Volume 23, Issue 8, Autumn 2012, Page 1-187

Isolation of Colour and Resistant Mutants in Alternaria alternata

Huda W. Hadi; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64509

A total of ( 31) white (W) and/or resistant to potassium chlorate (Chl) or sodium selenate (Sel) mutants were isolated from strain AA1; a black wild type strain of the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata. Exposing conidia of this stain to 20 min UV at a 20 cm – distance was found to kill more than 90% of the conidia and these conditions were adopted to isolate various mutants.Three white mutants; SW1, SW2 and SW3 were isolated as white sectors after two days of irradiating two-day old colonies of AA1. Concentrations of 100, 60, 100 and 80mM potassium chlorate or concentrations of 200, 280, 280 and 200mM sodium selenate completely inhibited the growth of strains AA1, SW1, SW2 and SW3 respectively and these concentrations were used to isolate the various resistant mutants. Twenty spontaneous chlorate- resistant mutants were isolated from strain AA1(Chl5-Chl9) and strain SW3(Chl13-Chl27). Five Sel mutants (Sel1-Sel5) and one chlorate resistant (Chl10) mutants were isolated from irradiating conidia of SW2 and AA1respectively. The double mutants SW4, white conidia and chlorate resistant, was isolated by irradiating conidia of Chl10. This collection of mutants should allow starting the genetic analysis of this important fungus.

Effect of Salicylic and Acetyl Salicylic Acids on Inducing the Systemic Resistance of Broadbean Plants Against the Fungus Alternaria alternata Causing Leaf Spot Disease

Najwa B. Al-Lashi; Esam D. Sulaiman; Anfal M. Jalal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 12-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64518

Different concentrations of Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and Salicylic acid (SA) were tested on the mycelial growth of the fungus Alernaria alternata, the causal agent of leaf spot disease of broad bean. All tested conc. (1,3,5,10,20,30,60) mM gave significant inhibition in accordance with the increase of conc., and the growth of the fungus was inhibited completely at (10) mM of (ASA) and (20) mM of (SA). Results indicated that the addition of different conc. of (ASA) and (SA) to the liquid media Potato Sucrose Broth (PSB) caused complete inhibition to the fungal growth at (10) mM of (ASA), the same effect was noticed when (20) at (3 (5-mM of (SA) applied in greenhouse experiments, seeds were soaked mM of (SA) and (ASA) for 24 hrs. as a protective treatment, then planted in soil contaminated with the pathogen caused significant reduction in percent infection and disease severity of leaf spots. Dual treatment by soaking the seeds with the same conc. along with spraying the shoot system was the most efficient in reducing percent infection by (100)% and disease severity of the disease and improving growth characters of the treated plants. Studying the biochemical changes occurred as indicators for induced resistance in the treated plants, caused high increase in peroxidase activity as compared to untreated plants. The best treatment was soaking the seeds in (5) mM of (ASA) as well as spraying the shoot system.

Estimation of Phagocytic Activity in Diabetic Patients (Type 1 , 2) in Mosul City

Mohamed A. Al-Shahery; Rojan G. AL-Allaff

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 31-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64520

Hyperglycemic diabetic have a deficit in their non-specific defense. The present study investigated phagocytosis of Nitrobluetetrazolium in 62 diabetic patients with age between (5-70) years, and with variable disease period (1-20) years of both sex; (31) of them are IDDM, other are NIDDM. All patients were divided in two groups depending their glucose level (more 200mg/dl) and (less than 160mg/dl) and were compared with control. The results indicated a significant reduction in phagocytic activity in all diabetic patients, moreover a significant reduction (p≤0.05) in phagocytic activity in both IDDM, NIDDM. On the other hand a significant reduction in phagocytic activity in the two groups of IDDM, NIDDM (glucose level more than 200mg/dl) and (160mg/dl) when compared with control. The study suggests that all diabetics have a significant reduction in their phagocytic activity, and this reduction is not related to the type of disease, age, sex, but depending on the glucose level in blood.

Effect of Soil Pollution with Different Cadmium and Lead Concentrations on Carbohydrates, Proteins and some Nutrient Metals in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Plants

Farah S. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 41-55
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64521

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different cadmium and lead concentrations on the carbohydrates, proteins and the nutrient metals concentration in the leaves, stem and root tissues of sunflower Helianthus annuus L. plants under wire house conditions. Results showed that soil treated with cadmium (3, 6, 9 mg / kg) and lead (400, 600, 800 mg / kg) resulted in a significant decrease in carbohydrate and protein concentrations in all plant tissues studied with exception of the non significant decrease in the protein concentration in the stem that treated with Cd (3 mg/kg) as compared with the control. A significant decrease in calcium, magnesium and potassium in different plant tissues accompanied with non significant decrease in magnesium concentration in the leaf and stem with Cd (3 mg /kg) treated soil were observed in comparison with the same element concentration in the leaf and stem of the control plants.

