Volume 25, Issue 6, Autumn 2014, Page 1-98

Effect of Aqueous Olive Leaves Extract on the Pancreatic Islets in Rats

Khabat A. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131333

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of the aqueous crude extract of Olea europaeaon serum glucose level and histopathological changes in islets of Langerhans in an induced-diabetic mellitus in rats. The hypoglycemic activity of Olive leaf extract was investigated in fasting health rats and alloxan–diabetic rats. Blood samples were collected from the tail of rats and serum glucose measured on the 1st, 15th, 30th days of the experiment. A significant reduction in blood glucose of diabetic animal’s (350.5±0.0348 e) mg/dl in case of administration of Olive leaves in comparison with diabetic control (373.4±0.0562 a) mg/dl. The present study clearly indicated a significant antidiabetic activity with the Olive leaves and supports the traditional usage for the control of diabetes (Nadar et al., 2003), Aqueous crude extract considered as hypoglycemic agent reduce oxidative stress, indirectly by lowering blood glucose and preventing hyperinsulinemia (Casalino et al., 2002). The study showed islets of Langerhans continuous infarctions and lymphocyte infiltration in alloxan–diabetic rats while the treatment group showed the islets irregularity in size, but they appeared normal with decreased granulation and some islets appeared very small, all of islets appeared normal as of the control animals.

Detection of the −1082 G/A Promoter Polymorphism of Interleukin-10 Gene by ARMS-PCR Technique among some Iraqi Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Owayes M. Alhassani; Adnan F. Al-Azawie; Wasan N. Hussain; Omama M. alhassani; Akeel H. Al-Assie

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 10-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131336

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which interleukin (IL)-10 gene plays an important role. There are, however, controversial reports that IL-10 promoter polymorphism may be an independent marker of susceptibility and severity of RA. The aim of the present study was to examine the IL-10 promoter polymorphism among RA patients.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IL-10 G-1082A promoter polymorphism of interleukin-10 gene in some Iraqi rheumatoid arthritis patients using ARMS-PCR technique.
We examined 70 RA patients (60 females and 10 males; aged: 20 – 74 years, mean: 51.7 years) were recruited from a private clinic in different region of Salahaddin governorate and 50 healthy individuals (40 females and 10 males; age: matching with patients) who were the staff of Tikrit University and hospital workers. The venous blood samples (5 ml) were collected from all the participants at the time of clinical examination, aliquoted in plain and EDTA vacutainers for the determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, presence of RFs. Genomic DNA was isolated from the whole-blood samples of all the patients and control subjects. The IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism genotyping Amplification Refractory Mutation System- Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) method was used.
ESR rate and RF positivity Levels of CRP were found as high as ≥ 20, 86.3% among patients, while all the healthy individuals were negative for this test except for a few number.
The genotype GA for the −1082 G/A polymorphism of the IL-10 gene promoter was the most frequently observed genotype in both patients and controls, however, the distribution of the GG and AA genotype in patients and control was different. While genotype AA has a higher frequency than GG in patients (27.04vs.23.04), genotype GG was more frequently observed than AA in controls (46.08vs. 0.08).

Conductivity Measurements of 4-Amino Salicylic Acid and with some Transition Metal Chlorides in Different Solvents and at Different Temperatures

Banan A. Akrawi; Ahlam M. J. Ali; Alaa H. Jalil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 24-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131341

In the first part of this work we have measured the electrical conductivity of 4-amino salicylic acid (4-ASA) solution in water, methanol and ethanol at different temperatures (293.16-313.16 K). The experimental results were analyzed using Lee-Wheaton equation (LW) for symmetrical electrolytes (1:1). The conductivity parameters were calculated: the equivalent conductivity at infinite dilution (Λo), the association constant (KA) and the mean distance values between ions (R) at the best standard deviation σs(Λ). It is found that by increasing the temperature, the values of Λo increased, in contrast of that the values of KA decreased in ethanol only, R are found to be between (2-29 )Ao which indicates the formation of solvent separated ion pairs in solution. By Vant Hoff equation we have calculated the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) of ion association in solution.
The second part of this work is the measurement of electrical conductivity of (4-ASA) in water with chlorides of each of nickel, cobalt and manganese at different temperatures (293.16-313.16 K) and calculation of conductivity parameters by Lee-Wheaton equation for unsymmetrical electrolytes (2:1), besides the thermodynamic parameters were also performed. The Walden-product (Λoη) was also determined and discussed.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Salbutamol Sulphate by Coupling with Diazotized 5-Amino-2-chlorobenzotrifluoride – Application to Pharmaceutical Preparations

Nabeel S. Othman; Ali M. Asaad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 38-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131346

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometic method for the estimation of trace amounts of salbutamol sulphate (SBS) in pharmaceutical preparations has been proposed .The method is based on the coupling reaction of the intended compound with diazotized 5-amino-2-chlorobenzotrifluoride in alkaline medium and in the presence of Triton X-100 to form a yellow-orange dye that shows maximum absorption at 467 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range 5 – 300 g / 10 ml (i.e.,0.5-30 ppm) with a molar absorptivity of 4.20  104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity index of 0.0139 g.cm-2, a relative error of +1.08 to +3.46 % and a relative standard deviation of 0.76 to 3.50 %, depending on the concentration. The method has been applied to estimate salbutamol sulphate in syrup, tablet and ventolin.

