Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 24, Issue 1

Volume 24, Issue 1, Winter 2013, Page 1-164


Microbiological Aspects in Biofilm Produced by some Uropathogens Isolated from Patients with Indwelling Bladder Catheters

Mushtak T. Salih; Narjis F. AL-Ani

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 1-16

Seventy five catheter urine specimens obtained from sixty four patients and admitted to Urology and other departments in Ramadi Teaching Hospital were studied. qualitative and quantitative detection for biofilm production for all isolates were achieved. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for planktonic cells of study isolates was performed by broth dilution method and the MICs were detected. Further, In Vitro model for formation of pseudomonal biofilm on catheter segments by biofilm producer-isolates of the same bacteria was achieved. BICs and MBECs were detected for all sessile study isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against ciprofloxacin, amikacin and cefotaxime.
Out of 75 catheter urine specimens, 61 (81.4%) were positive for culture including: Escherichia coli 17 (27.9%) followed by Klebsiella spp. 13 (21.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 (19.7%), and in spectrophotometric method, the results showed that all of 12 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7 isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 17 isolates of Escherichia coli and 13 isolates of Klebsiella, 12 (100%), 7 (100%), 12 (70.6%) and 12 (92.3%) isolates produced biofilm in the glucose supplemented media. In biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility, the sessile study isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were required 10-50 X MICs from ciprofloxacin and amikacin to inhibit bacterial biofilm and 50-100 X MICs to eradicate it from the surfaces of catheter in contrast to cefotaxime of which BICs were from 50-100 X MICs and MBECs from 100-1000 X MICs.
The study concluded that Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen followed by Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. Also, all study isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis produced biofilm qualitatively and quantatively. Further, with regard to ciprofloxacin and amikacin, the study isolates were also required 10-50 X MICs to inhibit bacterial biofilm and 50-100 X MICs to remove pseudomonal adhesion from the catheters while those for cefotaxime were 50-100 X MICs and 100-1000 MICs for inhibition and eradication of bacterial biofilm respectively.

The Impact of Water Oscillation on Hydrophytes and Macro algae Growth in Tigris River within Mosul Area

Mazin N. Fadhel

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 17-30

Two stations have been selected during the course of Tigris River within Mosul city; the first one is before entering the city, while the other located downstream the city. Results clearly exhibit a significant difference in water quality between the two locations.
Aquatic plants and macro-algae populations along about 17 Km of the rivers course were identified. Six aquatic plant species have been identified Potamogeton pusillus, Potamogeton nodosus, Ceratophyllum demersus, Phragmites australis, Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.
Potamogeton pusillus a species was the predominant species during the study period, on the other hand macro-algae included Hydrodiction riticulatum, Cladophora glomerata, Chara vulgaris, Chara sp. and Nitella sp., the species Chara vulgaris and Cladophora glomerata from green algae phylum were the predominant species of the five algal identified species during the study period.
Clear trespass on the river banks was recorded, sand and gravel queries negatively affecting the river by forming shallow ponds and swamps which are perfect for aquatic plants and algae communities to prosper and flourish leads to dramatic detrimental impact on river health.

Uptake of Uranium by Callus Cultures of Two Acacia Species

Davey J; Godbold D; Riyad A. Fathi; Hana S. Al-Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 31-43

This study aimed to use callus cultures of Acacia trees as indicator for the validity of employing these trees in the phytoremediation programs that were used to manage the pollution with uranium in soil. Various concentrations of uranium (0.0, 50,100, 200, 500 and 1000mg.l-1) in the form of uranyl nitrate were added to MS medium that used for the initiation and growth of Acacia callus in the presence of 0.5 mg/l of each NAA and BA. For comparison, two species of Acacia were used in this study, A. albida and A. nilotica. Fresh and dry weight of callus was determined along three growth periods (30, 60 and 90 days). levels of uranium in callus cells were determined using TXRF analysis. The Results showed that fresh and dry weight of callus increased with the increase of uranium concentrations except that grown on MS with 1000 mg.l-1 of uranium in which inhibition in both fresh and dry weight of callus after three months of growth was recorded .Analysis of the cellular content of uranium using TXRF revealed that the maximum level obtained when callus grown on MS with 500mg.l-1 .

The Application of the Mutagen Nitrous Acid to Improve the Free Living Nitrogen Fixation Ability of Azotobacter spp.

