Volume 24, Issue 12, Autumn 2013, Page 1-146

Micropropagation of Black Poplar Trees ( Populus nigra L. ) by Tissue Culture

Omar M. Omar; Ammar Z. Kassab-Bashi; Nathim Th. Saieed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80264

A successful protocol was used for black poplar (Populus nigra L.) micropropagation through tissue culture, through initiation stage which studied, the effect of concentrations 0.0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mg / l of Benzyl Adenin (BA) and explants of two different types (single node and shoot tips). In multiplication stage the effect of BA concentrations 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg / l alone or in combination with IBA or NAA 0.1. 0.3 mg / l. The results of initiation stage after four weeks of culture showed significant differences for single node application in comparison with shoot tips, by ratios value of response (80%, 68.33%) at a time the growing node has a significant superiority for growth in MS without regulators in relation with that MS medium having different concentrations of BA. But the results of the multiplication stage, after eight weeks of culture showed different cultured nodes of response to different concentrations of BA, the medium with 1.0 mg / l BA is significantly different for a number of shoot traits (2.7 shoot / node) and the longest shoots more than 0.5 cm. (2 shoot / node) in comparison with other concentrations studied of BA. On the other hand, the combination of 1.0 mg / l BA with 0.3 mg / l of IBA or NAA causes a significant increase for some studied characteristics in comparison with the control (1 mg / l BA) and other studied interactions by which we have got the highest number of shoots (4.7 shoot / node, 4.9 shoot / node) respectively in relation with control (2.6 shoot / node), also we have highest number of leaves (17.4 leaf / node, 17.2 leaf / node) and shoots longer than 0.5 cm. trait of (3.7 shoot / node, 3.5 shoot / node) respectively. The shoot regenerated from tissue culture rooted by ratios of 73.5 % in MS medium with half of the strength of salt with 0.5 mg / l IBA and then adapted and transferred to field conditions at success rate 90% .

The Effect of Plant Seeds Peganum harmala Evaporation on Testicular Tissue in Male White Rats Treated with Chlorpromazine

Thaer M. Al-Mushhadani; Hussien E. Arteen; Hamed J. Jumaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 18-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80265

This study was conducted to determine the effect of evaporation of plant seeds Peganum harmala on the tissues of the testes in male albino rats treated with Chlorpromazine. The rats aged 3-4 months and weighted 200-300 g were divided into two groups, the first group is control negative included 10 rats which were dosed with distilled water and remaining animals were dosed with Chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg) of body weight per day for six weeks. Then the treated animals were divided into 4 groups, each group consists of 10 rats. The positive control treated with drug, the second group evaporated for 7 days, the third group evaporated for 14 days and the last group evaporated for 21 days.
The results showed an injurious effect on the control positive group represented by necrosis and degenerative for some epithelial cells in seminiferous tubules that elucidate reducing the tissue. After the first evaporation it was observed that there was a clear and partial improvement represented by increasing the number of cells in seminiferous tubules compared with the control positive group. In the second evaporation period it was noted that there was a continuous increase in the number of cells in the seminiferous tubules. Finally, in the third evaporation the seminiferous tubules approximately regained the normal situation represented by compensation of the number of reducing cells resulting from the injurious effect of drug. This information gives a definite indication for the positive reformative effect of evaporation on testicular tissue.

Effect of Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. Water Extracts in Growth and Regeneration Lactuca sativa L. leaves Callus and Isolation Nicotine from it

Firas H. Khathayer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 31-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80267

The present study aimed to show the role of variable concentrations of tobacco water extract (10،50،100،150) in initiation, growth and regeneration of leaves callus of lettuce (lactuca sativa L) plant by using MS 1.0mg/L of BA and NAA. The best medium was (MS + 1.0 mg/L BA and NAA +50mg/ml of tobacco extract), in which the fresh weight of callus reached 2.150 mg after 35 days of culture and with regeneration rate reached 63%. Also the result referred that nucleic acid (DNA, RNA), proteins and carbohydrate were greatly affected by tobacco water extracts and it varied with extract concentrations. As to carbohydrate content was varied with the increase or decrease in protein and nucleic acid content. The Detection and isolation of Alkaloid nicotine from the alcoholic extraction of lettuce were analyzed by (IR) where exhibited activity nicotine as bands.

