Volume 26, Issue 1, Spring 2017, Page 1-148

Serological Survey of Hydatid Disease in Asymptomatic Peoples in Mosul City, Iraq

Abdulsalam Al-Mukhtar; Ikram K. Qasim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138952

Hydatidosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases that causes considerable economic losses and public health problems worldwide. This study was conducted in order to determine the seropositivity of hydatid disease in apparently healthy individuals who are attending the main blood bank in Mosul City. Therefore, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in this study and to find a relation between the seropositivity and age, gender, occupation and educational level and to monitor the impact of the control programs for the disease in Mousl City. The study was conducted during 9 months period extended from November 2012 to July 2013.The samples of the study were composed of 480 apparently healthy individuals with ages ranging between 18-60 years, 280 male and 200 female. Serum samples were obtained from the main blood bank in Mosul city, ELISA test was used for detecting specific anti Echinococcus granulosus antibodies in patients’ sera. ELISA kits used were (Echinococcus ELISA IgG- IBL, Hamburg, Germany –RE 56201) kits.
The results revealed that out of 480 cases only 24 (5%) were positive by ELISA, the most frequently infected individuals were females (8%) while males were less frequently encounter the disease (2.86 %). the rate of hydatid cysts was highest at age group 21-30 years (7.02%) followed by age group 31-40 years (6.5%), 41-50 years ( 3.7% ) respectively, the highest infection rate was reported among housewives (10.83%), followed by self employed (4.46%), then the government employed (3.23%). On the other hand ,the lowest rate of infection was recorded among students (1.28%) and (2.88%) in other occupations, it was reported that (56.5%) were illiterate, (4.35%) were primary school, (2.42%) were secondary school and (1.38%) were of high education, most of the seropositive individuals were from rural or semi-rural areas surrounding Mosul City. It was recorded that (6.02%) and ( 3.89% ) were from rural and urban area respectively. The rate of seropositivity in the individuals who have contact with dogs (5.81%) was higher than that in individuals who do not have contact with dogs (4.05%).

Histopathological Study of Lung, Testis, and Urinary Bladder of Mice Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

Njlaa Kh. Al-Jawaly; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138954

The histopathological effects of variable intraperitoneal doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on lung, testis and the urinary bladder of mice were studied. Following administration of 5- FU according to the dosing schedule used in this study various lesions appeared in the lungs and they included emphysema and thickening of the interalveolar septa due to congestion, hemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells. In the testes and the urinary bladder, edema of the testicular interstitium, degeneration of the spermatocytes, lack of spermatozoa and hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder were seen. When the dose and time of exposure were increased additional lesions appeared and they included congestion of blood vessels within the testicular interstitium and hyperplasia of the interstitial cells. Congestion of blood vessels and fibrosis were seen within the submucosa of the urinary bladder, and in the lungs, peribronchiolar lymphoid hyperplasia was evident. From the results of this study it was concluded that 5-FU in the doses used in this study was associated with histopathological lesions in the lung, testis and urinary bladder of mice.

The Role of Extracted Carotenoid from Staphylococci as Antioxidant and Antibacterial

Sarab D. Alshamaa; Muna M. Issam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138956

The ability of some Staphylococci isolates producing and non-producing carotenoid pigments to resist the different concentrations of H 2O 2 and Staphylococcus aureus ranged between 0.6-1.5% studied in dark and light had been studied. The results showed that staphyloxanthin producing strains were more resistant than carotenoid producing pigmented and non-pigmented strains and this resistance was better in dark than light due to the pigment oxidation. Extraction and partial purification of the pigment was done and some biochemical properties such as conductivity and UV-spectra were performed. High conductivity had been registered at 469.25, 391.25 ms besides UV-spectra determination revealed peaks at 450-468 nm for staphyloxanthin and orange- carotenoid pigments respectively. Antibacterial ability of partially purified pigments had been tested against different bacterial isolates, results indicated that partially purified staphyloxanthin had highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Proteus mirabilis, the lowest activity appeared against both Psedumonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteri, the other carotenoid pigment on the other hand, had no antibacterial effects against these isolates.

