Volume 23, Issue 5, Summer 2012, Page 1-143

The Allelopathic Effect of Dill Plant (Anethum graveolens L.) Residues on the Growth and Chemical Content of Two Types of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars

Pakhshan M. Maulood; Shireen A. Amin

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59646

A pot experiment was conducted at the greenhouse of Science College- Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq, during November 2009 to April 2010 to study the effect of different concentration of dill plant residue (added to soil at ratio 0, 2, 4, and 6% W: W mixed and incubated for four weeks) on some vegetative growth characters and chemical composition of leaves and grains of two barley cultivars (C1= Tedmor, C2=Barbara). The results indicated that the different concentration of dill plant residue were affected significantly (P≤ 0.05) on most growth characters except number of tiller/plant. The highest values for all studied growth characters were recorded at 2% of dill plant residue for both cultivars. On the other hand, statistical analysis showed significant (P≤ 0.05) differences between two cultivars on nutrient content of leaves and seeds. In general, increasing level of dill plant residue led to significant increase of nitrogen, protein percent, proline, phosphorus, Fe, K+, and Na+ content of the leaves in both cultivars.

Diagnostic Efficiency of a New Candida albicans Rapid Test Device and the Importance of some Risk Factors of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Mosul City

Heba M. Alghnam; Nawfal Y. AL-Dabbagh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59649

The objective of this study is to evaluate the importance of Candida albicans rapid test device and to evaluate the importance of some risk factors in the diagnosis of Candida albicans in vaginal discharge and to compare this test with other diagnostic methods. One hundred sixty women were investigated in this study. Results showed no statistical relationship between the age and the occupation of the patient and the incidence of fungal vaginitis. Relationship between recent use of antibiotics and infection was statistically evident. The sensitivity of the rapid test device for the diagnosis of VVC was 87.9 % versus direct microscopical examination which has 64.5%sensitivity. We conclude that the rapid test device provided a rapid and better results than conventional microscopy and culture for the diagnosis of VVC. This easy-to-perform diagnostic test will be useful to practitioners treating women with symptoms of fungal vaginitis.

Some Rapid Methods for Oral Treponema Detection

Summaya A. Al- Hamdonii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59651

The present study investigates the presence of four oral Treponemal species using rapid molecular methods. Subgingival fluid samples were obtained before and after one week of scaling and the nucleic acid was liberated from the bacterial cells to be used as a template for PCR. Specific primers for each Treponemal species targeted to16SrDNA sequence was depended.89% of samples were positive for Treponema sp., 88% of them were positive to the presence of more than one type. T. amylovorum, T. medium, T.socranskii, and T. vincentii were detected in 72%, 87%, 76 % , and 28% respectively with higher percentage at pocket depths >5 mm. Molecular method was able to detect Treponemal species even after scaling, however, in lower percentage than before it.

Cytogenetic Analysis of Children with Ambiguous Genitalia in Mosul

Sada J. Abdulameer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59653

The present study aim to investigate the causes and characteristics of ambiguous genitalia in newborn who were referred to cytogenetic laboratory. Cytogenetic analysis was performed for each case. All cases were analyzed by chromosomal study using GTG karyotype. All patients after cytogenetic analysis revealed 46, XX and 46, XY Karyotype. One individual carry a Y chromosome but phenotypically female and one case have a female karyotype but are phenotypically male. The cytogenetic analysis of children with suspected chromosomal aberrations is important to uncover the contribution of chromosomal disorder in genesis of sexual ambiguity and congenital malformation in children and prevent further potentially unpleasant investigation being undertaken

The Role of Leptin and Insulin Hormones in the Pregnant Women Serum Infected of Diabetic Mellitus and its Histological Structure Effects on the Placenta and Umbilical Cord in Erbil City

Khabat A. Ali; Lana S. Salih; Zrar S. Almarzany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 38-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59655

Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with a derangement of hormones, cytokines, metabolites and growth factors in the maternal and foetal compartment. These may influence placental and umbilical cord, growth and histological structure that are tightly regulated in time and space.
The blood and placenta and umbilical cord samples were collected in Hawler Maternity Hospital from (70) diabetic (Type-II) pregnant women and (30) healthy pregnant women directly at parturition. The placenta prepared for histo-pathological examination, while the serum used for both leptin and insulin estimation in both diabetic and non diabetic pregnant women.
Our results showed linear significant increase in leptin and insulin levels would all support the increased incidence of placental-related complications observed in diabetic pregnancy witch revealed immaturity of placentae villi, edema of the intima, and intervillous fibrosis in addition of ischemia of the villi. While umbilical cords sections represented thickening parietal layer and vacuolation. So these are found to improve the specificity of diabetic (Type-II) screening tests.

