Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 24, Issue 5

Volume 24, Issue 5, Spring 2013, Page 1-107

Detection of Antisperm Antibodies in Relation to Inhibin B in Infertile Men

Ruaa E. Shaya; Nawfal Y. Al-Dabbagh

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74501

Antisperm antibodies (ASAs) was considered as an immunological cause of male infertility. Serum inhbin B has a strong relationship with spermatogenesis and can be considered as a cause of infertility. The aims of the study are to: 1- Detect the presence of antisperm antibodies in both sera and seminal plasma of infertile patients and control group. 2- Find the effect of antisperm antibodies in seminal fluid parameters. 3- Exclude other male sex hormones as a cause of infertility. 4- Estimate serum level of inhbin B in the studied groups. 5- Determine the relationship between serum inhbin B and total sperm count in infertile males.
A total number of (90) individual, in which 70 infertile male patients with period of infertility more than one year and 20 fertile males as control group. The study was carried out on patients attending infertility care in a period of one year from June 2011 to June 2012, 90 semen samples were studied for semen analysis and for serological (ASAs) test and 90 serum samples for serological (ASA) study by using micro agglutination test and for hormonal assay (Latinizing hormone (LH), Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, prolactin) and inhibin B by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). There was no significant difference between patients and controls according to the serum level of (LH, FSH ,testosterone, and prolactin), antisperm antibodies found positive in sera and semen of 15 (21.42%) of patients with titer 1/32 on semen and 1/64 in serum. The remainder 55 (78.57%) patients, showed negative results for (ASAs). There was a significant difference between mean % of total motility, mean % of normal sperm morphology and mean of total sperm counts of patients with positive ASAs results when compared to its mean in the control group. Mean concentration of serum inhibin B in patients with negative (ASAs) result was (32.24) pg/ml, while of control group was (73.55) pg/ml. The difference was considered highly significant. There was significant correlation between total sperm count of patients with negative ASAs results and mean concentration of serum inhibin B. This study suggests that the detection of ASAs in semen and sera of patients decrease in normal seminal fluid parameters especially the motility and (ASAs) can be considered as a cause of infertility in those patients, while low serum inhibin B in the reminder patients can be considered as a cause of infertility, then inhibin B can be considered as a marker for spermatogenesis.

Effect of High Doses of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Metabolism of Bones in Adult Females Rats

Hadeel M. Al-Hashemi; Elham M. Al-Khashab; Ameira A. Hamdoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74502

This study was done to examine the effect of higher doses of omega-3 fatty acids on bones metabolism because most studies that proved the importance of omega-3 didn't limit the appropriate dose and didn't study the side effects of high doses especially on bone.
Twenty female rats whose ages (2.5-3) months and initially weighing (220-300) gm, were divided in to four groups and given 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg orally of omega-3 fatty acids for 30 days. At the end of the experiments, the blood was withdrawn, the right femur was taken to determine the percentage of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium and the left femur for hacking histological. The results showed that 200 mg/kg omega-3 lead to a significant decrease in ALP activity with an elevation in Ca and P in serum and a significant reduction in percentage of Ca and P with elevation in percentage Mg in bone ash, while the activity of ALP was significantly elevated in the rats that treated with 400 mg/kg omega-3- fatty acids accompanied with elevation in serum Ca and P and reduction in percentage of Ca and elevation in percentage of P in bone ash compared with control group. Treatment 600 mg/kg omega-3 lead to elevation in ALP activity and reduction in Ca and P in serum and bone ash. Histological results showed the appearance of osteoblasts and osteocytes and low number of osteoclasts with 200 mg/kg omega-3, while the treatment of rats with 400 and 600 mg/kg omega-3 lead to reduce the number of osteoblasts and the appearance of osteoclasts and osteocytes. These findings provide evidence that higher doses of omega-3 supplementation can lead to bone resorption and imbalance in minerals of bone.

Determination of β-carotene in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Plants Regenerated from Stems Callus

Amjad A. Mohammed; Mozahim K. Al-Mallah

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 27-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74507

This study succeeded in regenerating carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants produced from seedling stems callus which transplanted in soil. The results indicated that Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts medium provided with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA was superior in callus induction 96.6% after thirty days of culture. Also MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 of each NAA and BA gave callus up to 83.3%. Numerous shoots that record 417 were differentiated from callus in agar-solidified MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA and 4.0 mg L-1 TDZ. Regenerated shoots were rooted easily in agar-solidified MSO medium of reasonable root systems that sustained adaptation of plantlets successfully in field conditions. Tissue culture plants were better than plants produced from seeds in their growth and morphological characters. They produce normal flowers (Inflorescence) producing fertile seeds and normal storage roots. In addition to their superiority in β-carotene content which recorded 1.988, 1.264 mg / 100 gm fresh weight of callus and roots respectively.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Cerium (III) with Arsenazo III: Application to Sea Water and Synthetic Alloys

Sadallah T. Sulaiman; Ghaydaa K. Hanna; Wadala A. Bashir

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 37-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74510

The detailed investigation of a sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of cerium is described. The method is based on the reaction of cerium(III) with arsenazo ш in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate surfactant at pH 3.0 to form a blue-greenish coloured chelate absorbing maximum at 653 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range (5-70) µg /25 ml, with a molar absorptivity of (4.99×104) and the coefficient of determination (r2) is 0.9994, Sandell’s sensitivity index is (28.08×10-4) µ, a relative error of (0.0-0.2%) and a relative standard deviation of (0.0 to +2.1)%, depending on the concentration levels in the calibration curve. The method has been applied successfully to determine cerium in sea water and some synthetic alloys.

