Volume 24, Issue 3, Winter 2013, Page 1-98

The Effect of Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Germination and Growth of Three Weed Species

Janan A. Saeed; Eman R. Al-Rawi; Fatin K. Ibraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71034

This research included experiments in laboratory and green house to study the effect of Eucalyptus camaladulensis leaf extracts at concentrations ( 5,10 and 15) % W:V on seed germination and growth of the weeds (Datura spp., Sonchus spp. and Sinapis spp.).
Laboratory experiment, showed an inhibition in germination and seedling growth as the aqueous extracts concentration increased. The maximum inhibition in (germination, plumule length and weight) reaching (30.51, 52.4,56.2)% respectively in Sinapis, while the maximum inhibition in radical growth (55.5,53.5)% was shown in Datura at (15%).
Green house results also showed that the highest inhibition (26.96,58.66,45.6)% respectively in germination and (shoot length and weight)in Sinapis at (15%), and high inhibition in (root length and weight) was (56.97,75.7)% in Datura at (15%). The Results were accompanied with the inhibition in the content of N, P, K maximum inhibition of N content (58.73%) in Datura, of P content (75.47%) in Sinapis and of K content (49.93%) in Datura at (15%). The content of the K increases in Sonchus at (10,15)% and in Sinapis at (15%). It was also shown that the weeds differ in their response to the allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus leaves extracts,indicating that Sinapis weed was sensitive whereas Sonchus seems to be resistant.

Comparison of Toxin Fractions Isolated from Protoscoleces and Hydatid Cyst Fluid of Hydatid Cyst of Sheep in Mosul, Iraq

Najah S. Al-Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71035

Pooled protoscoleces and hydatid fluids were collected from different sheep livers, and compared with protoscoleces and hydatid fluid from liver of one sheep. Toxin fraction of protoscoleces (P) and hydatid cyst fluid were isolated from hydatid cyst of sheep origin. Chloroform-methanol soluble fractions (CMSFs) were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel G 60 (Riedel-deHean) coated plate (20X20 cm) on mixture of hexane:diethyl ether:formic acid (80:20:2 v/v/v). CMSFs were identified by TLC separation, ultra-violet light (254 nm) and by iodine evaporation under visible light.
the separation of toxin fractions (TFs) and hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), from different batches of liver protoscoleces and HCF, on TLC, indicate the existence of some differences in the number and rate flow of the TFs between protoscoleces and cyst fluid of the same host and between protoscoleces obtained from cysts of different sheep, the same was obtained in case of HCF of different sheep hosts.

Interaction Between some Phenolic Compounds in Ammi majus Herb (Khillah) Extracts and Antibiotics Against some Selected Bacterial Isolates In vitro

Ayad C. Al-Daody; Adeeba Y.Al-Numan; Kawthar A. Al-Hadidi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 17-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71036

In this study, the in vitro activities of eight phenolic compounds (xanthotoxin, imperatorin, quercetin, hydroquinone, catechol, resorcinol, salicylic acid and vanillic acid) in the petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of Ammi majus (Khillah) herb and five antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cephalothin and trimethoprim) against two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and three Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris) alone and in combination are evaluated. Among the seven Ammi majus extracts, the extract (No.7) which contain salicylic acid, resorcinol and quercetin in high concentration showed stronger inhibitory activity against all the bacterial isolates studied with inhibition zones in the range of (16-23) mm. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were reported to show sensitivity to trimethoprim, ampicillin, penicillin and cephalothin respectively with inhibition zones in the range of (10.5-23) mm and resistance to cefotaxime. While Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are more resistant to all the antibiotics used. The best synergistic interactions showed trimethoprim and ampicillin with all Ammi majus extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and with all extracts (except with extract No.7) against Staphylococcus epidermidis, and (ampicillin, trimethoprim, cephalothin), (cephalothin, ampicillin), (cephalothin only) with some Ammi majus extracts against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis respectively. Hydroquinone enhance the activity of ampicillin against Escherichia coli, while vanillic acid inhibit the activity of cephalothin against Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus vulgaris were the most sensitive microbes to most of the combinations.

Synthesis of some Acetylenic Morpholine Derivatives via Grignard Reactions

Asmaa H. Sultan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71037

New derivatives for acetylenic morpholine were prepared. Acetylenic amine (N-propargyl morpholine 1) was synthesized by the reaction of propargyl bromide with morpholine in aqueous medium. This compound was used as a synthone for hydroxy acetylenic compounds. Compound (1) was converted to the Grignard reagent (2) by the reaction with methyl magnesium iodide. The reaction of the intermediate (2) with different carbonyl compounds afforded hydroxy acetylenic compound (3). Finally, prepared N-propargyl ether morpholino (4a-i) was prepared by the reaction of the hydroxy acetylenic compound with chloro acetanilide, benzyl chloride via willamson reaction. The structure of the synthesized compounds has been elucidated by the available physical and spectral methods.

