها الاثر الاکبر فی تحسین حالة مضادات
الاکسدة، کذلک لوحظ ان اضافة کل من ازهار البابونج واوراق البلوط والمعزز الحیوی ادت الى حدوث انخفاض معنوی فی
مستوى الکلیسریدات الثلاثیة والکلسترول الکلی والبروتینات الدهنیة واطئة الکثافة والبروتینات الدهنیة واطئة الکثافة جدا.
وبشکل عام فان تعزیز علیقة طائر بمسحوق کل من ازهار البابونج واوراق البلوط والمعزز الحیوی ادى الى تحسن
حالة مضادات الاکسدة وصورة الدهن لمصل دم الطائر.The current Study was carried out in order to compare the effect of chamomile flower
Matricaria chamomilla , oak leaves Quercus aegilops l , probiotic and antibiotic addition to quail
Coturnix coturnix on serum antioxidant status and lipid profile, 450 quail (10 days age) were
divided in to 5 groups (90 birds/group), the treatments continued to the age of 90 days. The 1st
group: reared on standard ration, the 2nd group: reared on standard ration supplemented with
chamomile flowers powder (5g/kg ration), the 3rd group: reared on standard ration supplemented

with oak leaves powder (10g/kg ration), the 4th group: reared on standard ration supplemented with
probiotic BioSB-Gold (5g/kg ration) and the 5th group: reared on standard ration supplemented
with colistin (0.5g/kg ration). Results reveled that all the treatments improve antioxidant status as
represented by reduction of the malondialdehyde (MDA) and the increase in glutathione
concentration and the maximum effect was related to chamomile treatment. Chamomile, oak leaves
and probiotic treatments causes significant decrease in triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low
density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C). .
flowers, oak leaves and probiotic causes an improvement in antioxidant status and lipid profile of
quail serum.

Detection the Genetic Variation for GSTM1, GSTT1 Genes in Smokers by Multiplex-PCR Technique

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 343-353

In this study, Multiplex-PCR technique were used to detect the loss of GSTT1, GSTM1, and the effect of some of the Hb level on smokers. A total of 103 blood samples were collected from smokers in Tikrit and 70 from non-smokers as control groups. The results showed a significant increase in PCV, Hb compared with non-smokers, and the presence or absence of genes (GSTT1, GSTM1) was detected. In all samples compared with control using Multiplex-PCR markers, The highest percentage genotype that lost the two genes GSTM1, GSTT1 was (55% ), Followed by 23% for the genotype lost of the gene GSTM1, and the genotype lost of the gene GSTT1 (15%). The natural genotype the genes was the lowest (7%). The non-smokers group was the highest proportion of the natural genotype (35.71%), followed by the genotype lost of the gene GSTT1 (25.71%), the genotype lost of the gene GSTM1 (7%) and the genotype lost of the gene GSTT1 GSTM1. One of the results of the distribution of gene loss in smokers was the highest percentage of the genotype lost GSTM1, GSTT1 For smokers of cigarettes and Argile reached 75%, respectively, followed by GSTT1, the highest percentage of smokers (20%). The GSTM1 was the highest (30%). The results indicate that the genotypes missing of one or both genes have a significant impact on human health and loss, which may cause an increase in the risk of some diseases, the most important of which is heart disease due to the loss of enzymes that coding those genes. .

Cross Malformations and Histolgical Changes in Liver of Pregnant Mice and their Embryos Exposed to Glue Smoke

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 354-373

This study was carried out to investigate the pathological and teratogenic change and histological effects to glue sniffing on liver of pregnant mice and their embryos. Mice were exposed to concentration of Glue smoke including (1500, 2500 and 3500) mg/kg-1 b.w., from the 7th to the18th day of pregnancy . Concentration of 2500 and 3500 mg/kg-1 b.w. were characterized by constant irritability, irregular movements and hyperactivity, for half an hour followed by sluggishness, sluggishness and little intake of food and water for several hours. As well as cases of 15% at the dose of 2500 and 40% at the dose 3500 mg/kg-1 b.w. and the loss of mice and by 13 and 20%, respectively, while the proportion of embryos distorted 34% and 65% and 80% at the concentration of 1500 and 2500 and 3500 mg/kg-1 b.w., respectively the emergence of embryonic and growth-free embryos, cerebral meningitis and head disfigurement with a bird-like end, swelling of facial and nasal features, graves of eye or eye loss, skin, trunk, limbs and tail abnormalities. Histopathological changes in pregnant mice were liver congestion hemorrhage, lipid aggregation between lobules and liver gain have a walnut-like appearance. Microscopic hemorrhagic bleeding, vacuolar degeneration, hepatic cell, and focal infiltration of inflammatory cells around blood vessels and bile ducts were observed in the portal area. The histopathological changes in maternal fetuses were hemorrhagic, blood vessel congestion, in filtration of inflammatory cells, expansion of sinusoids, vacuolar degeneration,coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells and arrhgthmia of liver cells..

