Volume 23, Issue 7, Autumn 2012, Page 1-136

Some Metals Removal by Biomass of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. from Wastewater of Second Campus of Mosul University

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Ghada A. Al-Taee; May A. Al-Allaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64475

This paper highlighted a study on the use of bacteria as biological material for heavy metals removal from wastewater, using biomass of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. in two time intervals (4, 24 hrs.) of biosorption process.The maximum capacity was found to be the highest for zinc by the two types of bacteria and two time intervals.While the minimum capacity was found for lead by pseudomonas spp.. The other metals have differed in the percentage uptake by two types of bacteria and two time intervals.
The study has found that there is an increase in uptake after 24 hrs. of biosorption process except the lead which its percentage of uptake has decreased after 24 hrs. by Bacillus spp. while the percentage of zinc for two types of bacteria has remained constant after 24 hrs. of biosorption.
As well as the research has studied the effect of addition of glucose on biosorption as an additional carbon and energy source and the results revealed that there is variation in bacterial ability for metal adsorption within the two intervals 4 and 24 hrs.

Codon Usage and Sequence Analysis of Shigella flexneri Genes

Mohammed Z. Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 10-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64479

The nucleotide sequences of fifty genes of Shigella flexneri 5 strain 8401 were analyzed. The very lowly expressed genes (nine genes) have P2 value range of (0.29-0.42) while moderately low expressed genes (thirteen genes) have P2 range of (0.42-0.5). Highly expressed genes (sixteen genes) range between(0.50-0.63) and very highly expressed genes (twelve genes) range was (0.63-0.85). GC% content fluctuated from 44%-55% with a mean value of 52% indicating the nucleotides G and C slightly higher than A and T and it is a GC rich microorganism. The points of the ENc plot against GC3 composition are quite spreaded which suggest that there are other contributors to the codon usage pattern besides the genomic composition. CAI values clearly parallel levels of gene expressions so highly expressed genes have higher CAI values.

Extract Bioefficiency of Five Euphorbia spp. (Euphorbaceae) on Crimson-Speckled Moth, Utetheisa pulchella L. (Lepidoptera, Acritidae) Growth and Development

Atallah F. Mekhlif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64480

In the course of screening for novel naturally occurring insecticides from plants, the ethanol extract of the Arial parts of 5 Euphorbia weeds was found to show insecticidal activity against Utetheisa Pulchella L. Extracts from E. granulata L., E. petiolata L., E. peplis L., E. nutans Lag. and E. heliscopia L. possessed bioinsecticidal activity against immature stages with LC50 values between 84.0 and 480 ppm. Although all could be viable insecticides, extracts of E. granulata, E. petiolata and E. peplis are by far the most likely to succeed.
Significant observations about wings malformations were reported, they varied between fair and heavy curly wings and eclusion failure. Histological effect of the applied Euphorbia extracts was tested by E. granulata extract, the extract induces separation of peritrophic matrix and necrosis of epidermal cells. The extract affects the metabolic activities of prepupa midgut which is represented by notable variation in chromatin colour of epidermal nuclei.

Determination of the Changes in Human Leukocytes Inflammatory Genes Expression after Infection with Human Papillomavirus

Abdulrhem T. AL-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 33-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64481

Keratinocytes are the natural target cells for infection by humanpapillomaviruses (HPVs), most of which cause benign epithelial hyperplasias (warts). HPVs, cause lesions that can progress to carcinomas. Inflammatory genes such as those coding for cytokines, chemokines and other genes are induced in response to a viral infection. HPV effect on host cellular responses is critically important to explore the molecular mechanisms of viral-host interaction. The aims of this study were to detect changes in the mRNA expression in a panel of 84 inflammatory genes in the leukocyte of three HPV infected patients using real time-PCR array technology. Nine inflammatory genes showed a significant gene up regulation ranging between 16.897 mean fold change for Interleukin-1 alpha and 353.804mean fold change for Interferon-alpha2 gene. The up regulation of mRNA of nine geneswith high significance (P > 0.05) might suggest that the host-viral interaction is a cellular response against viral effect. In conclusion,this study revealed several alterations of many Leukocyte`s inflammatory gene expressions as a response against HPV. The common up regulated genes after HPV infections stimulate the activity of different immunological functional pathways represented by cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway.

