Volume 25, Issue 5, Autumn 2014, Page 1-100

Doubling the Chromosome Number of Black Poplar Trees (Populus nigra L.) by Colchicine In vitro

Ammar Z. Kassab-Bashi; Nathim Th. Saieed; Omar M. Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131363

The possibility of inducing chromosomal polyploidy was studied for Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) which micropropagated from stem cutting by exposure to different colchicine concentrations 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg / l and different exposure periods (0.0, 2, 4, 6, 8 days) in MS medium supplemented with 1mg/l BA and 0.3 mg/l IBA. After 4 weeks of exposure results showed the significant superiority of 125 mg / l colchicine treatment for stem cutting survival percentage transplant survival percentage after aclimitization and diploid plants percentage characteristics, also the results of polyploidy showed that the highest percentage of tetraploid plant (18%) was recorded for both treatments 125 and 250 mg/l colchicine, when 50.66% of plants treated with 500 mg/l colchicine has a mixed polyploidy and it was significantly different from the rest treatments. but the interaction effect of colchicine concentrations and exposure periods showed that the highest survival percentage was recorded for the treatments of non exposure and exposure to 125 mg/l colchicines for 2 days. After 16 weeks of aclimitization and field growing the results showed the significant superiority for both treatments of exposure with 125 and 250 mg/l colchicine for stem length, stem diameter, leaves number, vegetative system dry weight, stomata length, stomata width and total chlorophyll contents characteristics, this in comparison with 500 mg/l colchicine treatments, and this is in combined with finally the interaction effects of colchicine for the treatment of 250 mg/l colchicine for 2 days.

New Record of Two Species of Black Widow Spider in Mosul City (Iraq)

Riyad A. Al-Iraqi; Najah S. Nayef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 17-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131365

Two species of black widow spiders were recorded for the first time in Mosul city during the summer of 2012 and 2013. The spiders were the red back widow spider (Latrodectus hasselti ) and a southern black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans). The first one is Australian while the second is American. These spiders weren't present in the Iraqi environment before the American occupation to Iraq but they may be introduced accidentally to Iraq with commodities, equipments and containers that occupation forces brought with them to Iraq.
These spiders are poisonous and dangerous to humans due to their neurotoxic poison which failure many physiological activities in the body and sometimes causing death if the currency processes took place quickly and giving the patient the specific antivenoms of these spiders.

Role of Piperonyl Butoxide in Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grown Under of Drought Stress

Mohamed S. Faysal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 26-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131366

The experiment was conducted in the wire house in the Department of Biology, College of Education, Mosul University according to the complete randomized design (C.R.D) to establish the synergetic effect of PBO in overcoming the negative effect caused by drought on the wheat (Ebba-95), by socking the seeds in three concentrations of PBO (0, 20, 40) microliter before culturing, and exposing the plant to two periods of drought after culturing to reveal its impact on the growth of the plant and some physiological aspects and chemical content of that plant. The result showed that drought period had a negative effect on the plant height, leaf area, dry weight of shoot, and root, deficient of water content and total chlorophyll. The second drought period caused decrease in the concentrations of P. K. Ca. Mg by (28.1, 31.7, 22.2 and 20.5%) respectively, compared with the control treatment (without drought). Yet, there was a significant increase in the plant content of proline, sodium concentration with drought. Socking the seeds in PBO led to a stimulation in about qualition, as well as the interaction with drought reduces the negative effect of drought and increases the concentration of the above elements by (45.9, 18.8, 51.7, 39.2 %) respectively, at concentration 40 microliter compared with control. on the other hand, the accumulation of the nutrient elements in the three parts of plant (root, shoot, grain) has the highest concentration of (P, Ca, Mg) appeared in grains compared with root and shoot

Extraction of some Antimicrobial Peptides from Rubiaceae Flowers and Studying their Activity Against some Pathogenic Bacteria

Mohammed A. Mahmood; Muhsin A. Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 38-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131367

This research was performed to isolate and purify the Plant Antimicrobial peptides (Cyclotides type) from Rubiaceae family (Gardenia florida and Coffea arabica), and study their antimicrobial activity against some multidrug pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli: 0157: H7), and compare it with theantibiotics effect.
The results of isolating and purifying these Cyclotides showed that it could be obtained from the studied plants. The RP-HPLC technique results showed that there were (9) absorption peaks in cyclotide crud extract isolated from Gardenia florida flowers, (8) absorption peaks from Coffea arabica. These absorbing peaks of cyclotides varied in retention time, height and area percentages.
The results of the antimicrobial activity of the isolated cyclotides against studied pathogenic bacteria showed that all these peptides were effective with different ratios, and there was no resistance against them. Cyclotides isolated from Coffea arabica flowers were the best. Both types of gram-positive bacteria were the most effected, especially against cyclotides isolated from Coffea arabica, with (33) mm and (31)mm, inhibition zone for E. faecalis and S. aureus respectively.