Effects of Probiotic and Antibiotic Supplementation on some Blood Parameters in Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

Sinan Th. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138957

This study is conducted to determine the normal blood parameter values in bird of Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and the effect of probiotic (Chunchine.Geyao® :China) and antibiotic (Tilmicosin phosphate-Tilmivap® :Jordan) on body weight, hematology and biochemical values in these birds. Forty apparently healthy adults of both sexes Collared dove were selected randomly and assigned into four equal groups (n=10) as A, B, C and D groups. Group A was considered as control group fed on a balanced ration, group B fed with the addition of 1.5 gm probiotic/liter drinking water, group C fed with 0.3ml antibiotic/liter drinking water and group D were fed with 1.5gm probiotic and 0.3 ml antibiotic/liter drinking water respectively during the 35 day of experimental period. The results showed that there is no significant differences in the heterophil, lymphocyte, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total serum cholesterol, ALT and in different treated groups. The present findings suggest that supplementation of Probiotic has significant effects on some hematology and biochemical parameters of Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) compared to antibiotic supplementation.

Detection the Effect of Cu++ on Transcription of glox Gene in Myceliophthora verrucosa Using RT-PCR

Mohammad I. Khalil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 32-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138959

Reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the transcription of the glox gene in a local isolate of M. verrucosa, in two different growth media. The results indicated the presence of gene transcription in this strain with no effect to Cu+ on gene expression. This means that this fungus is suitable for use in various fields such as a bioremediation. This method depends on RNA to detect gene expression under various conditions.

Synthesis, Spectral and Antibacterial Studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Acetone Acetyl hydrazone

Abdul Ghany M. Al-Daher; Thana Y. Yousif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 38-48
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138960

Hydrazone complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with acetone acetylhydrazone(AAH) ligand derived from the condensation of acetone and acetylhydrazine, containing N and O donor sites have been synthesized. The complexes are characterized by different physicochemical methods, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, IR, UV-Vis spectra and also magnetic measurements. The discussion of the out come data of the prepared complexes indicate that AAH behave as a neutral bidentate ligand. The electronic spectra as well as their magnetic moments suggest octahedral geometry for the bis- and tris- complexes, [M(AAH)2Cl2], [M(AAH)3](NO3)2 [M= Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)] and the mixed ligand complex [Ni(AAH) (Py)2Cl2] and tetrahedral geometry for the mono complexes [M(AAH)Cl2][M= Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)] and the other prepared mixed ligand complexes [Co(AAH)(Py)2]Cl2 and [Cu(AAH)(Py)Cl]Cl. The antimicrobial properties of the ligand and most of its complexes were studied using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The metal complexes were found to have a moderate activity and Zn(II) complexes were the most active.

Preparation and Characterization of some Transition Metal Complexes with Crotyl xanthate Ligand and their Adducts with Nitrogen Bases

Saad E. Al- Mukhtar; Hiba F. Al-Katib; Lana A. Al-Nuaimy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138961

A new series of xanthate complexes of the general formula [M(Crotxant)2], [M(Crotxant)2.nL] where M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Crotxant = Crotyl xanthate, n = 2,L = pyridine, quinoline, 4-picoline, n = 1, L = ethylenediamin , 1,10- phenanthroline. All the isolated complexes have been prepared and characterized by atomic absorption, molar conductivity, Infrared, electronic absorption spectra and magnetic measurement.
The conductivity measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all compounds, magnetic susceptibility measurements and electronic spectra show a tetrahedral geometry for complexes of the type [M(Crotxant)2] and octahedral geometry for complexes of the type [M(Crotxant)2.nL] .