Detection of Sex Pheromone Production in Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis that Increases Conjugation Frequency

Rayan M. Faisal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 50-57
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59657

Eight isolates of Enterococcus faecalis previously identified by API20 strep for Enterococci from diarrheal cases were used in the present study. Resistance towards ampicillin, cefalexin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid was determined and the results showed different antibiotic resistance pattern. The presence of a conjugation system in Enterococcus isolates was determined by mating with plasmid free strain of E.coli JM83, the results indicated the presence of conjugative system in isolates number 3,4,6 and 7 corresponded with the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes for cefalexin, tetracycline, gentamicin and nalidixic acid to recipient strain of E.coli JM83 at a frequency of (0.24 - 0.55×10-7) which may indicate the presence of an F plasmid in these isolates. The ability of the Enterococcus isolates to produce sex pheromone was detected by treating the conjugation mixture of the isolates 3,4,6 and 7 with E.coli JM83 with pheromones isolated from the isolates 1,2,5 and 8 separately. The results showed the ability of the pheromone isolated from isolate 2 to increase the conjugation frequency to (0.16×10-5) between isolate 6 and the recipient strain of E.coli JM83 which indicates the presence of a pheromone-responsive plasmid in the isolate 6 that is induced with the pheromone produced by isolate 2.

Kinetic Studies of the Formation of Number of Spiropyrrolidine

Abdul Majeed M. Dabbagh; Abdul Wahab J. Al-Hamdany; Omar A. Shareef; Saphwan Al-Assaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 58-77
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59660

The rate of reaction between Schiff bases (N-Benzylidene-4-Picolyamine) and its derivatives with Chalcone(2-benzylidine-1-tetralone) to form spiropyrrolidine have been studied in DMF. This study occurred in two steps: The first step involved following the formation of intermediate by Fluorescence. The study indicated a pseudo first order dependence with rates 3,4-Dimethoxy> p-OCH3 > p-CH3 > H > P-Cl > P-NO2 at any temperature (298-318 K). The effect of substituents on the rate showed that electronic factors, inductive, conjugative and steric factors play reasonable role on the stability of the intermediates. The second step involved the disappearance of intermediate (cyclization process) to form the final product (spiropyrrolidine). This step was followed by UV technique and indicated a first order dependence with rates P-NO2 > p-Cl > H > p-CH3 > p-OCH3 > 3,4-Dimethoxy. A suitable mechanism for this type of reaction, which is consistent with the results, has been postulated.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Metronidazole by Prior Reduction and Subsequent Diazotisation and Coupling with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine–Application to Pharmaceutical Preparations

Wallada H. Ibrahim; Wadala A. Bashir

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 78-93
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59994

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of metronidazole (MZ) has been proposed. The method is based on the reduction of metronidazole with iron metal and hydrochloric acid followed by diazotisation and coupling with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine in acidic medium to give a pinkish-red colored azo dye which has maximum absorption at 503 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 20-500 μg of metronidazole in a final volume of 25 ml, i.e., 0.8-20 ppm, with a molar absorptivity of 4.673×103 l.mol-1. cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0366 µg.cm-2 , a relative error of – 1.73 to +1.58% and relative standard deviation of ±0.47to ±1.32 %, depending on the concentration level. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of metronidazole in pharmaceutical preparations.

Synthesis of Spiropyrrolidines via 1, 3 Anionic Cycloaddition

Abdul Wahab J. Al-Hamdany; Abdul Majeed M. Dabbagh; Omar A. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 94-105
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59999

In this work, series of substituted α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (A1-8) had been prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation. Also, series of substituted Schiff bases (N-arylidene-4-picolyamine) (B1-6) were prepared by the condensation of 4-picolyamine with various aromatic aldehydes.
The reaction of the above mentioned materials (A+B) afforded the desired products [Spiropyrrolidines (S1-15)]. The reaction occurred through the formation of azallyl anion which acted as a nucleophile that has the ability to attack the exocylic double bond of chalcones through the 1,3-anionic cycloaddition mechanism to form the product.
The structure for all synthesized compounds (chalcones, Schiff bases, pyrrolidines) had been confirmed by the spectral data obtained by (UV, IR, 1H-NMR) as well as the determination of physical properties.