Improved Spectrophotometric Determination of Bismuth (III) with Bromopyrogallol Red in Mixed Surfactants-Application to Waters and Veterinary Preparation

Enas S. Thunoon; Najih H. Shekho

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 39-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71038

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of bismuth is established. The method is based on the reaction of bismuth with bromopyrogallol red at pH 3 in the presence of a mixture of cetylpyridinium chloride and triton X-100 surfactants to form a blue coloured complex which shows maximum absorbance
at 644 nm. A plot of absorbance with bismuth concentration gives a straight line indicating that Beer,s law has been obeyed over the range 3-150 µg/25 ml, i.e., 0.12-6 ppm with a molar absorptivity of 3.3×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell,s sensitivity index of 0.006
µg.cm-2. The interfering effect of a number of common captions and anions in the presence of comosite mixture (NaF and tartaric acid) and ascorbic acid as masking agents has been studied. The effect of common excipients has also been examined. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of bismuth in water samples and a veterinary preparation.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Assay of Hydroxyurea with its Pharmaceutical Application as Capsules

Wadala A. Bashir; Zainab W. Majid

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 53-64
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71259

The oxidation–reduction reaction between hydroxyurea and ferric ions has been utilised for spectrophotometric assay of hydroxyurea. The ferrous ions that are produced from the redox reaction were complexed with 2,2´-bipyridyl reagent to form a pink-red tris-chelate which has an absorption maxima at 522 nm. Beer's law agreed with the range of 5-150 μg of hydroxyurea per 20 ml, i.e., 0.25-7.5 ppm, with a corresponding average molar absorptivity of 1.65x104 l.mol-1. cm-1, Sandell sensitivity index is 0.0044 μg.cm-2, limit of detection 0.01μg.ml-1 and limit of quantitation of 0.03 μg.ml-1. The present method has been applied successfully to the determination of hydroxyurea in its pharmaceutical preparation as capsule.

Separation of Lipoxygenase and Estimation of its Level in Blood of Males with Cardiovascular Disease

Ameera A. Mahmood; Rawya N. Rashed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 65-81
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71260

The lipoxygenase (LOX) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease (and diabetes) by virtue of its effect on lipid metabolism. Therefore, the present study deals with the separation and estimation of the level of LOX in blood of males with cardiovascular disease (only /or in addition to diabetes).
The enzyme was separated and purified from the blood-cells homogenate by precipitation (using 0-55% ammonium sulfate), dialysing against the buffer solution and then by applying ion exchange chromatography, when three bands were distinguished. The enzyme showed different specific activities in the elution of these bands and the highest activity was for the second band. Concerning the characterization of enzyme, it has been found that the optimum condition of the enzyme was at pH 8, 40oC and the enzyme has km=1.99 mM at 12mM of the substrate (linoleate) concentration.
The results showed that the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes led to a significant increase in the level of LOX in both the blood-cells homogenate and the serum.
The study also focused on assessing the serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of TC and MDA and there was a significant decrease in the level of HDL-C and GSH in addition to an increase in the ratio of TC/HDL-C.
On the basis of the results, it may be concluded that the LOX in blood cells has more than one isoenzyme with different activities. In addition, the high level of LOX is considered as a negative indicator that promotes cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

The Effect of Bore Diameters in Two Electrodes Electrostatic Immersion Lens Design

Muna A. Al-Khashab; Abdullah E. Al-Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 82-91
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71261

The paper handles a new method that is utilized in determining the best bore diameter of two electrodes of the electrostatic lens design. However, the bore diameter is considered the most important geometrical parameter in any electron optical device. Accordingly, the immersion electrostatic lens have been designed and its electron optical properties were calculated for different bore diameters of the two electrodes to determine their optimum value. Also the study is concerned with the equal values of the bore diameter for the two electrodes, and the ratios of their first to the second bore diameters found including the calculated value of the optimum bore diameter. It was found that the best electron optical properties were obtained when the ratio of the bore diameters for the electrostatic lens is approximately equal (0.66).

A Theoretical Study of the Compression Curves for NaCl

Khaled S. Hameed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 92-98
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.71262

The compression curves for NaCl have been calculated using Birch-Murnaghan, Vinet, Misra-Goyal, Bardeen, Brennan-Stacey and the modified Lennard-Jones equations of state. The curves result from these equations of state have been compared with the results calculated from other theoretical methods based on Kumar equation. The variation of V/Vo with T at different pressures are calculated using Kumar equation to show the effect of P and T at the same time on V/Vo. The compression curves resulted from the used equations of state and Kumar equation at room temperature are plotted together with the experimental data of NaCl for the sake of comparison.