Volume 24, Issue 8, Summer 2013, Page 1-98

Dignosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosis Disease and its Effect on some of the Variables in the Body

Mahmood A. Al-Tobje

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77825

45 blood samples were collected from people suffering from different symptoms, with 5 samples of the healthy people as a control, were the presence of Antinuclear antibodies was screened using ELISA Technique as it appeared in 13 cases and by 28.9% of patients, while Anti Extracts nuclear antibodies appeared in 3 cases only and by 6.66%, compared with control samples which did not show any type of Autoantibodies, where the incidence of SLE in 3 patients and by 6.66%. As shown 38.23% of the patients increase for the ESR, and 5.88% of the patients decrease of white blood cells count, and decrease in platelet count in 11.76% of patients, and showed a decrease in the values of Haemoglobin with 32.32% of the patients, it also appeared an increase of the uric acid in 6 cases and 13.3% of the patients, and appeared 11.11% of the patients increase of the Creatinine, also showed SLE disease higher in the females was 66.7% compare with male and the same percentage showed infection age group between 30-40 years old.

Numerical Taxonomy of Micrococcaceae

Saffaa A. Al-Musawy; Essra G. Al-Sammak

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 11-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77826

Four hundred samples were collected from various sources (healthy skin of human, diabetics, thalassemic, turbculosis patients and soil, air samples) for the period from August 2011 to February 2012. One hundred twenty four isolates belonging to Micrococcus spp., Citrococcus spp., Kocuria spp. were identified to species level and classified depending on 90 morphological, Biochemical, Physiological and Molecular characteristics.
The highest rate of isolation was 49.2% which belonged to the species Micrococcus luteus and then 16.1% to M.lylae, followed by 8.9% to Kocuria varians and 8% to both of M.antarcticus, M.endophyticus, K.rhizophila 4.8%, K.kristinae 2.4%, two isolates of Citrococcus spp. 1.6% and one isolate of K.polaris 0.8%. Numerical classification by cluster analysis was carried out and six methods of clustering were compared of which the farthest neighbor linkage method proved to be the most convenient.
The percentage of similarity between the isolates determined using simple matching coefficient (Ssm), so the isolates were grouped into seven main clusters A, B, C, D, E, F,G, and 19 sub clusters. The first main cluster A and the sub clusters B4, B3, B1, C4, C3, C2, C1 included isolates of the species M.luteus, the sub clusters B2, B5 included isolates of the genus Citrococcus spp. and the sub cluster C5 included isolates of the species K.rhizophila, the sub clusters C6 included isolates of the species K.varians, the sub cluster C7 included isolates of the species M.antarcticus, the main cluster D included isolates which belonged to the species K.kristinae, the main cluster E included isolates belonged to the species M.endophyticus, the main cluster F included isolates belonging to the speices M.lylae, the last cluster G included one isolate belonging to the species K.polaris.
Twelve isolates selected from most clusters in hierarchical dendrogram for separation of cellular fatty acids using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) showed that 3 isolates belonging to species M.luteus had the same fatty acid at different concentrations, although they belong to different clusters, also there is heterogencity in present and concentration of fatty acid between the species and this had a major role in the diagnosis of the species M.lylae from M.luteus also have a role in distinguished Citrococcus from the genera Micrococcus and Kocuria, the fatty acid stearic and valeric were absent in all isolates analyzed by GLC which have a role in confirming diagnosis of members of the genus Micrococcus and distinguishing them from the genus Staphylococcus.

Isolation and Identification of some Clostridium spp. from Decaying Wood and Study of their Ability to Produce Ethanol from Different Kinds of Wood

Ausama M. Al-Naemee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 35-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77827

In this study we isolated and identified two species of bacteria degrading cellulose and semicellulose; C. cellulovorans and C. cellulolyticum of decaying wood samples, which were obtained from different parts of Mosul city.
The study showed that C. cellulovorans had the ability to ferment Lithocarpus sp.and produce ethanol within 24 hours from the start of incubation, and came in second place each of Santalum sp., Betula sp. and Eucalyptus sp. within 48 hours and finally came Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Populus sp. and Spruce sp. within 96 hours.
The study also demonstrated that the bacteria C. cellulolyticum produced ethanol from Lithocarpus sp., Santalum sp., Betula sp. and Spruce sp. within 24 hours of incubation and came in second place Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Populus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. after 48 hours of incubation.