Oxidants and Antioxidants Levels for Elderly Male People

Luay A. Al-Helaly; Maryam A. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 48-64
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131368

The research included a study of oxidants and antioxidants levels with aging such as: smoking, physical exercise and fasting during Ramadan on elderly by measuring (14) oxidants and antioxidants parameters which included: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), gluconolactonase (senescence marker protein-30) (SMP-30), ceruloplasmin (Cp), albumin, glutathione (GSH), calcium, iron, uric acid, total bilirubin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). The study was carried out on (324) male (age 18 – 95 year) living in Nineveh Governorate
The results showed a significant decrease with aging for vitamin C, vitamin E, SMP-30, glutathione(GSH), total bilirubin and calcium, while there was a significant increase of Cp, MDA and peroxynitrite. The effect of aging (65 year and over) was divided into three groups which showed that the level of oxidative stress was increased with aging, especially in the last group.
The results revealed a significant decrease in the level of: vitamin C, vitamin E, SMP-30, GSH and total bilirubin for smokers with aging compared to non-smokers, while a significant increase of GST, albumin, iron, MDA and peroxynitrite.
Results also showed an increase in oxidants with a decrease in antioxidant compounds with an improvement in the human body by increasing SMP-30, the results revealed a significant decrease for sport training elderly people when compared with non-sport training in vitamin E, GSH and iron, and a significant increase of : GST, SMP-30, Cp and ONOO-.
Moreover, the results showed a significant decrease for aging after fasting in Ramadan for the parameters: GST, Iron, MDA and peroxynitrite and a significant increase for: vitamin C, vitamin E, SOD, SMP-30, Cp, GSH, total bilirubin and calcium, which indicated an improvement in human body for aging with fasting of Ramadan.

Using Gamma-Rays to Determine the Homogeneity of Alloy (Al-Mn) Grafted by some Oxides

Raad A. Rasool; Ahmed K. Muhemeed; Muhsun W. Albadrani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 65-74
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131369

This research includes preparing samples of composite materials by using casting sand and hand mixing to disperse particles oxides such as (Al2O3) and (ZnO and (NiO) in the substrate of bases alloy (Al-Mn). We also use a narrow collimated mono-energetic beam of gamma-rays emitted from the decay of 137Cs (0.662 keV) and a gamma spectrometer UCS-20 connected with a NaI(Tl) detector to determine the homogeneity of the materials (Al-Mn), (Al-Mn)+Al2O3,(Al-Mn)+ZnO,(Al-Mn)+NiO. The homogeneity test was determined from the percentage variations between the transmitted energy, the intensity of gamma-rays, and the linear attenuation coefficient at seven positions for each sample and the percentage of the standard deviation. The linear attenuation coefficients for the above samples were determined, the highest average values obtained 0.251 mm-1 for (Al-Mn)+ZnO and the lowest average values obtained 0.151 mm-1 for (Al-Mn)+NiO. It can be seen from the present results that the materials (Al-Mn), (Al-Mn)+Al2O3, (Al-Mn)+ZnO have a good homogeneity as compared with (Al-Mn)+NiO. The linear attenuation coefficient of (Al-Mn)+ZnO sample was higher than its values in some materials used as gamma-radiation protection shields.

Studying the Linear and the Mass Attenuation Coefficient of Gamma Rays for Certain Building Materials used in Iraq

Laith A. Najim; Israa M. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131370

In this research, the photons of gamma rays emitted from radioactive sources (133 Ba, 137Cs,60Co) at energies (81, 356, 662, 1173, 1332) keV respectively have been used to examine the linear and the mass attenuation coefficient of different construction materials using gamma spectrometer UCS-20 which is connected with sodium Iodide activated thallium detector (NaI(Tl)) to express the decrease in the intensity of these photons when they pass through the targeted material by scintillation detector reading. According to the results obtained, it becomes possible to measure the two types of attenuation coefficients, the linear and the mass, as these coefficients are of great importance in studying the impact of these rays on the material and the accounts of the radiation dose in order to achieve the level of security against exposure to radiation and to prevent the dangers resulting from that exposure by designing suitable shields. The chemical composition of the material under discussion has also been studied using the technique of X-rays fluorescence (XRF) by (XRF) device and the results were put in the program (XCOM) to compare the values of attenuation coefficients. Results have shown that (Granite) is one of the best building materials to be used in shielding against gamma rays, whereas the (Thermostone) showed less ability to attenuation because of its too low density and the little concentration of elements of high atomic number of this Material.

Determination of the Background Radiation Level in Mosul University Campus Using Multiple Technologies

Ammir H. Ali; Ahmed K. Mh; Hana I. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 86-100
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131371

The current study aims to determine the background radiation level in Mosul University Campus using multiple technologies, portable detector type Inspector EXP+ containing Geiger-Mueller tube, NaI(Tl) and CR-39 detectors. The portable detector was used to measure the dose rate (Dexp.) at 1 m height from the ground. The radioactivity concentrations of 40K, 222Rn, 226Ra, 232Th, the dose rate (Dcal.) at 1 m height from the ground, radium equivalent activity (Raeq), gamma index (Iγ), alpha index (Iα), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin) and radon exhalation rate (E) were calculated. An empirical equation between the field and the laboratory measurements of the dose rate in air (Dcal., Dexp.) and other equations between (Iγ, Dcal.), (Iγ, Raeq), (Iγ, Hex) and (Raeq, Hex) were found.