Volume 24, Issue 9, Summer 2013, Page 1-102

Presence and Properties of Thymidine Phosphorylase in Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces

Rana S. Al-Juwary; Marwa H. Al-Hammoshi; Muna H. Jankeer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78461

The present investigation indicates the presence of thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) (EC. and its activity in supernatant fraction of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces extract, furthermore some of its kinetics properties were investigated.
It was found that deoxyuridine might be an alternative substrate for thymidine during catalyzed reaction by enzyme Tpase. The result also indicated that TPase activity was extremely sensitive to inhibite by thymine(product reaction), cytidine, 5-flourouracil and albendazole with inhibitory percentages of: 36%, 68%, 52% and 3% respectively.
The presence of TPase activity indicates the presence of salvage pathway for thymine nucleotide which was essential to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in this organism, in addition to de novo pathway.

Comparative Anatomical, Histological and Histochemical Study of the Liver in Three Species of Birds

Hani M. Hamodi; Ali A. Abed; Ameer M. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 12-23
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78754

The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical features and histological structures as well as some histochemical aspects of the liver of three species of birds that differ in their nutrition, habitat and classification, by using light microscope. The birds were Larus canus, Agaporins fischeri and Numida meleagris. The results showed that the liver of the three species of birds was a dense, large and bilobed organ, it differed in size, color, lobes shape and presence of secondary lobes among the three species. The liver tissue of the three species consisted of hepatocytes which were radially arranged around the central veins interconnecting laminae of one to two cell thickness. The hepatocytes differed in size among the three species. Lumen of sinusoids contained mainly erythrocytes, macrophages and lining by the Kupffer cells. Histochemically, the hepatic cells in the three species of birds were weakly positive to periodic acid Schiff and alcian blue reactions, while they were negative to bromophenol blue reaction and they were moderately positive to Sudan black B reaction.

High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) in Pharmaceutical Formulation and Industrial Effluent Sample

Nief R. Ahmed; Suhaib N. Lottfi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 24-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78756

A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reversed–phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of sildenafil citrate in a pure form, pharmaceutical formulations and industrial effluent samples. Chromatography was carried out on supelco L7 reversed- phase column (25cm × 4.6mm), 5 microns, using a mixture of methanol: water: triethylamine (630: 370 :2 v/v/v) and adjusted to pH 4.0 with dilute phosphoric acid as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1.Uv detection was performed at 220 nm at ambient temperature (25 °C). The retention time for sildenafil citrate found to be 4.6 minutes. The calibration curve was linear (r= 0.9998) over a concentration range from 10 to 70 µg/ml. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 60 ng/ml and 180 ng/ml respectively. The method was validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sildenafil citrate in tablets and industrial effluent samples.

Synthesis of some Thiadiazoline Derivatives from 2- Phenyl Chroman-4-one

Moneera Y. Raoof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78757

2-Phenyl chroman-4-one 1(a-g) were synthesized by Pechmann condensation of proper phenol with cinnamic acid using poly phosphoric acid. Reactions of their derivatives with thiosemicarbazide were carried out using two methods, method A, using refluxing ethanol, gave low yield (17-20%). This method was modified to increase the yield using solvent free microwave irradiation technique, (method B), which improved the yield up to (30-40%). The treatment of these thiosemicabazones 2(a-g) with excess acetic anhydrid gave substituted thiadiazoline derivatives 3(a-g). The structures of these compounds was confirmed by IR, UV and NMR spectra in addition to their physical properties. On the other hand, the calculated values of the heat of formation and steric energy were established for compounds 2(a-g) and 3(a-g).

Spectrophotometric Determination of Teicoplanin via Coupling with Diazotized p-Nitroaniline

Nabil H. Othman; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 42-51
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78758

A new, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of teicoplanin as a pure material and in pharmaceutical formulation. The method is based on the coupling of teicoplanin with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium. The dye shows an absorption maximum at 490 nm and obeys Beer's law over a range of 2 to 80 µg.ml.-1 of teicoplanin. The molar absorptivity of the coloured azo dye is 2.8 x 104l. mol-1cm-1. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 2.7 % (n=5). The azo dye formed is stable for 60 minutes. The method was applied successfully to the assay of teicoplanin in pharmaceutical preparation (injection).