Comparative Study for DNA Characteristic of some Parasitic Nematodes in Fishes and Frogs

Muhammad S. Abid; Hussain I. Arteen; Saly A. Thiab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 47-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77831

The present study has investigated the nematodes settled in fishes and frogs after being anatomized with numbers reached, 1246 of Silurus glanis, 1142 of Mastacembelus simach fishes, 490 of Bufo viridis frog. Five species of nematodes which are the Larva 4 of Eustrongylides sp., Larva 3 and 4 of Contracaecum sp. in fishes and mature nematodes Rhadias bufonis, Kathalania ninivana, Oswaldocruzia in frogs.
In this study, the DNA was isolated and its purity was tested as well as studying the effect of heat on the DNA by measuring its thermal denaturation temperature (Tm), and determining its G-C%. It was found that the isolated DNA has an evident absorption –peak at a wavelength of 260 nm. It was also found that the thermal denaturation temperature (Tm) of the DNA in different species of nematodes is convergent and has reached (84, 83, 83, 82, 81, 80) C° in larva 4 of Eustrongylides sp., and larva 3 of Contracaecum sp., larva 4 of the same nematode and the mature nematodes O. ninivana, K. ninivana and R. bufonis respectively. While it has reached G-C% (35.87%, 33.43%, 33.43%, 30.99%, 28.55%, 26.11%) for the above mentioned nematodes, respectively.
The study aimed to study some characteristics of DNA in different parasitic nematodes in fishes and frogs.

Isolation and Characterization of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase from Human Plasma

Maher A. Ibrahim; Wasan Kh. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 64-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77832

The research is concerned with the isolation of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) from the normal human plasma using different biochemical techniques. The results of filtration chromatography on sephadex G-100, that the solution contains proteinous precipitate which was resulted by ammonium sulfate precipitation after dialysis. The second bunch (ІІ) shows high effectiveness of the enzyme. The number of purification of the second bunch (ІІ) is (8) times. Furthermore, the approximate molecular weight of the partially purified (SDH), bunch, (ІІ) using gel filtration was found to be (38672) Dalton. Optimum conditions were obtained in this research. The results showed that the enzyme works in the buffer solution using (100µl) of triethanolamine as a buffer, in pH (7), and the incubation temperature was (40˚C), The incubation time was (1min.) and (1.5M) of D-Fructose as a substrate was used. By using lineweaver-Burk plot, it was found that the maximum velocity (Vmax) was (0.53μmol) and Michaelis constant (Km) was (0.92M). The effect of some chemical compounds on (SDH) activity was also studied. Some compounds have an activator effect like (EDTA, Mg, Zn), whereas sodium floride )NaF) showed uncompetitive inhibition on the activity of the enzyme at a concentration (3 m mol /L).

The Relation of the Ratio of the Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Temperature with the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

Muayyad A. Al-Obayde; Saja E. Khaleel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77836

This research seeks to provide evidence to support the accelerating cosmic depending on the relationship between the ratio of the anisotropy in temperature of the cosmic microwave background with the luminosity distance through a statement similar to the relationship between the red shift with the luminosity distance. So, the relationship between the ratio of the anisotropy in temperature of the cosmic microwave background with the red shift was explained. Also, the relationship between the red shift with the luminosity distance concluded for the universe that contains non relativistic matter and dark energy. The relationship between the ratio of the anisotropy in temperature of the cosmic microwave background with the luminosity distance was reached. The accelerated expansion of the universe is clear from the painting of the relation which makes the anisotropy in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background as an evidence for the accelerated expansion of the universe.

The Study of the Effect of Gamma Rays and Neutrons on the Physical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Film

Ziad A. Dawud; Laith A. Najim; Nawfal Y. Jamil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 85-98
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.77837

In this paper, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (CVD), at a normal atmospheric pressure on a glass substrate at temperature 400oC. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied before and after gamma-ray irradiation, with different radiation doses (0, 0.5, 1, 2) Gy. Also, other samples were exposed to neutrons beam for exposure periods (2,4, 8, 10) hours. The transmittance spectrum was measured as a function of wavelength in the range (320-1000) nm. The highest transmittance of the prepared films was 85%, thus decreased after gamma-ray irradiation to 63.4% at dose 0.5Gy and wavelength 1000 nm, but when irradiated by neutrons beam has decreased to 46.79% at time of radiation 4h and wavelength 990 nm. The energy gap of the prepared films was (3.25) eV where those radiated, were (2.51, 2.6, 2.5) eV for given gamma-ray dose and (1.92, 2.3,1.5,1.7) eV for neutron beam, for given exposure time respectively. The expected Change due to the change in the nature of material after radiation. The measured electrical resistivity of irradiated films was found to be (8.79-12.56) X 103 Ω.cm where it was 0.236 X 10-3 Ω.cm before the irradiation.