Study of some Characteristics of Tigris River Between Mosul City and Hamam Al – Aleel Provice

Yahya D. Meshhadani; Ali. A. Jassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 56-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64524

This study was conducted on the river Tigris between Albo-Sayf and Hammam Al-Aleel, on four positions stretching along the river for eight months started from November 2010 to June 2011. The study concluded measurement of some biological factors.
The results showed that the dissolved oxygen value ranged between (2.63- 813) mg/L, the minimum value was recorded at station of Albo-Sayf at downstream Mosul city at November while maximum value recorded on station 4 Hamam Al-Aleel at April.
The range value of biological oxygen demand (BOD5) ranged between (1.93- 17.2) mg/L the minimum value recorded at station 2 Jamasa village at June while the maximum value recorded at station 1 Albo-Sayf at April.
While the research showed that the value of nitrate ranged between (0.40- 1.59) mg/L the minimum value was at station 3 Lazaga village at June While the maximum value at station 1 Albo-Sayf at April.
The value of orthophosphate ranged (0.21- 1.25)mg/L the minimum value at station 2 Jamasa village while the maximum value at station 1 Albo-Sayf at April.
Although the value of Sulfate range (74- 114) mg/L the minimum value at station 1 Albo- Sayf at April , while the maximum value at station 4 Hammam Al-Aleel where there are many water sulfur springs at this station.

The Effect of Eclampsia on Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Activity and some Bichemicals

Eman S. Al-Soffi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64527

The research included estimation of gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and total protein, albumin, globulin, heamoglubin, packed red cell volume ratio and electrolytes sodium, potassium in (30) pregnant women complication Eclampsia within gestational period first, second and third trimester, aging between (15-45) years, as well as in (30) pregnant women as control with similar age.
The results showed significant decrease in the activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase in the second and third trimester, and significant decrease in concentration of total protein, albumin, haemoglubin, pack red cell volume and sodium at first, second and third trimester comparison to control group.
According to correlation coefficient, the result showed that direct significant correlation between gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and protein concentration in the first trimester and direct significant correlation between gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and concentration of sodium level in the second trimester.

Isolation and Identification of E.coli O157:H7 Strain from local Meat in Ninavah Province

Angham J. Al-Oqaidy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 79-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64529

The research is conducted with the aim to investigate the strains of E.coli O157: H7 bacteria among E.coli isolates which is contaminated the local meat in Mosul, as it is being one of the common causes of food poisoning. The results showed that most of the studied meat samples have been contaminated with E.coli bacteria and the number of colonies of bacteria varied depending on the type of meat samples, although the proportion of contamination (100%) in minced meat (80%) in beef and less in lamb (76 %).
Serotyping test showed that the strain O157: H7 also has been different rates among different types of meat, as follow: (32%) for each of the samples of beef and minced meat, while (24%) in lamb. The results of the sensitivity test for a range of antibiotics showed that the strain O157: H7 had a high resistance to the studied antibiotics in general, and its resistance was (100%) for each of the Rifampin (RA), Cephalexin (CL) and Cefixime (CFM) for all types of meat. The sensitivity to the antibiotics also varied according to source of isolate, in which the highest sensitivity in all studied meat samples were for Amikacin, ciprofioxacin and Chloramphenicol, as (87.5%) in minced meat sample, (83.4%) in lamb samples, while (75%) in beef samples. the percentage of the total resistance of strain O157: H7 to studied antibiotics also differed by type of meat, which is (67.5%) equally in both beef and minced meat samples while (65%) for lamb samples.

Ability of Micrococcus Isolated from Soil in Biodegradation Diesel

Eman M. T. Azeez; Adeeba Y. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 95-111
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64532

The study include investigation types of Micrococcus for degradation diesel. The results showed an increase in the growth rates for most strain of M. roesus, M. luteus and M. varians as the mean count were 31×109 and 30.4×109 for M. roseus and M. luteus respectively, at the beginning and reached 36×108 and 28.5×107 for mentioned species respectively at the end, An increase in photoabsorption was recorded during the experimental period which were corresponding with increased viable counts of bacteria belonging to the genera of Micrococcus whereas one strain of M. luteus didn't grow in the media containing Diesel.
Gas chromatography (GC) and Infrared-IR techniques was used for dictation hydrolysis of Diesel as indicators as disappearance of number of bands on diesel treated with the bacterial isolates used in the study, and the disappearance of number of bonds was observed using IR technique, the carboxylic acid, amid and ester bonds appeared in bacterial treated sample.