Synthesis and Characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) Complexes with Aroylhydrazonemonoximes

Moudar M. Al-Khuder; Salim J. Mohammed; Mohammed Al-Neaimi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 51-69
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64484

Two novel aroylhydrazonemonoxime ligands and their metal (II) complexes of [CoII,NiII,CuII,ZnII,CdII] were synthesized. These ligands are Diacetylmonoxime-4-nitrobenzoylhydrazone (L1H2), Diacetylmonoxime-4-hydroxybenzoylhydrazone (L2H2). The synthesized 4-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazide and 4-nitrobenzoylhydrazide were reacted with diacetyl monoxime to obtain the (L1H2, L2H2) ligands. Mononuclear complexes of these ligands of the type [M(LnH)2] where (M- = CoII,NiII,CuII,ZnII,CdII; n =1,2) with metal:ligand molar ratio of (1:2) were prepared in the presence of Et3N . The metal ions complexes [M(LnH)2] are proposed to be six-coordinated with a N4O2 donor environment. Each ligand is coordinated through the oxime nitrogen, the imine nitrogen and the enolic oxygen atoms while the phenolic hydroxyl and oxime hydroxyl groups of aroylhydrazonemonoxime moiety do not participate in coordination. The structures of the complexes were suggested on the basis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis (CHN), magnetic susceptibility measurements and U.V.–visible spectroscopy.

Isolation and Characterization of XantIsolation and Characterization of Xanthine Oxidase from Tissues of Benign and Malignant Colon Tumors Patients

Lelas F. Bdaiwi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 70-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64486

The present research included the determination of xanthine oxidase XO in tissues of benign and malignant colon tumor patients.
Six samples were collected from patients in surgery unit in Al-Zahrawi hospital in Nineveh Governorate, three of them were benign and the others were malignant colon tumors.
The results showed that there are (62%) increase in the specific activity of the enzyme in malignant than benign.
The research also included an isolation and partial purification of XO using gel filtration chromatography from benign and malignant colon tumor tissues. The number of purification folds was (12) fold from benign and (17) folds from malignant.
The molecular weight of XO was determined using gel filtration on sephadex G-100 and it was found to be (199000 ± 2000 , 191000 ± 2000) dalton from benign and malignant colon tumor respectively.
The results also showed that the enzyme gave a maximum activity at (1.5×10-4 M) of xanthine as a substrate and phosphate buffer at pH (8.5), temperature of (40/°C) and incubation time (6 minutes). Using linweaver-Burk plot, the Km was (2.5 × 10-4M) and Vmax was ( 7.1 10-5) U/ml.
The research also shows an inhibition effect of some metal ions like Cu+2, Hg+2, Ag+2 (but not by Co+2) and some chemical compounds like N-acetyl cysteine,
1-phenl-3-pyrazolidinone on XO activity.

Kinetics and Mechanistic Studies of the Bromination of some Substituted 2-Benzylidene-1,3-indandione

Abdul Majeed M. Dabbagh; Abdul Wahab J. Al-Hamdany; Ammar H. Al-Sabawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 83-92
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64491

The rate of bromination of 2-benzylidene-1,3-indandione (I1) and its derivatives p-NO2 (I2), p-Cl (I3), furan ring (I4), and p-OCH3 (I5) have been studied in chloroform by means of U.V spectroscopy technique. The study indicated first order dependence on each of reactants with order of rates I2 > I3 > I4 > I1 > I5 at any temperature. The effect of substituents on the rate showed that electronic factors, inductive and resonance effects play reasonable role on the stability of the intermediates. Moreover, bromination processes showed a good free energy relationship with Hammett ρ value of greater than "1.0" at 298 K. The kinetic studies for these reactions revealed that these reactions are of nucleophilic addition type which characterized by the formation of intermediates that transformed to the desired products (II). Suggested mechanisms, which are consistent with the results, have been postulated and suitable rate laws in consonance with the suggested mechanisms have been derived.