Effect of Heavy Metal Content of some Common Spices Available in Local Markets in Erbil City on Human Consumption

Gulzar I. Ibrahim; Lutfia M. Hassan; Shirwan O. Baban; Sirwan S. Fadhil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 106-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.60002

Herbs and spices are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the taste of foods as well as their influence on digestion and metabolism processes. They can also contain some undesirable components that can be harmful, e.g. micotoxins, pesticides, heavy metals, and polycyclic carbohydrates residues.
The objective of this study was to determine metals content in the most popular spices and herbs used in local market in Erbil. The content of these metals was assayed by Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The study showed differences in metal concentration according to the plant part (Rhizomes, Seed, Leaf, and fruit). The concentration ranged on dry basis were : ( 6.1- 47.0), (56-650), (6-44), (10.5-22.5), (8.5-26.5), (26-88.6), (1.25-14.6), and (0.045-1.35) mg/kg for the metals, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Co, Mn, Pb, and Cd respectively.
Most of the metal levels in the spices were acceptable with the exception of Pb, Cu and Cd which were above the standard limit approved by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food Agriculture Organization (FAO), Pb was above the standard level for fenugreek, cinnamon, Cd was above the standard level for ginger.
Consumers of these spices would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily in take of 10g of spices per day containing the following metals; Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Co, Mn.but there are danger from fenugreek and cinnamon for Pb, while the danger of ginger is from Cd.
Generally most of the spices available in the market are safe for human consumption except for Pb and Cd.

Removal of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Cd+2 from Aqueous Solution by Using Ion Exchanger Derived from Sack Polypropylene Grafted with Maleic Acid and its Derivatives

Asaad F. Khattab; Saba H. Sedeeq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 115-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.60006

Grafting of wastes polypropylene taken from sack with some active functional groups like maleic anhydride, N- phenylmaleamic acid, N( o-chloro-phenyl) maleamic acid, N( 2,6-diethyphenyl) maleamic acid and N(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl) maleamic acid were accomplished via free radical polymerization.
The grafted polymers were examined as an ion exchanger toward Cu+2, Zn+2 and Cd+2 ions from their aqueous solutions. The initial concentrations of metal ion solution, pH of the extraction medium and treatment time were studied as a factors influence the efficiency of extraction. The r esults were constructed with some isotherm models (Langmuir, Frendlich and Dubiuin-Radushkevish models). The langmuir and Dubini-Radushkevish isotherm are the more suitable models to describe the results than Frendlich model.

Effect of Wet Cupping on Serum Lipids Profile Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients and Correlation with some Metal Ions

Layla A. Mustafa; Rukzan M. Dawood; Osama M. Al-Sabaawy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 128-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.60009

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy on serum lipid profile concentration and correlated to some trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Mn). Thirty one men (35 to 55 years old), with hyperlipidemia and without antihyperlipidemic drug or high energy diet consumption for the duration of the study were subjected to cupping. The serum for total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) and trace elements concentration was collected from brachial veins, and determined before cupping and then once a week for two weeks after cupping. Patients with hyperlipidemia who subjected for cupping show a significantly decrease (p≤0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL/HDL ratio by comparison before cupping, while there were no significant differences in serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio show a highly significant difference (p<0.001) after cupping and also showed a significant correlation with serum lipids profile after cupping, especially zinc metal.

The Effect of Adding Carbon (soot) to the Paint of an Absorbing Surface in Homemade Solar Systems

Hala K. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 137-143
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.60013

Absorbing materials are key components of any solar water heater device. Silicon solar cells are very efficient but are highly expensive. An alternative is to use absorbing materials that are cheaper than silicon to produce. The use of carbon (soot) in the preparation of the coating layer of a homemade solar water heater has been investigated. When added in different proportions to oil-based white paint, marked increases in water temperatures were obtained. The increase in water temperature was directly proportional with the increase in the percentage of carbon in the coating layer. The maximum achieved outlet water temperature was 90° C in July and 70° C in November.
Due to its non-toxic nature and very low cost, carbon in the form of smoke suspension or soot, can provide a good and reliable alternative in the fabrication of domestic solar water heaters.