Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 24, Issue 6

Volume 24, Issue 6, Spring 2013, Page 1-101


Effect of Passive Smoking on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Male Swiss Albino Mice ( Mus Musculus )

Huda Y. Al- Attar; Tamara W. Jihad

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74558

The study included the effect of passive smoking exposure for different periods on some physiological and biochemical parameters in the blood and organs of male mice, forty adult mus musculus male mice were used. All animals were randomly divided into five groups depending on exposure time to cigarettes smoke, the first group was exposed for two hours daily for two months, the second group was exposed for four hours daily for two months, the third group two hours daily for three months, the fourth group four hours daily for three months while the fifth group was considered as control group. Results showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the total number of white blood cells and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in each of packed cell volume and heamoglobin concentration in groups exposed to cigarettes smoking as compared with control group.
The results also revealed that there is a significant increase in the activity of the enzymes: alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). The highest enzymatical activity occurred when increasing the exposure time to four hours for three months. A significant increase in bilirubin concentration was observed in groups that exposed for two hours, four hours daily for three months respectively. Results showed also significant decrease in protein concentration in the group which was treated for two hours daily for three months and four hours daily for three months as compared with the group that was treated with four hours daily for two months. Measurement of acetylcholineesterase activity in brain tissue showed a significant decrease occurred in the group exposed for two hours daily for three months when compared with the group that was treated with two hours daily for two months, and the group which was treated for four hours daily for three months as compared with the group which was treated for four hours daily for two months.
The conclusion from this study suggested that exposure to smoking for different periods causes alternations in some physiological and biochemical parameters in male albino mice.

Mutagenicity of the Insecticides Vapcomic and Match in Conidia of Aspergillus amstelodami

Sahi J. Dhahi; Mayada A. Al-Taii

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 16-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74561

The ability of the insecticides Vapcomic and Match to induce genic mutation in conidia of the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus amstelodami was tested. To this end ,the inhibitory effect on the radial growth of the fungus, of five concentrations (5.4, 7.0, 9.0, 18.0 and 27.0 (µg/ml)) of Vapcomic and (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50(µg/ml) ) of Match were tested. Three sublethal concentrations (giving inhibition of 50% or less of radial growth of the treated compared to the untreated colonies) of both insecticides were selected for mutagenicity tests. These were 5.4, 7.0 and 9.0 µg/ml for Vapcomic and 10, 30, 50 µg/ml for Match. The mutagenic action of each concentration of the insecticide was sought in the increase of the frequency of mutants resistant to the base analogue 8-azaadenine. Tests were made by two methods, plate incorporation and pretreatment. None of the treatments differed significantly from the spontaneous mutant frequency (which did not exceed 1×10-6 ) indicating the inability of the two insecticides to induce mutations according to the protocols adopted in the present work.

Determination of the Genetic Variability of GALT Gene for Newborns with Galactosemia in Nineveh Province

Owayes M. Alhassani; Akeel H. Alassie; Saad G. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 28-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74564

There are many diseases in Iraq that have never been counted or examined, including diseases related to food, which has deteriorated in recent years, and has rapid and direct impact especially on the children category, one of these diseases is galactosemia. Blood samples were collected from babies admitted to the children's hospitals in Mosul City (Ibn alatheer and Alkhansaُ ) depending on the clinical symptoms of disease and then serum was taken and DNA has been extracted. Measuring the concentration of Galactose-1-Phosphate uridyltransferase GALT enzyme activity, galactose -1- phosphate by ELISA technique was done and DNA samples were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The results showed decrease in the GALT enzyme level in babies with galactosemia (21.7 ± 0.45 pgml) and in non-diagnosed children (79.8 ± 1.44 pgml) as compared with its level in healthy babies (160.33 ± 0.93 pgml), and the level of enzyme in mother at (20.5 ± 1.92 pgml). The results also, showed decrease in β-carotene, ascorbic acid and selenium levels in babies with galactosemia compared with healthy babies and no change in α-tocopherol level in the cases studied.
The results, did not show any genetic variation in the first region that consists from the first to the fifth exon of GALT gene. While, the results showed that thirteen cases have genetic variation in the second region that consisting from sixth to ninth exon. In addition, the results did not show the presence of genetic variation in the third region, which consists of the tenth and eleventh of GALT gene.