The Use of Oxidation Reaction for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Ganciclovir in Pharmaceutical Formulations

Usra I. AL-Neaimy; Enam A. Hamdon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 93-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64493

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of ganciclovir (GCV) in a bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical formulations. The method was based on the reduction of potassium permanganate by ganciclovir in alkaline medium to form a green colour product showing maximum absorbance at 610 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 2-100 µg.ml-1 with average recovery (accuracy) 100.24% and precision (RSD) is less than 1.0%. The molar absorptivity is 4.59x103 l.mol-1.cm-1 with LOD 0.21µg.ml-1 and LOQ 0.72 µg.ml-1. The proposed method was further applied to the determination of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations as an injection and capsule and the results are compatible with both certified values of pharmaceutical formulations and the standard addition method.

Suppression of Nonlinear Optical IFWM Impairments in Optical Fiber by Modeling 40 Gb/s Transimpedance Amplifier

Muhammed S. Hameed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 105-116
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64496

A suppression of nonlinear optical Intra-Channel Four Wave Mixing (IFWM) induced phase and amplitude noise in optical fiber is reported by simulation. A 40 Gb/s transimpedance amplifier (TIA) circuit was investigated for this purpose. Circuit components were modeled under thermal conditions of 30ºC. Using 81 kΩ nonlinear feedback resistor RTIA, an optimal Minimum Noise Figure (MNF) of 1.758 dB was achieved. A 1.760 dB of MNF is reported when RTIA value changes to 80 kΩ. However, when an IFWM-induced phase and amplitude combined noise is applied at the TIA input with a magnitude of 19.081 dB, it was effectively suppressed under the influence of TIA input impedance Zin of 19914 Ω which lead to IFWM combined noise of 14.55 dB in a decreasing pattern at TIA output. An |S21| simulated measurement showed a gain of 10.15 dB.

The Growth and Investigation of Interface of Sio2/Si by Anodic Oxidation Technique Using Acetic Acid Medium

Sadallah. T. Sulaiman; Yahya N. Al-Jammal; Assim A. Issa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 117-126
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64501

This work investigats the physical properties and the nanotopography of the growth SiO2 film in the thickness range (2.2- 12.9) nm on Silicon polycrystalline p-type substrates, by using the anodic oxidation technique using acetic acid medium containing 0.1N KNO3 as supporting electrolyte. In this technique the polarization curve indicates the presence of active peak. The chemical analysis of the surface of SiO2 has been done by (SEM ) shows the presence of O and C elements, The films thickness has been found that is increases as formation potential increases. The quality of the Si/SiO2 interface, as examined by FTIR and it appears, the value of band absorption displacement depends on SiO2 thickness. Moreover the bond angle Si–O–Si has been found to depends on SiO2 thickness. The (AFM) is used to study the nanotopography of SiO2 film. However it has been found that a relation between SiO2 film thickness and roughness of the SiO2 film (As the SiO2 thickness increase the surface roughness of SiO2 film increase too ).

Oxidation Study of Cobalt- base Super Alloys at High Temperatures in Molten Salt of Na2SO4

Mahmood A. Hamood; Mazin A. Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 7, Pages 127-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64506

The major objective of this study was to understand the mechanisms controlling the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and use this understanding to develop new TBCs with improved performance characteristics. The system studied consisted of the Cobalt-Base superalloy as a substrate and yttria-stabilized Alumina as a ceramic topcoat. A second objective of the study was to see the degradation behavior of the systems during thermal cycling (three hour cycles in a bottom-loading furnace). The failure mode for the aluminized because of the defects at the coating -thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface and at the TGO bond coat interface. The fractures then propagated along the interface between the bond coat and the TGO. The failure the aluminide was found a coat interface and a deformation mode of the bond coat.
The effect of cycle frequency on the spallation failure of the state TBCs was also found small degradation. The molten salt of (Na2SO4) conditions affect the lifetimes of the coatings. Exposure temperature was found to have a strong effect, which is consistent with TGO growth being a first order variable in scale failure.