Isolation of Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme from Cerebrospinal Fluid of Healthy and Hydrocephalus Disease Patients’ Children in Mosul City

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 374-387

The research includes the partial isolation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme, from CSF of hydrocephalus patients and healthy children, the results showed that there was one peak with high activity from gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-100 for protienous solution resulted from ammonium sulfate precipitation (70%) after dialysis process, with purification folds up to (27,17) times of patients and healthy children respectively.Another column was used with sephadex G-200 and the results showed two protienous peak for Acetylcholinesterase with purification folds up to (33, 24) times of patients and healthy children respectively, the second protienous peak had higher activity than the first peak.
The results showed also that the enzyme which was isolated from CSF of patients children had a higher activity than the enzyme isolated from CSF of healthy children, the peak with high activity was used to determine the comparative molecular weight using gel filtration chromatography with sephadex G-200.which was (163606 ± 4000) Dalton.

Immune Response Improvement Against Giardiasis in Male Albino Rats by Using Ultrasound

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 388-401

The present study investigated the effect of the direct ultrasonic waves, as an immune stimulator, against infection with giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia in Norwegian rats Rattus norvegicus. The pathological changes occurred in the rats administered orally with the cysts of G. lamblia, exposed to different durations of ultrasonic waves 60 seconds, 150s, 210s and 240s, respectively, with constant frequency 20.000 pulsesecond(1.8w/cm2) were followed in comparison with the control group (rats administered orally with the cysts of G. lamblia, without exposure to the ultrasonic waves), along the experiments period, depending on many criteria, included the changes in the total and differential count of leukocytes (WBCs), and specific (cellular) immunity, represented by skin- delayed type hypersensitivity test. The results of the present study revealed a significant increase (p≤0.01) in the total count of leukocytes, the maximum count was 10600 cell/cm3 at duration 210s, expressed by increase in lymphocytes, variation in monocytes numbers in treated animals.A significant increase (p≤0.01) in the cellular immunity, represented by elevation in the rates of foot pad thickness (swelling), the maximum thickness was 1.75mm at duration 240s in treated animals, in comparison with control group (0.225 mm). ).

Comparison Study between Oat Seeds Powder and Simvastatin Drug on some Hormones and Histological Features of Aorta and Liver in Healthy and Ovariectomized White Female New Zealand Rabbits

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 402-417

The results showed positive effects as a significant increase (P≤0.0001) in Adiponectin hormone with significant decrease in Leptin hormone in rabbit's serum that given oat seeds powder and also those treated with simvastatin drug, and insignificant increase in Estrogen hormone in this two groups compared with control group in contrast there is a negative effects as a significant decrease in Adiponectin hormone and Estrogen hormone concentration in ovariectomized rabbit's serum with significant increase in Leptin hormone concentration, while tend in ovariectomized rabbits given oat seeds powder to be in near with normal concentration in control, and ovariectomized rabbits group given simvastatin showed either significant or insignificant near with normal concentration in control. Experimental atherosclerosis by ovariectomy in females led to negative effects on biochemical criteria of blood serum as compared with control group, which was represented by significant increase in the concentration of Total Cholesterol (TC) and Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), beside significant decrease in High Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c) and Paraoxonase enzyme (PON-1), in general treated rabbits with oat seeds powder led to positive willful for all precedent parameters.
Histological sections of aorta artery in ovariectomized rabbits showed atherosclerotic lesions between the muscle fibers in media of aorta in contrast with the normal structure of aorta in rabbits in control group. Ovaiectomy led to negative effects on histological features of healthy and overectomized rabbit's liver.

The Effect of Using Nanoparticles Titanum Dioxied to Control of Secondary Infection of Echinococcus granulosus In vivo

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 418-429

Current study covered the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) size 10 and 250 nm, using 3 mg/ ml for month and two months for each size. TiO2 used against secondary infection in rats strain Rattus norvegicus, where administrated by 2000 protoscolices treated with each size of TiO2. Above treated animals compared with other left free with any treatments as a negative control and other animals just treated with protoscolices as a positive control. The effect of protoscolices and TiO2 mixture were revealed a reduction in rate of infection by 100% for each size 10 and 250 nm TiO2 and for each period month and two months. Histological changes in each of liver and intestine have studied. Several pathological changes including focal aggregation of inflammatory cells and mild chronic inflammation for TiO2 size 10 nm were noted, while fibrosis and nicrosis were noted at 250 nm of TiO2. These results gave important sigs that small size of TiO2 may be work as a good antigrowth for developing secondary hydatidosis.

Determination of the Population Density of the Trogoderma granarium Everts

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 430-442

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of crude powders at (0.4 and 0.6)% concentration in addition to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol alcohol and water extracts at (0.10 and 0.20)% concentration of Pisum sativum and Glycine max seeds in Population density of khapra beetle, and loss of grain weight due to infection. Results denoted that the population density of Trogoderma granarium and the weight loss of grains differ according to kind of powder and extract and the concentration use of its. Generally, all of them had significant effects in decreasing the population density and then depression the weight loss. The of Pisum sativum and Glycine max powders were superior than extracts in limiting of reproduction and growth of Trogoderma granarium and the pea seed powder at 0.6% concentration was superior between them, where the total number of all stage was 216.33 individuals versus to 972.67 individuals in control and causing of lowest weight loss of 3.78 gm%. For extracts, the petroleum ether extract of Glycine max seed at 0.20% concentration was the best in its effect on the reproduction and growth of Trogoderma granarium population which gave the lowest number of individuals which was 362 and causing in the lowest percent weight loss of 6.44 gm%.%.