Volume 23, Issue 3, Spring 2012, Page 1-147

Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect of Cucurbita pepo (Yakten) Extracts on Multi-antibiotic Resistance Bacterial Strains Isolated From Human Urinary Tract Infections

Abdulrhem T. AL-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44363

The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Cucurbita pepo, were used as antimicrobial activity against multi-antibiotic resistance strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis) which were isolated biochemically from human urinary tract infections. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by using Kirby-Bauer diffusion. The methanolic extracts of Cucurbita pepo fruit-cortex showed for the first time a high to moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively whereas the aqueus extract showed a moderate effect against Staphylococcus aureus only. Weak antimicrobial activity was seen on Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis using both extract. Using core fruit methanolic and aqueus extraction showed no effect on any pathogenic bacteria. Whole fruit methanolic extract gave moderate and low antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively. The results concluded that the application of Cucurbita pepo cortex extract against human multiresistant urinary tract pathogens may represents a new source as adjuvant to antibiotics for effective treatment of bacterial urinary tract infections.

Comparison of Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies Test with IgM- Rheumatoid Factor in the Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Nawfal Y. Al-Dabbagh; Zahra A. Hashim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 8-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44364

Rheumatoid Factor (RF) occurs in 70- 90% of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (Anti-CCP) detection can be used to diagnose RA patients with uncharacterized chronic inflammatory arthritis. The aims of the study are: 1-To measure the serum levels of anti-CCP and IgM-RF in the RA patients and the control groups. 2-To evaluate and compare these diagnostic tests in the terms of sensitivity and specificity and to determine the test which yields the best combination of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of RA. 3- To assess the relationship between anti-CCP antibodies test and joints deformities in comparison with IgM-RF antibodies test. Blood sample were obtained from 55 patients with established RA attending the Rheumatology Ward of Ibin-Sina Teaching Hospital during the period of 1st November 2010 to the 1st June 2011 and 35 apparently healthy controls. Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM-RF were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients demographic data, disease duration and joint deformities were recorded. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP and IgM-RF antibodies were calculated taking the clinical diagnosis as the gold standard. Fifty five patients and 35 healthy age and sex matched controls were enrolled. Sensitivity was highest for IgM-RF test (58.18%) followed by anti-CCP test (56.3%). Specificity was highest for anti-CCP test (97.14%) followed by IgM-RF test (82.85%). A combination of the two tests improve the sensitivity and specificity for RA diagnosis to reach 59.5% and 100% respectively. Of the special diagnostic value was the detection of positive anti-CCP antibodies in 3/23 (11.5%) of IgM-RF negative patients. Furthermore, in RA patients with hand joints deformities, anti-CCP was more often presented. The same results were obtained for IgM-RF seropositivity. The study suggests that despite lack of specificity, IgM-RF continues to be a central part of the definition of RA due to favorable sensitivity profile. Anti-CCP test is a powerful diagnostic tool of high specificity especially in RF negative RA patients. No superiority of one test over the other regarding prognosis of joint deformity was discovered.

Effect of Vitamin C on the Hepatotoxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Rats

Ahmad H. Al-Jawary; Rana M. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44366

Cisplatin drug is one of platinum compounds and it is in common use world wide for the treatment of a variety of human neoplasms. However in high doses it can produce undesirable toxic side effects on liver, so in this study we investigated whether vitamin C has protective effect on hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin or not. Three equal-sized groups (six rats each) of adult male albino rats were used as a)- control group b)- recipient of cisplatin or c)- recipient of vitamin C, 24 hrs before cisplatin injection. Histological examination of livers were carried out using light microscopy. Results showed that cisplatin produced pathological changes manifested as severe fatty changes, congestion and dilatation of portal blood vessels and central veins, dilatation and congestion of sinusoids, with multiple necrotic foci and apoptotic cells, while prior administration of vitamin C produced amelioration of the pathological changes induced by cisplatin.

