Volume 26, Issue 2, Autumn 2017, Page 1-112

The Bioassay Efficacy of Three Botanical Crude Extracts Against Culex pipiens molestus (Forskal) Immatur Stages

Atallah F. Mekhlif; Marwan N. Al-dulaimi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138908

The bioinsecticidal properties of three plants, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk) She. Bip., Arnebia decumbens L. and Juglans regia L. were tested as larvicides and pupicides on the mosquito, Culex pipiens molestus Forsakl. All the applied extracts caused 100% mortality for the second and last instars after 24 and 48 hr. of exposure time. Pupal mortality was 100% at the concentration, 500 ppm, of A. fragrantissma and 600 ppm at both A. decumbens and J. regia at the two exposure times. The Lc50 values after 24 and 48 hr. of exposure times were 70 and 35 ppm for A. fragrantissima, 110 and 65 ppm A. decumbens and 145 and 110 ppm for the second instar, while Lc50 for the fourth instar after the same exposure time were 100,65; 150,78 and 170,115 ppm respectively. Later, Lc50 values for the pupal instar were 260,190 ; 350, 270 and 400, 310 ppm for the two exposure times respectively.

The Effect of Pea and Bean Seed Powder Formulations in Some Biochemical Parameters of Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium

Zahra I. Dallal Bashi; Muna H. Jankeer; Riyad A. Al-Iraqi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138911

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of pea Pisum sativum L. and bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. powders formulations starch, crude, high-protein, pure protein in some biochemical parameters of khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium reared on wheat grains treated and untreated with the powders.
The results showed that mixing wheat grains with pea and bean powders then rearing larvae of khapra beetle on it affects clearly on the proteins and carbohydrates concentration in the larval extraction, the powders caused reduction in their concentration. The lowest percentage of proteins and carbohydrates was found in the larval extraction for the larvae reared on the wheat grains treated with pure protein powder of pea and bean, 6.37 and 8.00 % for protein and 0.50, 1.06 % for carbohydrates respectively, in comparison with control that gave 25.56% for proteins and 4.70 % for carbohydrate. So that powder causes an activity inhibition of α- amylase and protease enzymes. The pure protein powder of pea and bean showed a superior value of inhibition percentage; 64 and 51 % for α- amylase enzyme and 95, 76 % for protease enzyme, respectively.

Isolation and Purification of Antimicrobial Peptides from the Blood of some Animals and the Study of its Antimicrobial Activity Against some Multidrug Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria

Mohammed A. Mahmood; Muhsin A. Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 20-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138914

The study aimed to isolate and purify the cationic Antimicrobial peptides (Amps) from the blood of sheep, bovine and camels, then study its antimicrobial activity against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , E.coli : 0157: H7), and compare it with some antibiotics.
The results showed that those peptides could be obtained from various animals using the techniques in this study. The results of HPLC technique showed that there are (6) peaks in the crude extract from sheep blood and (7) peaks for bovine blood and (21) peaks in the crude extract isolated from camels, blood.
The results also showed that all these peptides were effective, but they have different effects, and all the bacteria were sensitive to it. The peptide isolated from the camels blood was the best, while those isolated from sheep and bovine showed similar activities, and all peptides affect gram-positive bacteria more than gram-negative, especially peptides isolated from camels blood as the inhibition zone was (27) mm and (26) mm for Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively.

Histopathological and Biochemical Effects of Doxorubicin Drug on the Functions of Heart in White Rats

Ilham A . Ali; Hamad J. Jumaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138916

The aim of this study is to know the effect of doxorubicin on the function of heart. The drug was administrated for three and six weeks. The animals were sacrified after 48 hr. of the last inject.
This study revealed a significant increases in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and Creatine Kinase enzyme in the rats' serum when administrated the animal doxorubicin intraperit oneally, for 3 weeks and not significantly increase when administrated for six weeks. Histopathological changes in cardiac tissues revealed a congestion in the blood vessels thrombus and thickness of the wall blood vessels, a dilation of the blood vessels, a prevascular infilteration of the inflammatory cells, infilteration of the inflammatory cells in cardiac muscle, focal lymphocyte infiltration, oedema, hyalinization and loss of striation.

Detection of Bacteria Causing Conjunctivitis in Patients Using Lenses for Vision Correction

Hussein A. Sharqi; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 44-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138929

The Research included the isolation and identification of bacteria causing conjunctivitis in patients subjected to vision correction operations who attended the ophthalmological clinc in Al-Zahrawi teaching hospital in Mosul city. The study also included testing the ability of one of the isolated bacteria to adhere on the intraocular lens that is used to correct visson (PMMA) and forming biofilms. 20 swab samples were collected from patients of both sexes (12 males and females). The results revealed that 3 samples were negative (15%) and 17 samples were positive (85%), Staphylococcus epidermids was the predominant type 11 isolates (55%) while Staphylococcus aureus was isolated with 30% (6 isolates). When the ability of S. aureus to adhere and form biofilm on lenses by using ELIZA technique, the results were positive, the absorbance values were 0.140, 0.216 and 0.399 at incubation periods 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. As well as the number of colonies that were formed on lens surfaces was measured after different incubation periods, the results showed that the number of colonies were 6.7, 7.6, 8.1 X106 colony/cm3 in the incubation periods 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively.