Indirect Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Cefadroxil in its Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparations

Shielan A. Omer; Mohanad M. Sehree; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 56-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139095

Two spectrophotometric methods were described for the determination of cefadroxil in pure form and in its pharmaceutical preparations. They were based on the oxidation-reduction reaction between iron (III) and cefadroxil, the liberated Fe+2 is then reacted with 1,10-phenathroline (method I) or 2,2`-bipyridyl (method II) in acidic medium, the colored(red) complexes absorbed at 510 and 521 nm, respectively. Applying the optimum working conditions, cefadroxil can be determined over the concentration range of 0.5-5 and 0.5-6 μg.ml-1 with molar absorptivities of 1.141x105 and 6.308×104 l. mol-1 .cm-1 for method I and method II, respectively. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of cefadroxil in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Thorium(IV), Dioxouranium(VI), Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Complexes with Picolinoyl Hydrazones

Ahmed A. Hadi; Abdul Ghany M. Al-Daher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 66-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139096

A series of metal complexes of Th(IV), UO2(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with 2-acetyl furan picolinoyl hydrazone (AFPH) and 2-thiophen carboxaldehyde picolinoyl hydrazone (TCPH) have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses (metal and Cl), molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and spectral (IR, UV-Vis) measurements.
The ligands act as neutral tridentate in metal chloride complexes of the general formula [ML(H2O)Cl2], [L=AFPH, M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II). L = TCPH, M = Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)] and [UO2LCl2] (L = AFPH, TCPH) coordinated through carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and pyridine nitrogen atoms. The physico_chemical studies suggest octahedral and pentagonal bipyramidal geometries respectively. On the other hand, the ligands act as monobasic tridentate coordinated through the enolic oxygen, the azomethine nitrogen and the pyridine nitrogen atoms in the deprotonated complexes of the types [M(L-H)Cl]2, [L=AFPH, M=Zn(II); L=TCPH, M=Cu(II)], [Th(L-H)2Cl2] (L=AFPH, TCPH), and [M(L-H)2] [L=(AFPH, TCPH), M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), UO2(II)] forming binuclear square pyramidal and octahedral mononuclear metal complexes. Hexagonal bipyramidal geometry proposed for the dioxouranium(VI) complexes and square antiprismatic or dodecahedral geometries for Th(IV) complexes.

Direct Determination of Tetracycline Hydrochloride and the Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin by UV Spectra in Water

Isam J. Al-Nuri; Banan A. Akrawi; Sana A. Hussin

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 77-91
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139097

The UV fourth order derivative spectra were selected as the more reliable technique for the direct quantification of pure Tetracycline Hydrochloride in water, after the measurement of the zero, first, second, third and fourth order spectra, within the concentration range at (0.2885-144.27)µg/ml with R2 =0.9998 and RSD=0.215 %.
Bovine serum albumin was directly quantified by the fourth order UV derivative technique within the concentration range (6.7-2680) µg/ml with R2 = 0.9998 and RSD=0.324 %. Appreciable interaction between Tetracycline hydrochloride and Bovine serum Albumin was found in accordance with the fraction coefficient and the apparent binding constant.
The UV–fourth order derivative technique appears to be in a good accuracy and precise method for the direct quantification of Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in water.

Synthesis of some New Fused Pyrimidine Compounds

Shaymaa K. Younis; Maysaa K. Shaker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 92-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139098

Biginelli reaction is a one-pot reaction which is used to prepare some of fused pyrimidine (2-Amino-4-aryl-7, 7- dimethyl-1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-hexahydro quinazoline-5-one) (A1-6) by the action of dimedone, guanidenium hydrochloride and some substituted benzaldehyde in presence of Lewis acid represented by boric acid (20% mole).
These compounds were used later as precursors to prepare a superim type of schiff bases represented by compounds (2-Amino-4-aryl-5-hydrazono-7, 7-dimethyl-1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-hexahydro quinazoline) (B1-6).
The assigned structure of the prepared compounds was corroborated by available physical and spectral methods.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Sulphamethoxazole in Pure and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms by Diazotization and Coupling Reaction

Salim A. Mohammed; Hind A. Zamel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 111-121
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139119