Detection of Biofilm Formation in some Pathogenic Bacteria Using Tube and Congo Red Agar Methods

Waad M. Raoof; Amera M. Mohamad; Aisha W. Al-Omari

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 55-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80268

The research included studying the ability of some bacteria that were isolated from urinary catheter tips and urine samples in a previous study, to form biofilms by Congo red and tube method. The results showed that the highest biofilm formation using tube method was occurred by Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli and klebsiella spp.(100%), while Pseudomonas fluorescens did not form a biofilm. of gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest biofilm formation (87.5%), while Micrococcus spp. showed the lowest level (33.3%).
Using the congo red method in the gram positive bacteria, S.aureus showed biofilm formation of 31.25%, while S.epidermidis and Micrococcus spp. did not form biofilms. Using the same method for gram negative bacteria, E.coli showed a highest ability of (50%), while Ps.fluorescens and C.freundii did not form biofilms.

Resistance of some Gram Negative Enteric Bacilli Isolated from Lower Respiratory Tract Infections to β-lactam Antibiotics

Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso; Subhi H. Khalaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80271

One hundred and four isolates of gram negative enteric bacilli were isolated from (700) sputum specimens taken from lower respiratory tract infections with isolation percentage of (14.8%). The bacterial isolates belonged to the species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, with variable isolation percentages. The isolates showed an obvious resistance to different β-lactam antibiotics including third generation cephalosporins, where the resistance percentages to Cefixime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime reached (52.9%), (51.9%), (42.3%) respectively, they also showed resistance to Cefoxitin (31.7%), while Cefepime, Meropenem, Imipenem had a high activity against the isolates, as the resistance rates were reduced to reach (8.7%), (1.9%), (1.0%) respectively. Ps.aeruginosa isolates were the most resistant species to β-lactams, followed by K.pneumoniae isolates, while Pr. mirabilis isolates were the most susceptible ones.

Induction of Callus Cultures from Stems and Cotyledonary Leaves of Prosopis farcta L. by Using some Plant Growth Regulators

Rana T. Yahya; Hanaa S. Al-Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 80-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80272

This study was capable to find the optimal conditions for callus initiation and growth from stems and cotyledonary leaves segments of Prosopis farcta, by using different concentrations of plant growth regulators NAA, IBA, Zeatine and BA alone or in an interaction between them in agar-solidified MS medium. The better media that encouraged callus induction from stem segments were those supplemented with 3.0 mg/L NAA + 0.5 mg/L BA, 2.0 mg/L IBA + 1.0 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA + 2.0 mg/L Zeatine, 3.0 mg/L IBA + 2.0 mg/L Zeatine in which the induction percent reached 90%, 90%, 90%, 60% and fresh weight that reached up 1.44, 2.1, 2.17, 0.9 gm respectively. Whereas the better media that encouraged callus induction from cotyledonary leaves segments were those supplemented with 0.5 mg/L NAA + 0.5 mg/L BA, 3.0 mg/L IBA + 0.1 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA + 2.0 mg/L Zeatine, 2.0 mg/L IBA + 2.0 mg/L Zeatine with callus induction percent reached to 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% and fresh weight average 1.89, 2.42, 2.47, 2.67 gm respectively. It is clear that 0.5 mg/L NAA has an important role in callus initiation alone or with BA and Zeatine dependent on callus induction percent and its fresh weight.
On the other hand, the explants failed to continue in its viability when cultured on agar-solidified MSO medium.

