Volume 24, Issue 7, Summer 2013, Page 1-99

Role of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Pathological Changes of Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

Kamal A. Khidir; Sarmad R. Kareem; Ismail S. Kakey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77808

Thirty male albino rats were used to investigate the effect of green tea extract on pancreas, renal and hepatic histological parameters in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus.
The animals were randomly distributed into five groups of six animals in each group. The first group was regarded as normal healthy control, the second group was regarded as diabetic control, the third group was treated with insulin, the fourth group was treated with green tea extract, 50 mg/kg body weight (GTE50), and the fifth group was treated with GTE100.
This study showed that functionally diabetes related organs such as pancreas, kidney and liver showed diabetes related pathological changes and these revealed a noticeable tendency for reversion to normal after treatment with green tea extract.

The Properties of Protease Isolated from Tissues of Benign and Malignant Kidney Tumors Patients

Lelas F. Bdaiwi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77812

The research includes the study of some protease properties in seven patients diagnosed with kidney tumors. Three of them were benign and the others were malignant.
The samples were collected from the patients directly after undergoing the surgery in Al-Jamhoory hospital in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.
Protease enzyme was isolated using different biochemical techniques, like ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration chromatography on sephadex G-100. The comparative molecular weight of protease was determined using gel filtration and was found to be (72000 and 75000 ± 2000) dalton for benign and malignant tumors respectively.
The results showed that there was a (55%) increase in the specific activity of protease in malignant kidney tumors than benign.
The optimum conditions for protease activity were obtained using sodium borate buffer at pH (8.8) for (1) minute incubation at (40°C) and (0.4) mM of casein as a substrate Vmax and Km were found to be (0.87 U/ml) and (0.22 mM) respectively by Linweaver-Burk plot.
Finally, the effect of some chemical compounds like iodoacetamide, mercurous chloride, zinc sulphate showed an inhibition impact on protease activity while calcium sulphate and magnesium chloride demonstrated an increase effect on the protease activity.

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Hg(II) Complexes with [(N-(N-benzilidin aminoethyl) Iodomethylene Dithiocarbamate]

Layla J. Althaher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 25-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77813

A new series of transition metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Hg(II), with Schiff base (L) (N-(N-benzilidine aminoethyl) iodomethylene dithiocarbamate) is derived from (2- aminoethyldithiocarbamato -iodomethane) and benzoyl, by (1:2) metal to ligand molar ratio. The complexes were characterized by metal analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and IR, UV-Vis, spectral studies. The data showed that these complexes have the composition of [ML2Cl2] type. The UV-Vis spectral and magnetic susceptibility of the complexes suggest an octahedral geometry around each central metal ion.

Effects of Metformin vs. Glibenclamide on Serum Leptin Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Isam H. Mahmood; Haimn A. Tawfiq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 34-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77814

This study was done to assess the effects of metformin and glibenclamide on serum leptin concentration in type 2 diabetic patients. The study involved 137 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. They were divided into 3 groups. The first group involves 35 newly diagnosed diabetic patients, who did not take any hypoglycemic agents. The second group involves 52 patients on metformin monotherapy, whereas the third group involves 50 patients on glibenclamide monotherapy. Another group which involved 35 apparently healthy subjects was used as control group. These four groups were matched. age, gender, and BMI Serum glucose concentration was estimated by the enzymatic method, while serum leptin concentration was measured using ELISA kit. The results showed that serum leptin concentration was lower in metformin group than that in glibenclamide group. In addition, there was a significant correlation between serum leptin level and BMI. No correlation was found between serum leptin level and fasting serum glucose. Therefore, the results indicated that metformin, in compared with glibenclamide, can significantly reduce the serum leptin concentration in overweight diabetic patients, consequently reducing the resistance against hormone action, and improving its action, which may lead to explain the known anorexigenic effect of metformin and its ability to reduce or prevent weight gain. In conclusion, plasma leptin level can be used as an indicator for the choice of treatment in those diabetic patients.

Biochemical Bone Indices and Serum Uric Acid Changes in Postmenopausal Women

Rukzan M. Dawood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 42-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77815

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of menopause on: body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, total calcium, uric acid, activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) and tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP 5b). The study involves 50 participants who were categorized into two groups; premenopausal women group (n=25) (age, 47.18 ±4.10 years) and postmenopausal women group (n=25) (age, 58.58 ±4.51years). In comparative evaluation, the serum total protein, calcium, uric acid, activity of ACP and TRACP 5b were found to be significantly increased (p<0.05) in post menopausal women as compared to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women are exposed to a greater risk of serum biochemical changes as compared to the premenopausal women, thus leading to an increased risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases after menopause.