A simple, rapid, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative determination of sulphamethoxazole (SMX) in both pure form and its pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is based on the diazotization of SMX with sodium nitrite in hydrochloric acid medium to form a diazonium salt, which is coupled with γ-resorsolic acid (2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in alkaline medium of sodium hydroxide to form a stable and water-soluble azo dye exhibited maximum absorption at 432 nm against reagent blank. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 5 to 300 μg of SMX /20 mL (0.25-15 ppm) with a good determination coefficient (R2=0.9984) and apparent molar absorptivity 3.34×104 l.mol-1.cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.0584 and 0.1752 μg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries and relative standard deviations in tablets and oral suspension formulations are found as 96.6 to 99.04% and 1.6 to 3.0%, respectively, depending on the concentration level. The method is suitable for the determination of SMX in the presence of other excipients that are usually present in dosage forms. The composition of the resulting product has also been worked out and it is found to be (1:2)SMX: γ-resorsolic acid. This procedure is applied successfully to the analysis of SMX in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets and oral suspension) without prior separation but with acceptable errors.

Calculation of Track Parameters of Alpha Particles with Various Energies and Incident Angles in CR-39 Detector

Ali K. Hussein

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 122-132
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139120

In this paper, the bulk etch rate, VB of the CR-39 detector employed, was found experimentally to be equal to 1.49µmh-1. Detector samples were irradiated with alpha particles energies from 1 to 5MeV and incident angles from 20◦ to 90◦. After etching in a 6.25N NaOH solution kept at (70±1) ˚C, the lengths of major and minor axes of the alpha track openings were measured, and the track etch rate, VT for normal and oblique incidence was calculated. The relationship between VT and the track depth, x of the alpha particle in the detector for normal incidence was studied. Track length, L and track length growth rate, dL/dt were also calculated. These data were used altogether to derive a V function, which took the functional form of the Brun’s function with new constants (a1=0.091, a2=1.2, a3=1.6, a4=1.61, a5=1.425). Experimental V function was compared with those computed by TRACK-VISION program, and a good agreement with three of them was found

Optimum Efficiency of CdS/ CdTe Thin Film Solar Cell

Nawfal Y. Jamil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 133-139
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139121

In this study, the absorber layer (CdTe) and window layer (CdS) thickness parameters have been investigated through simulation by SCAPS to find out the higher conversion efficiency for the CdS/ CdTe thin film solar cell. It is found that the parameters Jsc, Voc, η are increased for the increasing absorber layer thickness, and quantum efficiency show overlapping after the 500 nm wavelength for different CdTe thicknesses. In addition, it is revealed that the highest calculated efficiency can be achieved with the absorber layer thickness of 3.5 µm and window layer of thickness 0.05 µm, was 17.27%. Where the effect of window layer show that the calculations gave, as CdS thickness increased Voc, was nearly constant, but Jsc, η decreased. Using best calculated thicknesses in this study for both CdS and CdTe, the fabricated CdS/ CdTe thin film solar cell efficiency measured 13.73%, this is expected may be du to interface layer and density of stats on both films.

Examination of Energy Resolution of Track Detector LR-115 to Distinguish the Various Energies of Alpha Particles (1-4MeV) Using the Wblfit formula Fitting in Matlab Software

Firas M. Al-Jomaily; Malik H. Kheder; Hala I. Jasim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 140-148
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139128

This study aims to test energy resolution of the nuclear track detector LR-115 to distinguish the various energies of alpha particles (1-4MeV)that were obtained from radioactive isotope 241Am.This method is based on the relationship between the energy deposited in the material by ionizing particles and the track developed after a well-established chemical process(NaOH,2.5N,60oC). Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD’s) have been used successfully as detecting devices and as a passive system to detect alpha contamination on different surfaces. The resulted tracks are performed with a digital image analysis system (image processing) associated with a PC mathematical processor and the track diameter distribution fitted by wblfit formula. The mean track diameter (D) for each used energy, its width ΔD at full width at half maximum (FWHM)and energy resolution power (ΔE/E)D were measured for each neighboring energies. The results of energy resolution of LR-115 were compared with results of another nuclear track detectors of similar studies at average energy (3.7 MeV).