Volume 25, Issue 2, Spring 2014, Page 1-122

Some Indicators of Water Quality of the Tigris in Mosul City an Inferential Study

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 1-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86097

Some water quality indicators of the Tigris within Mosul city were studied. Five sites starting from Mushairfa to Albosaif were covered. Sampling sites were selected at points faraway from riverbanks and at running stream.
Some physical, chemical and biological parameters were measured to detect the influence of untreated outfall discharges upon river water quality and on aquatic life particularly fishes.
The study particularly focused on organic load in term of BOD5, Dissolved Oxygen as well as on nutrients. Comparing the obtained results with authorized guidelines of pollution indicators showed that the Tigris River water is clean, and possesses high percent of saturation with Oxygen. The levels of nutrients were with in recommended values. Throughout the period of study, EC, pH, temperature values showed some relative low variations. Turbidity showed distinctive rise in spring due to rainfall run off. All tests evidently showed that Tigris river water is good and the pollutants vanish with dispersion and dilution of upstream dam discharges. Flow velocity and self-purification may contribute to support water life particularly fishes.

Biological Control of Damping–off of Okra by the Biopesticides Pseudomones fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis

Najwa B. Al-Lashi; Abeer A. Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 23-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86099

In vitro studies were carried out on the effect of 2 bacterial biopesticide preparations, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis on the growth of fungi Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, causing root rot of okra plants, results revealed a significant effect on reducing the growth of colony diameter and % inhibition with the highest effect noticed with P. fluorescens on the fungus M. phaseolina by 58.43%. The results of greenhouse experiments indicated that both bacterial preparations reduced the percentage of pre and post emergence damping off significantly especially when okra seeds were treated with P. fluorescens and planted in soil contaminated by F. solani (17.79%). Both biopesticides showed a significant increase in the length of shoot and root of okra plants as compared to the untreated seeds planted in contaminated soil. Also an increase in the dry weight of the plants with highest increase was noticed for F. solani reached 0.016 gm with the bacteria P. fluorescens. All seeds treated with P. fluorescens and B. subtilis preparations caused a significant increase in the peroxidase activity as compared to control with the highest increase noticed when seeds were treated with P. fluorescens and planted in M. phaseolina contaminated soil

Estimates of Heterosis, Gene action, Heritability and Genetic Advance of Flour Content and some Goodness Characters of F2 Hybrids Grain from Diallel Crosses in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Mohammed H. Ayoob

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 40-56
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86102

Grains of five varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Intesar, Rabbea'a, Abu-Greeb-3, Adnanyi and Al-Eaz) along with their F2 hybrids grains from diallel crosses were used to study heterosis, general and specific combining ability, phenotypic variance components, percentage of heritability, average degree of dominance and expected genetic advance for grains flour content, bran content, extracted flour, wet and dry gluten content, fermentation time. Desirable and significant heterosis was observed for some F2 hydrids, (Intesar x Adnanyi) for total flour contern and extracted flour, (Intesar x Abo-Greeb-3) for wet an dry gluten < ( Rabbeaa x Adnanyi) for fermentation time and (Abu-Greeb-3 x Al-Eaz) for bran content. The general and specific combining ability variances were significant for the studied characteristic of the non-additive gene effect were more important than the additive gene effect for determining these characters except for wet gluten content. The additive, dominance and environmental variances were significant for all characters. Most of the studied traits revealed high to medium broad sense heritability and medium to low narrow since heritability. There is an over dominance for total flour content, bran content, extracted flour and dry gluten content and fermentation time but partial dominance for wet gluten content. The values of genetic advance indicated that direct selection will be effective in F2 generation to improve the bran content and wet gluten content. Recurrent selection or selection in the following generation suggested to increase the desirable alleles for the other traits.

Survey of some Therapeutic Formulation for Anti-Ectoparasites Used in Clinic Veterinary in Tilkaif and Clinic Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Nineveh province

Enaam H. Kazal; Ashraf S. Alias

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 57-66
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86108