Synthesis and Characterization of 3-Methoxypropyldithiocarbamate Complexes with Iron(II), Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II) and Zinc(II) and Their Adducts with Nitrogen Base Ligands

Saad E. Al-Mukhtar; Marwa Th. Aghwan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 50-59
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77816

New complexes of dithiocarbamate of the general formula [M(3-MeoPrdtc)2] and
[M(3-MeoPrdtc)2.nL] Where M= Fe(), Co(), Ni(), Cu() and Zn(), and (3-MeoPrdtc) =3-Methoxypropyldithiocarbamate, and n=2 when L= pyridine, Isoquinoline, γ-picoline, 3,5-lutidine, n=1 when L= ethylenediamine, (1,10)-phenanthroline, have been prepared and characterized by metal analyses, infrared, conductance measurements, electronic absorption spectra and suscetptibility measurements. Magnetic moment and electronic spectra, indicate that the complexes of the type [M(3-meoprdtc)2] are of tetrahedral geometry while the complexes of the type [M(3-meoprdtc)2.nL] have octahedral geometry.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiamine Hydrochloride in Presence of Sulphite Via Chromium-1,5-Diphenylcarbazide Complex

Najih H. Shekho; Bassima A. Abed Al-Hadi; Lamya A. Sarsam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 60-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77817

A simple, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride (Vitamin B1) in both pure form and in its pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the oxidation-reduction reaction between vitamin B1 and known amount of chromate CrO4-2 in acidic medium of 2N H2SO4. Then, the excess of chromate is measured via 1,5-diphenylcarbazide which gives a pinkish-violet, water soluble and stable complex and exhibits maximum absorption at 543 nm, with a molar absorptivity of 1.5×104 l. mol-1. cm-1, Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.02248 μg.cm-2 and a relative standard deviation of ±0.31 to ± 0.57%, depending on the concentration level. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range from 0.4 to 40 µg. ml-1 of thiamine hydrochloride. The present method has been developed for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride in the presence of sulphite. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of vitamin B1 in pharmaceutical preparations.

Clinical Study of Obestatin Hormone and its Relation to Diabetes Mellitus

Thikra A. Allwsh; Jehan A. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 74-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77818

The research included an estimation of the concentration of obestatin hormone level in diabetic patients (Type I and Type II) and control.
The results demonstrated that the normal mean of obestatin hormone in serum was (306.54 ± 3.0pg/ml) in control for both sexes, with the ages range between (less or equal to 15 - more or equal to 55) year.
The results demonstrated a significant decrease in the level of obestatin hormone in serum of type I and type II diabetic patients compared to control, and between types I & II diabetic patients.
The data showed that the level of obestatin hormone was not affected by age and sex, in control and diabetic patients, while showed a significant decrease according to body mass index (BMI) in control and diabetic patients (Type I and II). A significant gradual decrease in the concentration of obestatin as glucose concentration increases in diabetic patients was also observed.
The results showed a significant increase of adiponectin concentration between type I diabetic patient compared to type II, control, and a significant decrease in the concentration of adiponectin in diabetic patients (type II) compared with control.
Correlation coefficients of obestatin hormone with some biochemical parameters of control and diabetic patients showed that obestatin hormone has a significant negative correlation with glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and LDL-C.
Also, there was a significant positive correlation with HDL-C and adiponectin in control and diabetic patients (type I and II).
The result showed that obestatin hormone has a significant negative correlation with insulin, VLDL-C, total lipids in type II diabetic patients. Also, with triglyceride in control and type II diabetic patient.
It was concluded that low level of obestatin hormone index is a serious risk of diabetes mellitus and a major role for obestatin in diabetes mellitus type II. Moreover, the level could be used as a marker for diabetes mellitus and its role in obesity.

Quarks as Black holes

Muayyad A. Alobayde; Issra A. Mohammed Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 88-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77820

The concept of the mass in (QCD) was discussed. The Schwarzschild radii and the Compton wave length of different types of quarks have been found. The comparison between the Schwarzschild radii with the proton and neutron radii shows that the quarks behave like a point particle inside the nucleon. It is found that the Compton wave lengths of the up and down quarks are of the order of the nucleon radii.

Evaluation of Spinodal Pressure for Silicon and Germanium Using Modified Birch-Murnghan and Bardeen Equation of State

Adnan M. Al-Sheikh; Mumtaz M. Hussien; Seham J. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 7, Pages 95-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77823

A modification for Brich-Murnghan EOS and Bardeen EOS to meet the spinodal conditions has been established. Evaluation of spinodal pressure for Si and Ge, using these modified EOSs show a good agreement with the theoretical results shown in literatures.