Taxonomical Study of Culex spp . Larvae (Diptera:Culicidae) in the North of Aleppo- Syria

Yahia Assany; Radwan Yaqti; Riham Al-drmosh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 112-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64535

This study was conducted in the north of Aleppo / Syria. The speciments were collected from several constant and temporary water sites for the contribution of classification of Culex spp. Larvae, a total of 1613 fourth instar larvae were collected by a dipper with a size of 250 ml , six species which belong to genus Culex were recorded : Culex ( Culex) pipiens,Culex (Culex) quinquefasiatus, Culex (Culex) vagans, Culex (Culex) torrentium, Culex (Culex) thieleri, Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus.
It had been excerpted a classification key to the species of Culex in the north of Aleppo- Syria based on morphology of fourth instar larvae.

Evaluation of Deltamethrine Pesticide Effect in the Plant Cell Growth Using Nigella sativa L. Callus Cultures

Hana S. Al-Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 128-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64537

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticide Deltamethrine on plant cell growth, by using Nigella sativa L. tissue cultures. Different concentrations of the pesticide were used ranged between 0.01-4.0%. Results showed that the lower conc. 0.01-0.05% did not inhibit callus growth, but they enhanced the growth to yield 8.44, 11.47 and 12.89 g of callus fresh weight compared with 6.12 g for MSt. the conc. of 0.1-1.0% also enhanced callus growth but to lower level. Whereas 2.0 and 4.0% of the pesticide were growth inhibitors. Protein determination showed the same trend as with the fresh weight.

Separation and Study of some Kinetic Properties of Senescence Marker Protein -30 in Human Plasma

Luay A. Al-Helaly; Maryam A. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 137-157
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64539

The research includes the isolation of senescence marker protein-30 (SMP-30) from human plasma of normal young male age 25 year, the factors affecting the activity of the enzyme and determination of its molecular weight. One band had been isolated by gel filtration chromatography from the proteinous supernatant produced by precipitation by ammonium sulfate (60%) after dialysis and separation by cooling centrifuge. Apparent molecular weight of the isolated enzyme using gel filtration chromatography was (34672) Dalton.
The results also showed that the optimum conditions of SMP-30 were obtained at (100 µg/ml) of enzyme concentration and phosphate buffer (0.022 mol/l) as a buffer at pH (8) for (18) minutes at (49C) using (14 mmol/l) of gluconolactone (GL) as a substrate,. Using Line Weaver–Burk plot, the values of maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were (0.65 µmol/ min) and (5.6 mmol/l) respectively. Beside of, the study showed the effect of some chemicals and drugs inhibitors on the enzyme activity, Phenyl phrine, neomycin and mercuric chloride possessed a noncompetitive inhibition and caffein anhydrous possessed a competitive inhibition and arsenate meta sodium possessed a uncompetitive.

A New Algorithem for Calculating the Phonon Imaging for Orthorhombic Crystals

Mumtaz M. Hussien; Manal A. Khalil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 158-171
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64541

In this research a new algorithem has been applied to calculate the phonon images for orthohombic crystals, this method depend on the calculation of the phonon imaging from the phase velocity and slowness surface only without the detail calculation the group velocity, this has been done by determining the directions of the group velocity from the slowness surface. The Monte Carlo method has been used to generate the wave vectors in reduced Brilluon zone, then transformed these vectors to slowness surface space and the unit vectors of group velocity are determind. A comparision between the new and classical algorithem results has been done for the calculation of the phonon images for orthohombic crystals, the results shows a good agrement between the new and the classical algorithem.

Calculation of the Energies and the Reduced Electric Quadrupole Transition Probability of Even-Even Isotopes

Zeena H. Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 8, Pages 172-187
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.64542

The property of even-even isotopes have been deduced, were the relation of the moment of inertia as a function of the square of the energy of the emitted photon when the nucleus translate from the state to the state ( back-bending curve) Also the relation of the gamma energy over spin as a function of the spin (E-GOS) have been drawn, these curves indicated that these isotopes have a transition property (SU(3)-O(6), with the X(5) proprety for isotopes. To insure this property the calculation of the energy of different states in the yrast band has been done using the standard relation for the three types of nuclei depending on their property (rotation, and vibration). Knowing the property of these isotopes, the calculation of electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2) has been done using Bohr and Mottelson model and the interacting boson model IBM-1 and compared with the experimental values.