A survey for anti ectoparasites drugs in Clinic Veterinary of Tilkaif and Clinic veterinarian Teaching Hospital in Nineveh province, a was recorded 234.240 thousand head of field animals involving (sheep, goats, cows and buffalo) in Veterinary Clinic of Tilkaif and 15.489 thousand head of field animals involved (sheep, cows, calves, goats, lambs, rabbits, horses, cats, dogs and birds) recorded in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the period from 2009 to the end of 2012.
The total animals that have been treated with anti ectoparasites drugs in the Clinic Veterinary of Tilkaif was 161.285 thousand head and 169 head of animal treated in Clinic veterinary teaching hospital respectively.
Nine kinds of drugs and pharmaceuticals were used in the treatment of ectoparasites including six of them used in Clinic Veterinary of Tilkaif and three were used in the Clinic Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Ivermictin has a highest use in the treatment of ectoparasites (82%) and the lowest one Phenothrin (0.46%) in Tilkaif Clinic Veterinary, while in Clinic Veterinary Teaching Hospital, the Ivermectin also has the highest use (53%) but Sulphur ointment has the lowest use (4%).
There is no case of poisoning with drugs of ectoparasites was recorded in each of the Clinic Veterinary of Tilkaif and Clinic Veterinary Teaching Hospital. for the period of 2009-2012.
In this survey, it appears that the same veterinary drugs were dispensed frequently in Clinic veterinary teaching hospital and Clinic Veterinary of Tilkaif, and these should be taken into consideration when ordering drugs or recommending their manufacture.

Molecular Identification of Fungi Myceliopthora verrucosa which Producing Laccase Enzyme

Mohammad I. Khalil; Nadeem A. Ramadan; Riyadh K. Albarhawi; Joan M. Kelly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 67-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86110

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ITS region was used to identify the fungus isolated from plastic garbage which can produce laccase enzyme. DNA bands were purified from agarose gel and then sequenced and after entering these nucleotides to the data base it was found that the DNA band belongs to the genus Myceliopthora verrucosa in 100% matching. This method is a very sensitive method for the identification of species and strains of fungi as well as its simplicity in comparing between fungi species.

A Qualitative Study and Phytoremediation of Sobashi Water in Talfar

Ibrahim O. Saeed; Khaldoon T. Ismail; Nashwan I. Abo; Ayad S. Hameed; Khawla A. Al-Flayeh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 79-96
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86113

The research studied physical and chemical water of Sobashi spring in Talafar to evaluate this water for different usages, due to the lack of permanent surface water and decreasing of ground water level as a result of dry seasons estimation of some heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) for phragmites australis L., showed that:
1- The Sobashi spring water is very hard due to the high percentage of calcium and magnesium (2144-2682)(161-560) respectively, so its alkalinity where its pH is (8), analyses also revealed that this water is unsuitable for drinking according to (WHO) classifications, but it is possible to be used for agriculture.
2- Results of heavy elements in the water showed that the highest values for these elements were in Site 3 in January as reached (72, 22, 18, 0.9) elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) respectively as a result of sewage water in Sobashi spring water at this point.
3- Bioaccumulation of heavy metals of phragmites australis roots higher than Sorghum halepense L. and Imperata cylindrical plant roots. It is higher of then the rest of the plant tissues (stem, leaves, flowers). the order of contents of metal in these plants are as follows:


Physical and chemical characteristics
heavy elements
Sobashi spring water
الصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية، العناصر الثقيلة، المعالجة النباتية، عين صوباشي

Using Magnetized Water to Harden the CK45

Khaldoon T. Ismail

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 97-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86118

CK45 steel has been hardened using magnetized water as a hardening media. The water has been exposed to a magnetic field of 1000 Gauss and 2000 Gauss respectively for periods of 1 to 5 hours, with flow rate 4 gal/min. The method ordinary hardening has been used in this research.
It was found that the hardness increased directly with increasing the magnetic field and the exposure time and it reaches its maximum value at magnetic field intensity of 2000G and exposure time of 5 h. as maximum limits in this research.

Purification of Polyamine Oxidase from Diabetic Type-I Females and Studies of the Inhibitory Effect of some Thiourea Compounds on its Activity

Nashwan I. Abo; Ayad S. Hameed; Khawla A. Al-Flayeh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2014, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 105-122
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2014.86115

The research included a determination of polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity in normal females and diabetic type I patients. It was found that the activities of PAO in red blood cells (RBC) and plasma in patients were significantly higher than that of normal (p<0.05).
The partial purification of PAO from RBC of diabetic and normal females were included in this study. This was achieved by using different biochemical techniques. Three proteinous peaks with PAO activities in RBC (I, II, III) from each of normal, diabetic with specific activities (Umg protein) (0.194,0.183 and 0.098), (0.349, 0.237 and 0.176) were isolated from ion exchange chromatography. Molecular weights (72588, 74512 and 69339), (141458, 100671 and 104018) Da respectively.
This study didn't show the existence of Cu2+ ion as a cofactor for any PAO isoenzyme, but indicated the existence of flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD) as a cofactor for all PAO isoenzymes.
On the other hand, the research included a preparation of thiourea derivatives of structure analogous to sulfonylurea drugs and containing thiosemicarbazide. Thiosemicarbazide showed an inhibitory effect on partially purified PAO activity. The prepared thiourea derivatives of thiosemicarbazide showed a competitive inhibition of PAO activity.