Spectrophotometric Determination of Bismuth with Alizarine Red S and Cetylpyridinium Chloride - Application to Water Samples, Urine and Veterinary Preparation

Salim A. Mohammed; Mohammed M. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 52-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78759

A simple, accurate, sensitive and reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of Bismuth(III) is developed. The method is based on the reaction of bismuth (III) with alizarine red S (ARS) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in the presence of Triton X-100 at pH 3 to form a pink, water soluble ternary complex which shows a maximum absorption at 507 nm with a molar absorptivity of 1.4 x104 L.mol-1cm-1. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range 5– 150 μg of bismuth (III) in a final volume of 20mL (i.e. 0.25-7.5 μg mL-1) with a determination coefficient of (R2) (0.9974). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.0671 and 0.2235 g.mL-1, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the stoichiometry of the reaction between bismuth (III), alizarine red S and cetylpyridinium chloride is found to be 1:3:6, respectively. The recoveries are obtained in the range of 98.8- 102.1% and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of ± 0.93 to ±3.07% depending on the concentration level. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of bismuth (III) in various samples such as, natural waters, urine and veterinary preparation

Study of Estrogen, Progesterone, Copper, Zinc and some Antioxidants in Sera of Ovarian Cancer Patients

Rana T. Ibrahim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 64-71
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78760

The research was concerned with a study of the relationship between patients with ovarian cancer (OCa) and some biochemical parameters.
Serum samples were collected from (25) healthy females and (25) females with ovarian cancer. The measured parameters in sera included the level of estrogen, progesterone hormones, some trace elements (copper and zinc), as well as some antioxidants such as glutathione, ceruloplasmin and malondialdehyde (MDA).
Total protein was also measured in the present study. Compared with the healthy females, the females ovarian cancer exhibited a significant increase in the level of estrogen and progesterone hormones, ceruloplasmin, MDA and copper. They also exhibited a significant decrease in the level of glutathione, total protein and zinc.

Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of 2-Acetyl pyridine -2-furoylhydrazone Complexes with UO2(II), Th(IV), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

Abdul-Ghany M. Al-Daher; Safwan M. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 72-86
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78761

A new heterocyclic hydrazone, 2- acetylpyridine -2- furoyl hydrazone (APFH) and its complexes with UO2(II), Th(IV), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) salts, have been prepared. The structure of these compounds has been characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR, UV, H-NMR) measurements. The hydrazone ligand APFH behave as uninegative or neutral tridentate ligand, with ONN donor atoms, towards the metal ions depending on the metal salt used. The magnetic and electronic spectral data indicate octahedral, tetrahedral and pentacoordinate structures for the divalent M(II) ions. Hexagonal bipyramidal structures have been proposed for UO2(II) complexes, and coordination number (10) geometries have been suggested for Th(IV) complexes. Antibacterial activity of the hydrazone ligand and some of its complexes were studied against gram –positive bacteria: S. aureus and gram- negative bacteria: E. coil.

Theoretical High Pressure Study for Evaluation of Spinodal Pressure and Phonon Frequency Spectrum of Silver

Adnan M. Al-Sheikh; Raed H. Al-Saqa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78795

Compression versus pressure at room temperature has been evaluated for silver using different equations of states (Birch-Murnghan and modified Lenard-Jones EOSs). A good agreement with experimental data has been observed. Extrapolation of variation of bulk modulus results with pressure has been used to evaluate spinodal pressure. The effect of high pressure on lattice frequency and phonon frequency spectrum (pfs) has been calculated too. A comparison of the present, pfs results show a good agreement with the results of other theoretical published work

Photonic Bandgap Tuning of Photonic Crystals by Air Filling Fraction

Huda M. Mohammad; Nawfal Y. Jamil; Abdulghafoor I. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 9, Pages 96-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.78796

In this paper, the type of photonic crystals (PCs) which consists of air holes surrounded by silica as a background with square lattice arrangement in two dimension (2D) has been assumed. A plane wave expansion method (PWEM) is implemented to calculate the photonic band structure of this kind of PC, then the effect of changing air filling fraction is studied on the photonic band structure diagram, by changing the air hole radius and lattice constant (a). As a result, a tuning and shifting of the photonic bandgaps (PBGs) has been obtained.