Initiation and Differentiation of Prosopis farcta Callus and Extraction of Caffeic Acid from it

Rehab A. Al-Bker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 95-111
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80274

The study included the role of some plant growth regulators and their effect in Prosopis farcta explants response for initiation and growth of callus cultures and detection for caffiec acid in the callus cultures.
Results showed that the best treatment for sterilization of Prosopis farcta seeds was treating the seeds with 96% ethanol for 2 min., then treating them with sodium hypochlorite diluted with distilled water )1 : 2) (water : sodium hypochlorite( (v : v) for 10 min. Results also showed that when Prosopis farcta seedling stem explants containing nodes were cultured on MS solidified medium containing 2.5 mg/l of BA and 0.5 mg/l of 2,4-D was the best to initiate and grow of callus depending on fresh weight of callus.
This study included the detection of caffeic acid in callus cultures of Prosopis using Thin layer chromatography )TLC(. It was found that the Rf value of the standard sample is almost the same as that for the callus sample.it was concluded that callus cultures of Prosopis contain caffeic acid.

Separation and Studies of Lactoperoxidase from Camel and Buffalo Milk Locality

Luay A. Al-Helaly; Mosaab A. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 112-133
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80275

تضمن البحث فصل إنزيم اللاكتوبيروكسيديز (LP) من حليب الإبل والجاموس المحلية باستخدام التقنيات الحياتية المختلفة. تم فصل حزمة بروتينية واحدة بتقنية الترشيح الهلامي سيفادكس G-50 وG-100 للراسب البروتيني الناتج من عملية الترسيب بكبريتات الامونيوم. وقدر وزنه الجزيئي التقريبي بإستخدام تقنية الترشيح الهلامي (G-100) التي كانت بحدود 75219+ 900 دالتون لحليب الإبل وبحدود 76493 + 1000 دالتون لحليب الجاموس.
أظهرت النتائج أن الإنزيم المنقى من حليب الإبل والجاموس يعمل عند تركيز 70 مايكروغرام/مل باستخدام محلول الفوسفات المنظم بتركيز0.08 مول/لتر وعند أس هيدروجيني 7 وزمن تفاعل 25 دقيقة ودرجة حرارة 45 °م و400 ملي مول/لتر من مادة الأساس البايروكالول. وباستخدام رسم (لاين ويفر– برك) تم إيجاد قيمة السرعة القصوى (Vmax) وثابت ميكيلس (Km) وكانت مساوية لـ3.49 مايكرومول/دقيقة و26.3 ملي مول/لتر على التوالي لحليب الإبل و4.44 مايكرومول/ دقيقة و45.4 ملي مول/ لتر على التوالي لحليب الجاموس. واخيراً تم دراسة تأثير بعض المركبات الكيميائية والدوائية على فعالية الإنزيم، وبينت النتائج ان ميتا زرنيخات الصوديوم( NaAsO2) مثبط لاتنافسي والفينايل فرين (Phenylphrine) مثبط غير تنافسي عند تراكيز مختلفة من المثبط، ولكن الأثيلين ثنائي الأمين رباعي حامض الخليك ثنائي الصوديوم (Na2-EDTA) والتتراسايكلين يعدان منشطان للاكتوبيروكسيديز.

Effect of the Electrode Angle on the Optical Properties of Electrostatic Immersion Lens

Rana W. Al-Hialey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 12, Pages 134-146
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80276

Two models of an electrostatic immersion lenses of double electrodes have been designed of equal diameter and pole thickness, at different distances between their electrodes for the upper and lower parts. Each model includes two lenses according to its electrode angle that varied. The effect of variation of the single electrode angle was studied for each lens on the optical properties at a constant voltage ratio. An optimum electrode angle has been chosen for the lenses one with a lowest spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients in order to compared its optical properties at different voltages ratio at zero magnification condition. It was found that the lenses E1and E3 are better than E2 and E4 in the two models. Moreover, it was found that E3 has an optimum optical performance within the two models. The results of the optical properties of the electrostatic lenses in the present work have been compared with those of the published results. A great improvement in the optical performance of the considered lenses has been found