Synthesis and Identification of some Benzoxazole Derivatives via Mannich Reaction

Asmaa H. Sultan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131349

The p-Hydroxy benzyldehyde is one of the aromatic compounds which contains two important functional groups (OH, CHO). In this work, the p-hydroxy benzyldehyde has been introduced into different reactions. The first one involves the synthesis of ether via Williamson reaction,in which p-hydroxybenzyldehyd reacts with chloro acetic acid to afford compound (1), then compound (1) in presence of sodium bicarbonate gives the anion (2). Which reacts with propargyl bromide to give the acetylenic compound (3). The compound (3) in turn reacts with secondary amine via Mannich reaction to give the acetylenic amine(4a-f). Finally, the compounds (4a-f) undergo reaction with o-amino phenol to give benzoxazole derivatives (5a-f). The structure of synthesized compounds had been elucidated by the available physical and spectral data.

Synthesis of some New Schiff Bases and Hydrazones Containing Benzonaphthyridine/ Benzonaphthyridone Moiety

Rafid K. Jameel; Attallah M. Sheat

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 56-69
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131351

The N-(4-methyl-2-pyridyl)anthranilic acid (I) was synthesized by Ullmann condensation. The compound (I) was cyclized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA) to give 4-methyl-10H-benzo[b][1,8]naphthyridin-5-one (II). The compound (II) was treated with selenium dioxide (SeO2) and thionyl chloride (SOCl2) to give the 4-formyl-10H-benzo[b][1,8]naphthyridin-5-one (III) and 4-methyl-5-chloro-benzo[b][1,8]naphthyridine (IV) respectively. The compound (III) was reacted with various substituted anilines and aliphatic amines to give the Schiff bases (Va-j). The compound (IV) was reacted with hydrazine hydrate to yield the 5-hydrazino derivative (VI), which was reacted with various aromatic aldehydes to yield the hydrazones (VIIa-j) and the Rf values reported.The reaction progress was followed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral data (I.R, 1H-NMR, 13C-MNR). The possible fragmentation pattern of GC/MS for the compounds (III), (Vc) and (VIIg) were reported.

The Effect of Compound Magnetic – Electrostatic Lenses Insulation on its Optical Properties

Alaa A. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 70-79
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131354

The present research work takes the intensive studies on two types of electron lenses (magnetic and electrostatic), in order to obtain the preferable design of a compound lens. The single polepiece magnetic lens models of the same dimension and different structure insulations (iron and air) have been designed and tested. It was found that the lens with iron insulation has been achieved better optical performance. Another study has been carried out on a set of asymmetrical electrostatic lenses having different geometries of the outer electrodes. It was found that the geometrical shape of the outer electrode has a clear effect on the electron optical properties. The electrostatic retarding lens was inserted inside the magnetic lens in front of the specimen due to improvement in the objective focal properties especially at low beam voltages. Furthermore, a good resolving power has been obtained from this type of the compound lens in comparison with that of the traditional pure magnetic lens. The result of the compound lens of the preferable design was compared with those of the published papers; it was found that both results are in good agreement with each other

Theoretical High Pressure Study for Thermoelastic Properties of NaCl-B1

Sirwan K. Jalal; Adnan M. Al-Sheikh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 80-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131357

The evaluation of , Bulk modulus K, Lattice parameter a, First Grüneisen parameter γ, Second Grüneisen parameter q, and Debye temperature θD for NaCl-B1 under high pressure has been achieved in this work by using two equations of state (Dodson EOS and Thomsen EOS). The results obtained by the two EOSs have been compared with each other and with other theoretical and experimental data published in literature. The results obtained by using Dodson EOS show more agreement with data given in literature than the results obtained by using Thomsen EOS.

The Effect of γ-Irradiation on the Structural and Physical Properties of CdSe Thin Films

Nawfal Y. Jamil; Suha A. Najim; Abid Al-karem M. Muhammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 90-98
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.131361

Thin film of CdSe has been deposited on to the clean glass substrate by using CBD technique at room temperature. The samples are irradiated by γ-ray with various doses (0.25,0.5,1.0,1.5) Gy. These films are characterized by XRD, which indicated that as-deposited CdSe layers and irradiated films at 0.25 and 0.5 Gy of γ- ray grow in cubic phase having preferred orientation along (111) plane in c-direction. Further, the irradiated films at 1.0 and 1.5 Gy of γ- ray show polycrystalline in nature with a mixture of cubic along with hexagonal structures. Optical absorption spectra of these thin films have been recorded using spectrophotometer. The energy band gap has been determined using these spectra. It is found that the energy band gap of CdSe film is 2.09 eV and it is increased with the increase of γ- irradiation dose. The electrical conductivity measurements gave a decrease in conductivity with the increase of γ- irradiation dose.