Rayan M. Faisal

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 44-54

Three previously isolated Azotobacter spp. were obtained from a previous study and their identification and sensitivity were confirmed to seven different antibiotics. They showed resistance against chloramphenicol (C15) and nalidixic acid (NA30) but all were sensitive to ampicillin (AM50), tetracycline (TE15), cefalexin (CL30), rifamycin (RA10) and streptomycin (S50). Plasmid DNA electrophoresis revealed that isolates contain a single band of DNA with a m.wt. of 14kb. The isolates were mutagenized by nitrous acid at a concentration of 0.05M for 10 min which gave mutations at a percentage of (12-21%), (8-18%) and (2-8%) towards (C15), (NA30) and (S50) respectively, (6-20%) of the mutagenized isolates showed an ability to grow at 42oC and (18%) of the isolate A3 showed inability to fix nitrogen. Three mutagenized colonies from each isolate were selected depending on its mutation frequency, all were able to fix nitrogen, had the ability to grow on 42oC and carried one or more antibiotic mutation. The amount of ammonia excreted in µg/ml at 28,37 and 42oC was recorded at intervals of three days for 15 days for the three wild type and all selected mutagenized isolates. The best amount of ammonia excreted was at 37oC at the 12th day of incubation for the mutagenized isolate A2, 15 that was 12.0, 12.5 and 7.5µg/ml at 28,37 and 42oC respectively. All mutagenized isolates had the ability to excrete ammonia at 42oC at a percentage of (4.5- 7.5)µg/ml therefore these mutagenized isolates could be used as bio-fertilizers in Iraqi soils that are affected to such temperatures for many periods of the year.

Association Equilibria of Co(II) and Cu(II) Complexes of Salicylidine p-chloroaniline in Different Solvents

Amel G. Abed; Ahlam M. Jameil; Banan A. Akrawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 55-69

The electrical conductivity of cobalt salicylidiene chloroaniline and cupper salicylidiene chloroaniline in water, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and mixture of water-methanol with different composition (100-20%) were measured at 303K. The molar conductivity of the complexes were treated by Lee-Wheaton equation and Kohlrausch equations. The limiting molar conductivity ( ), ( ), the ionic association constant (KA) as well as the main distance between cations and anions (R) were measured. Generally, it was found from the analysis of the results that ( ) decreases with decreasing the variation of dielectric constant of the solvents as well as decreasing the percentage of water. The association constants of the two complexes were increased with decreasing the dielectric constants and increasing of viscosity. The distance parameter (R) indicated that the ions existed as solvent separated ion-pairs (SSIP).

Spectrophotometric Assay of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations via Arsenazo III-Cerium (III) Reaction

Najih H. Shekho; Thura Z. Al-Sarraj

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 70-83

A simple, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method is proposed for determining metoclopramide – hydrochloride (MCPH) in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations .The method is based on oxidation - reduction reaction between metoclopramide - hydrochloride and cerium (IV) ion, then the subsequent reaction of cerium (III) and arsenazo III reagent in acidic medium to produce a blue-violet complex which is stable, water-soluble and has a maximum absorption at 654nm with a molar absorptivity of 9.36x104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity of 0.0038 µg.cm-2. Beer's law is obeyed in concentration range from 1-30 µg metoclopramide - hydrochloride in final volume of 25 ml, (0.04-1.2) ppm with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ( ±1.80% - ±3.98%) and the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.0095 µg/ml and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.0317 µg/ml . The method is suitable for the determination of metoclopramide - hydrochloride in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms and the recoveries are obtained in the range of 97.6-101.0 % . The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of the intended compound in its pharmaceutical preparations ( tablet and injection).

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride

Nabeel S. Othman; Sahar A. Fathe

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 84-95

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of trace amounts of oxymetazoline hydrochloride (OMZ) was developed .The method based on the reaction of (OMZ) with Fe(III) in acidic medium.The librated Fe(II) coupled with potassium ferricyanide, the reaction needs heating for 25 minutes at 50 o C, to form Prussian blue which is more stable by adding 1ml of 1% ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid. The maximum absorption of the product was measured at 766 nm .Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 5-125 µg/10ml with a molar absorptivity of 5.07x104 l. mol-1.cm-1,with a relative error of +1.74 to +2.34 % and a relative standard deviation (RSD%) of the of ±1.272 to ±1.982 %.The method was applied successfully for the assay of OMZ in pharmaceutical preparation.

Synthesis and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of some Important Bridge-head Nitrogenous Heterocyclic Compounds

Shakir M. Saied

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 96-107

The key intermediates in the present study to synthesize the title bridge-head nitrogen heterocycle compounds were N-substituted semicarbazides 2(a-c), which prepared by hydrazinolysis of the ethyl substituted carbamates 1(a-c) with hydrazine hydrate. These carbamates were prepared by the reaction of proper amines and ethylchloroformate.
The reaction of these semicarbazides with ethanolic solution of carbon disulfide under strong basic conditions at room temperature, followed by acidification resulted in the formation of the corresponding potassium (2-arylcarbamoyl)hydrazine carbodithioate 3(a-c), while refluxing the ethanolic solution for three hours afforded 5-(arylamino)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2- thioles 4(a-c). The potassium salts 3(a-c) were cyclized with hydrazine hydrate to 4-amino-5-arylamino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones(thioles) 5(a-c).
Compounds 5(a-c) were excellent precursors for 3-(arylamino)-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles 6(a-c) by dehydrative ring closure of the proper triazole with formic acid in benzene in presence of phosphorous oxychloride or using microwave irradiation technique.
Also, refluxing of the proper triazoles with carbon disulfide under basic conditions afforded 3-(arylamino)-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole-6-thiones 7(a-c). Finally 4-amino-3-(4-(5-(4-amino-5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)phenylamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione 5(d) were synthesized by the same procedures that were followed to synthesize its analogs starting from 5-(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amine and duplicated all the scales of the reactants.
The structures of these compounds were confirmed by their physical properties in addition to the IR, UV and NMR spectra. All synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro growth inhibitory activity against a panel of standard strains of pathogenic microorganism including bacteria Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Salmonella.
All these compounds were practically inactive against the tested microorganisms.