Substituent Effect on the Association Phenomenon of an Aqueous Solution of Benzylidene Substituted Aniline at Different Temperatures

Mohammed A. Al-Iraqi; Yaser O. Al-Allaf; Kawther H. Al-Naimi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 51-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74518

Conductivity parameters of an aqueous solution of benzylidene substituted anilines (I-IV) have been determined at five different temperatures in the range of 283.15-318.15 ºK, through accurate conductance measurements. The obtained data were analyzed in accordance to Lee-Wheaton equation taking into account the activity of the electrolyte in the solution. The conductance measurement results were used to determine the association constants (KA) of ion-pairs, the mean distance between ions in solution, in addition to the molar conductance at infinite dilution (Λo¬) for the free ion in the solution. The dependence of (KA) values on the temperature has been examined by plotting Log KA against the reciprocal values of temperature (1/T), which showed linear relationship, where (KA) values decrease with increasing temperature. Moreover, the enthalpy (ΔH), Gibbs free energy (ΔG) and the entropy (ΔS) have been derived from this linear relationship.

Indirect Determination of Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride by Square Wave Voltammetry of Sodium Nitroprusside: Application to Pharmaceutical Formulations

Anfal R. Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74540

An indirect voltammetric method was developed for the determination of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) via square wave voltammetric behavior of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) which gives a well-defined square wave voltammetric peak at (-0.589)V against the reference electrode (Ag/AgCl/Sat KCl). The addition of CPZ leads to the decrease of the reduction peak of SNP due to the interaction of SNP with CPZ. The decrease in the peak current (ΔIp) was found to be linear and related to the concentration of CPZ within the range of concentration [(0.490×10-6)-(9.77×10-6)] M with a correlation coefficient of (0.9948). The method had been successfully applied to determine the CPZ in a pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations.

New Complexes of ( 3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 16 – hexaazatricyclo [16,2,2,28,11] tetracosane- 2,5,7,12,15,17-hexaone) with Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

Saad Kh. Dawood; Falah M. Fakhree

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 76-85
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74545

In this research, a new ligand 3,4,6,13,14,16-hexaazatricyclo [16,2,2,28,11] tetracosane- 2,5,7,12,15,17-hexaone), (DHC) was prepared from the reaction of cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid with semicarbazide using microwave irradiation in solid state. Then, it was reacted with some transition metal(II) ions to form complexes of the type [M(DHC)Cl2], [M(DHC)]Cl2, where M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). Adducts of the type [M(DHC)(PPh3)Cl]Cl and [M(DHC)(PPh3)]Cl2, were prepared by the reaction of the above complexes with triphenylphosphine in a 1:1 molar ratio. The prepared complexes and adducts were characterized by (C,H,N) analysis, metal content analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, electronic and IR spectroscopy, as well as the ligand was characterized by 1H,13C -NMR spectroscopy. The electronic spectra and magnetic measurements indicate that the complexes have octahedral environment around the metal ions.

Theoretical Study of the Mean and Resultant Change of Interaction Frequency for Oxygen-Oxygen Ion Dipoles in CaF2 Crystal

Farouk A. Kasir; Mohanad M. Alyas

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 86-96
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74553

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and study the angular variation, in the presence of the external magnetic field, of the mean and resultant displacements of the dipole-dipole interaction frequency, O--O- ion dipoles in CaF2 crystal. The dipolar interaction frequencies of six sites of equivalent ions are described by their geometrical parts of their tensors and analyzed for four different cases. The conclusion is that the theoretical method provides a satisfactory approach in cases for which there are adequate data.

Determination of the Concentration of 40K of Mudstone in Northern Iraq by Using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy and Flame Photometry Technique

Hala D. Kharrufa

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 97-107
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.88674

The study of natural radionuclide materials is important to assess the health hazards on human being and one of these materials is 40 K which is present in soil and different types of stones. This study is performed to assess the 40K concentration in mudstones in the north of Iraq by (flame photometry and γ-ray spectroscopy) and to compare between these two techniques in measuring its level. So the activity of potassium was measured by these methods, and their results were compared with the results of other studies. The results show that the concentration of 40K ranges from 284.3 Bq/kg to 2481.2 Bq/kg using γ-ray spectroscopy and 511.7 Bq/kg to 3623.6 Bq/kg using flame photometer technique and these results were comparable with the upper level of the world mean specific concentration of 40K and cause no health hazard. The results obtained by the two methods were also, compared using T-test and P-value and they show no statistical significant difference.