Comparative Study of Lisinopril Versus Telmisartan Effects on Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Type 2 Hypertensive Patients

Fadhel A. Al-Hammami; Osama A. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 34-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44367

The present study was performed in order to compare the efficacy of lisinopril against telmisartan on oxidative stress represented by serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidants status (TAS) in already diabetic newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. It was organized according to a randomized controlled comparative trial during the period of the study from November 2010 to June 2011. The current study included 82 patients, 43 took lisinopril (5 mg/day), 39 enrolled with telmisartan (40 mg/day). In addition to 48 apparently healthy persons taken as controls. Serum levels of MDA and TAS were estimated before and after one month of therapy for patients, and at baseline only for controls. In the present study type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients revealed a significant rise in serum MDA and TAS at baseline stage, however, one month monotherapy with either lisinopril or telmisartan result in a significant improvement in both above parameters. The final conclusion of the study was that both lisinopril and telmisartan are able to subside oxidative stress in diabetic hypertensive patients.

The Binding of Sodium Nitroprusside with Albumin Using Square Wave Voltammetry

Mohammed M. Al-Imam; Saddalah T. Sulaiman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44368

The voltammetric behavior of pure Sodium Nitroprusside was studied in a direct method in aqueous phosphate solution at (pH=7.0) by square wave voltammetry Sodium Nitroprusside gives a well defined square wave voltammetric peak at (-0.592) volt against the reference electrode (Ag/AgCl/SatKCl). The calibration curve is linear within the range of concentration [(0.398 ×10-6) – (8.424×10-6)] molar with a correlation coefficient of (0.9991). The binding of Sodium Nitroprusside with Albumin has been studied, the binding constants (K) were calculated at different temperatures. Vant's hoff equation applied to calculate the thermodynamic variables (∆G,∆S,∆H), and the results indicate that the binding of SNP with albumin is of the type (ion-ion).

An Electrical Conductimetric Study of Association Phenomena of 4- Aminoantipyrine (4-AAp) Complexes in Mixtures of Methanol-Water at Different Temperatures

Shakir M. Saied; Hala A. Abdel-Rahman; Yaser O. Hameed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 53-71
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44369

The aim of this work is to measure the electrical conductivity of Co (II) and Ni (II) complexes with 4-amino antipyrine in mixtures of different percentages of methanol and water at different temperatures. The data were analyzed using the Lee-Wheaton equation for unsymmetrical electrolytes, the conductivity parameters: ionic equivalent conductivity λM+2, association constant KA, and the distance parameter R are calculated. The ionic equivalent conductivity λM+2, increases with increasing temperature, which may attributed to the breaking of hydrogen bonds between solvated ion. Association constant KA increase with increasing temperature, which assumed the presences of simple coloumbic interactions between hard sphere ions in continuous medium. The distance parameter R are calculated at the bist fit values of standard deviation σΛ. Thermodynamic parameters from the relation between LnKA and 1T were calculated to examine the nature of interaction. Walden product were calculated which show the variation depending on electrochemical equilibrium between ions and the solvent molecules with the composition of the mixed polar solvents.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Tetracycline by Coupling with Diazotised 4-Aminoantipyrine in Presence of Cetylpyridinium Chloride

Rasha J. Al-Ashow; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 72-84
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44397

A spectrophotometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of tetracycline -HCl(TCH) has been proposed. The method is based on coupling of tetracycline-HCl with diazotized 4-aminoantipyrine in presence of cetylpyridinium chloride in alkaline medium. The molar absorptivity of the formed dye reached to 1.92×104 l.mol-1. cm-1 at 537 nm and Beer's law is obeyed within the range of 10-300 μg of tetracycline-HCl /10 ml (i.e.1.0 – 30 ppm). The colour reaction was highly stable, a relative error ranged from - 2.5 to + 0.21 % and a relative standard deviation of ± 0.37 to ± 0.73 %, depending on concentration level of tetracycline-HCl. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of tetracycline-HCl in pharmaceutical preparations.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Beryllium with Chrome Azurol S -Application to Waters

Bassima A. Abed Al-Hadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 85-97
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44398

A simple, rapid and direct spectrophotometric method for the determination of beryllium II is developed. The method is based on the reaction beryllium II with chrome azurol S in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride at pH 5.0 forming a stable blue coloured complex which has an intense absorption at 620 nm. Beer's law was obeyed over the range of 0.25-100 μg/25 ml. The molar absorptivity and Sandal's sensitivity of the coloured complex are 1.02×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and 0.00883 μg.cm-2, respectively. The interference caused by a number of common cations and anions can be removed by using EDTA as a masking agent. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of beryllium II in different water samples.