Relationship of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone with Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Undergoing Diagnostic Coronary Angiography

Zahra H. Abdulbaki; Hazim A. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 108-119

In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 150 patients (88 men and 62 women) of age 53.28 9.6 years who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. Blood was used for the measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and serum lipid profile total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C). Mean serum concentration of lipid profile across different groups of TSH level, (<0.38, 0.38- 4.31 and > 4.31 mIU/L) was calculated in order to study the association of TSH with prevalence of coronary artery disease CAD. The severity of CAD was scored as score (0) for those with smooth normal coronary artery while score 1, 2 and 3 for those with single, double and triple-coronary artery of ≥50% stenosis, respectively. Score 4 indicated left main coronary artery with 50% stenosis. The mean serum TSH was significantly higher in women than men (p=0.005). There was no significant difference between mean serum TSH level across different score groups (p=0.7). High level of TSH was observed in the multi-vessel disease, (score 2, 3 and 4 p=0.03). It was found that serum TC, LDL-C and TG increased while HDL-C decreased with increased TSH level.
This study suggested that the high level of TSH is associated with multi-vessel disease and slight elevation of TSH also leads to changes in lipid profile that raise the risks of cardiovascular disorders.

Synthesis of some Pyrimidine-2-one and Pyrimidine-2-thione Compounds

Hiba A. Ebraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 120-127

An efficient synthesis of chalcones (1-7) was achived by condensation of substituted benzaldehyde with substituted acetophenone in ethanolic sodium hydroxide (50%).The chalcones were reacted with urea and thiourea to give the pyrimidinones(8-14) and pyrimidinethiones(15-21) respectively. All the prepared compounds were confirmed by the available physical and spectral methods.

Spectrophotometric and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Methods for the Determination of Dapsone in a Pharmaceutical Preparation

Lamya A. Sarsam

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 128-145

The detailed investigation of a sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of dapsone; based on the oxidative coupling reaction of dapsone drug with pyrocatechol in the presence of potassium periodate in acidic medium to form an intense, stable, purple-red coloured water-soluble dye, which shows a maximum absorption at 509 nm. Beer's law obeyed over the range of 10-500 µg /25 ml, i.e,0.4-20 ppm with a molar absorptivity of 1.05×104l.mol-1.cm-1and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0235 µg.cm-2,a relative standard deviation of ±2.60 to ±1.05%; and limit of detection, (LOD) of 0.1735 µg.ml-1.; and (LOQ) of 0.5785µg.ml-1. And the method does not require temperature control or solvent extraction. HPLC technique has been also developed for the measurement of dapsone. The analysis was achieved on a C18 column using water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 (V:V) as a mobile phase at a flow rate equals to 0.5 ml / min. and the detection was done spectrophotometrically at 297 nm. A linear relationship is obeyed over the range 0.5-20 ppm with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ±1.53 to ±0.83% and relative error -0.3 to +1.1 %. Both methods were applied successfully to the assay of dapsone in pharmaceutical preparation (Tablet).

Spectrophotometric Dertermination of Mesalazine by 8-Hydroxyquinoline and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride Reagents in Bulk and Capsule Dosage Forms

Rawaa A. Zakaria

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 146-158

Two simple and sensitive visible spectophotometric methods have been developed for the quantitative determination of mesalazine (MEZ) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical preparation (capsules). The proposed methods are based on oxidative coupling reaction of mesalazine with 8-hydroxyquinoline (method A) and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylendiamine (N-NED) (method B) in the presence of sodium periodate as oxidizing agent in alkaline medium to form coloured products, exhibiting maximum absorptions at 644 nm and 543 nm, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentrations range of 10-300 and 10-180 μg /25ml with molar absorptivity of 1.7223×104 and 0.6545×104 l.mol-1cm-1, respectively. The relative error ranges between -0.4% to +0.16% and - 0.9% to - 0.31% with relative standard deviation of ±1.31% to ±0.39% and ±0.88% to ±0.32% for methods A and B, respectively. The optimum conditions for full colour development are described and the proposed methods are applied successfully to the assay of MEZ in pharmaceutical preparation (capsules).

Calculating the Acceleration of the Universe by Using the Constant Time Hyper Surfaces

Muayyad A. Al-Obayde

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 159-164

In this work, as the growth of the universe was treated as a discrete step evolution of a black hole. The speed of the evolution of the universe was found to be increased exponentially with the number of the step of the evolution. This result shows a good agreement with the observational evidence of the accelerated universe.