Turbidity and Removal Efficiency in the Main Water Purification Plants of Nineveh Province

Basheer A. Al-Ni; Marwa B. Al-Obaidy

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 39-53
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74572

The present research focused on the measurement of raw water turbidity in a stretch of Tigris River that flows within Nineveh province with the determination of efficiency removal by different units of water purification.
The work covered Five main water purification plants located on both banks of the river. From North to South, they are: The new project for water purification at left bank (al- gubba). The unified project for water purification at right bank, The old project for water purification at left bank, water project Al- Danadan and water project Al- Sallamiyah. The results revealed that turbidity values ranged between (1.2 - 27.4) NTU. These values are low and considered one of the positive results for the effect of Mosul dam lake on Tigris. The site with the lowest turbidity content was Al-Gubba and that with the highest content was Al-Danadan, since it is located at the center of Mosul city. The efficiency of sedimentation units widely varied from month to month and from plant to others. Generally, the efficiencies were low and their ranges wear restricted between (20 - 40%) in most samples. The efficiency of filtration units also varied widely in time and space and with low percentages. In (73.3%) of the samples, efficiency removal ranged between (1 - 50%). The results of total efficiency showed that the arrangement of water purification plants, in descending order were: The unified project for water purification at the right bank (70.7%), the new project for water purification at the left bank (Al- Gubba) (55.9%), water project Al- Sallamiyah (53.0%), water project Al- Danadan (42.6%) and finally the old project for water purification at the left bank (30.8%).

Separation of Lipase from Karnel of Pistacia khinjuke and Determination of it's Affinity Toward some Inhibitors in Mice In vivo and In vitro

Ameera A. Al-Joraisi; Omer Y. AL-Abbasy

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 54-74
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74581

The study included the purification of lipase from Pistacia khinjuke by the application of the ammonium sulfate precipitation (70%), dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and finally slab electrophoresis techniques. One isoenzyme was obtained having a molecular weight of 43597 dalton and specific activity of 3-10× 152 unit / mg protein. The maximum lipase activity was obtained at pH 7.5, temperature 40 C. The maximum velocity (Vmax) was 0.142 unit/ml/min and Km value was 0.666 mM. The type and ability inhibition of lipase was tested in presence of quercitine rutinoside and melatonine. The inhibition type was noncompetitive and the inhibition constant Ki values for the two inhibitors were 1.025 and 1.006 mM, respectively.
The lipase affinity of normal and induced diabetic mice serum toward these compounds was tested. The treatment of animals by a dose of 523.3 mg quercitine rutinoside / Kg of body weight showed a significant decrease in lipase activity, but an insignificant decrease with a dose of 8 mg melatonine / Kg of body weight. The treatment of animals by these compounds led to a significant decrease in glucose, total cholesterol and ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C levels, but a significant increase in HDL-C in serum of normal and induced diabetic mice. The inhibitory effect of quercitine rutinoside and melatonine toward lipase and biochemical parameters' levels studied may help in using these compounds as natural inhibiting drugs.

Effect of Temperature on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyester Matrix Reinforced by Ordinary Glass Powder

Husnia H. Thanon

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74584

The research focuses on the preparation composite material containing glass powder of grain size (10-15)µ reinforced polyester with volume fraction 30%. Many tests have been done in different temperature conditions including Bending test, Hardness, Impact and Thermal conductivity ( ).
The results show that Young's modulus ( ) decreases and fracture toughness ( ) for composites increase with increasing temperature, but Brinnels hardness decreases with increasing temperature. The result also shows that thermal conductivity ( ) increases with increasing temperature.

Study of Atmosphere ic Penetration Factors for Near Infrared Laser Beam Performing as a Carrier Data in Free Space Rainy Atmospheric Conditions

Mohammad A. Shanshoul; Mohammad A. Albek; Safaa S. Kelesh

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 86-101
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74586

In this research, a calculation of optical pass length of connecting system using laser in the location of the research is done depending on the correction of Passman and Larmore. Then, the changing of spectrum passing coefficients (atmosphere penetration) for absorption as a function of the thickness of condensed water, the changing of spectrum passing coefficients for scattering as a function of sight extent, the changing of scattering factor for the rainy weather as a function of the rainfall rate, and the changing of penetration at rainy weather as a function of the rainfall rate were studied. Finally, the changing of the whole atmospheric penetration as a function of the rainfall rate was studied.
The outcomes have shown the importance of both condensed water as a factor with a main effect on the atmosphere attenuation which is resulted from absorption and the aerosol and rain as factors with an effect on the laser beam attenuation according to the scattering concept.