Effect of Cinnamon Boiled Extract on Blood Picture and Leptin Hormone of Experimentally - Induced Diabetic White New Zealand Female Rabbits

Zaid SH. Al- Ani; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138933

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of cinnamon boiled extract (2000 mg / kg body weight) on some hematological parameters and Leptin hormone level in healthy and experimentally- induced diabetic white New Zealand female rabbits, it's weights ranged between 1300-1400 gm and aged 9-12 months. The rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups, (9 rabbits / group) Control, Alloxan, Cinnamon and Cinnamon with Alloxan together group. The rabbits were dosaged and observed for four weeks.
The results showed that the cinnamon boiled extracts enhance the hematological parameter for the healthy and diabetic female rabbits. The treatment raised red blood corpuscles, total white blood cells, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume comparing with the Alloxan and Control group. Furthermore, the treatment with Cinnamon boiled extract increases the level of Leptin hormone comparing with the Alloxan and Control groups.

Induction of Broad Bean Plants Resistance Against Alternaria alternata Using K2HPO4 and H2O2

Hiba H. Taha; Nadeem A. Ramadan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 63-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138937

The effect of different concentrations of K2HPO4 and H2O2 was tested on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata the causal agent of leaf spot disease of broad bean. The results indicated that all tested concentrations of the two materials (100, 200, 300, 400) mMol gave significant inhibition with the increase of concentration. The results also showed an increase in the activity of H2O2 upon and caused complete inhibition to the fungal growth at the concentration of 300 mMol (100 and 60.7%) respectively.
In greenhouse experiments H2O2 caused a higher increase in shoot fresh and dry weight, high length, chlorophyll percentage, and complete significant reduction in disease severity (0.0) of the treated plant. and low activity of K2HPO4 in comparison with H2O2. The resistance of plants increased with the increase of the enzymes activity of Peroxidase, Catalase and Phenylalanine ammonia lyase. The local variety was more responsive than the French variety when treated with hydrogen peroxide substance.

Isolation of Mutants Resistant to some Chemicals from Sunlight –Exposed and Unexposed Samples of the Fungus Alternaria alternata

Huda W. Hadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 74-85
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138938

A total of 272 mutants (161 from sunlight exposed and 111 from unexposed conidia) resistant to the chemicals Topas, 8-azaguanine or Chloral hydrate were Isolated in the fungus Alternaria alternata. Initially, the exposure periods to sunlight and the minimal inhibitory concentrations for the chemicals were determined. The exposure periods were 20, 40, 60 and 90 minutes and the minimal inhibitory concentrations were 150 μg/ml for Topas, 3.5 μg/ml for 8-azaguanine and 4.5 mM for Chloral hydrate. The frequency of mutants resistant to each chemical was calculated and although the frequencies from the exposed samples were greater than those from unexposed one, the differences, however, were statistically not significant pointing to the weakness of mutagenicity of the sunlight in the present experimental protocol. Cross resistance exhibited by any of the three classes of resistant mutants to other two chemicals was also tested. A fraction of 93.2% of the Topas resistant mutant cross resisted 8-azaguanine as well, and 83% of them cross resisted Chloral hydrate. Azaguanine resistant mutants and Chloral hydrate resistant mutants, however, exhibited very low cross resistance to those two chemicals, being no more than 4% as its higher proportion.

Thermodynamical Properties of Copper Under High Pressure and Different Temperatures

Janan F. Ahmad; Esraa Sh. Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 86-100
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.138940

The elastic properties such as (compressibility range from (1 to 0.6 values), isothermal bulk modulus and pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus) have been computed using (vinet, Birch – Murghun, Shanker, poireior)EOSs, the results were compared with the experimental data. The effect of high temperature and pressure on the four thermodynamic properties for copper have been studied. The vibration energy of atoms (ED) in a solid copper (Cu) and heat capacity at a constant volume ( CV ) have been evaluated using Debye model and the effect of pressure on Debye temperature. Finally, melting curve representing the variation of melting (Tm) with pressure have been Calculated for copper by using Mie Gruneison – Debye equation (based on the above equation of states), Lindemann and Kumer equations, also the melting gradient was computed. It is found that melting temperature increases with pressure in a non-linear manner such that the melting gradient decreases gradually with increase in pressure. The results were found in good fitting with experimental data.

The Effect of Si/SiO2 Interface on the Electrical Properties of MOS Device with Nano Layer Silicon Dioxide Grown by Induced Laser Oxidation

Mohand M. Alyass; Laith M. Al- Taan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2017, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 101-112
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2017.139276

In this work a MOS device was fabricated with nano dioxide layer on silicon using a laser induced oxidation technique, at 600oC temperature for different times oxidation (5-20) min.
FTIR spectrums were studied and analyzed for the Si (111) substrate, the Si/SiO2 interface and the SiO2 layer.
The results gave a characteristic sharp peak presence at the wave number (1079 cm-1) corresponding to the level of elongation vibration (Si-O-Si) which consists the required oxide.
The electrical measurement results show the response of the MOS device for the (C-V) and (I-V) characteristics. The capacity was inhomogeneous at the interface between insulator and semiconductor because of the (ac) signal harmony, as an extra-capacity created depending on the frequency, while it does not appear at frequency (f >5kHz). This determines the nature of the electronic response of the device.
The different times for the oxide configuration gives a different value for the capacity that's where the capacity increases with the time of laser induction oxidation increase. The oxide thickness has an inverse relationship with the time of laser induction of the oxidation.
The (I-V) characteristics show the MOS devices fabricated with oxidation time at (5,10) min has leakage current started after 0.6 volt, where the devices which oxidized for 15 min has leakage current at 0.4 volt, but the leakage current begun at 0.2 volt for the devices with 20 min oxidation time.