Partial Separation and some Kinetic Studies of Protenase Enzyme from Human Plasma

Israa A. AL- Jarah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 98-107
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44399

This study includes an isolation and partial purification the protenases from human plasma in city center of Mosul. Three proteinous components had been isolated by gel filtration technique from the precipitate produced by saturation ammonium sulfate. It was found that the peak (A) had a high activity of protenases using sephadex G-75. The apparent molecular weight of the isolated protenases the peak (A) using gel filtration was (75000± 1000 Da).
Maximum activity for protenases was obtained using (0.32) mM of casein as substrates, phosphate buffer (50 mmol) at PH (7.5) for (10) minutes in incubation at (45) C. Using Line Weaver-burk plot were the maximum velocity (0.796) U/ml and Michaelis constant (0.035) mmol. EDTA and thiourea inhibition on the protenase activity, while magnesium sulfate and calcium chloride shown increase activity.

Synthesis of some Novel Pyrazolo and Triazolo Quinolines from Coumarin Compounds

Shymaa S. Shawkat; Adnan O. Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 108-116
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44400

Coumarin and its furo derivatives (psoralene and isopsoralene) are used as precursor for preparation of heterocyclic compounds. The 4-methyl-7-mthoxycoumarin, psoralene and substituted isopsoralene (II, III and IV) which are derived from 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (I), when reacted with hydrazine hydrate through nucleophilic substitution reaction under basic condition give N-amino-2-quinolone and its furo derivatives (1,5 and 9) in good yields.
Reaction of these compounds (1,5 and 9) with methyl acetoacetate, ethyl acetoimidate or thiosemicarbazide, a new heterocyclic compounds will be formed pyrazolo-quinoline and it is furo derivatives (2,6 and 10); 1,2,4-triazolo-quinoline and its furo derivatives (3,7 and 11) and 1,2,4- triazolo-quinoline-2-thione (4,8 and 12) respectively.
The assigned structure of the prepared compounds were elucidated by the available physical and spectral methods IR, UV and 1H-NMR.

Isolation and Studying the Activity and Properties of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) in Patients Tissues of Benign and Malignant Colon Tumors

Fatima A. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 117-130
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44402

The present research includes determination of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in benign and malignant colon tumor tissues.
Patients were enrolled in the study to the surgery unit in AL-Jamhoory teaching hospital in Nineveh Governorate, samples of (6) patients (3) benign and (3) malignant colon tumors.
The results showed a significant increase in the activity of (ADA) in malignant tissues compared with benign which was (32.4 and 84.55 mU) in benign and malignant tumors respectively. Which represent about (50%) increase.
The study also included an isolation and partial purification of ADA using gel filtration chromatography from benign and malignant colon tumor tissues. the results indicated that the number of purification fold for the ADA was (10 and 12) from benign and malignant colon tumors respectively.
The approximate molecular weight of ADA by gel filtration using sephadex G-100 were (31622 Dalton, 39810 Dalton) for benign and malignant tumors respectively.
The optimum condition of ADA for the peak separated from malignant tumors showed an optimum reaction incubation time at (30) minutes, pH at (6.3), temperature at (37°C) and the substrate concentration was about (0.021mM). when we used linweaver - Burk plot, the maximum velocity (V max) and Michaelis -menten constant(Km) where found to be (31.25 mU/ml) and (10.310-3mM) respectively. Also in this investigation we was studied the inhibiters of ADA by Zn+2, Ag+1, Ca+2, Mg+2, Hgcl2, Fe+2 benign but not by Fe+3.

The Distributions of the Density and the Mass for Spiral Galaxies

Nazzeha A. Daod

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 131-137
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44403

Expressions for the distributions of the density and mass of spiral galaxies have been derived for three different orientations of rotation curves with a turn over radius (rt). The central region of the galaxy is found to rotate as a rigid body with a constant density and with a central mass as a function of r3. The density of the outer regions (r > rt) is found to vary inversely with the radius (r), and the corresponding mass is found to be a function of r2. Galaxies with flat rotation curves at (r > rt) has less mass than that with rising up or lowering down rotation curves.

The Confront Electrodes Faces Curvature Effect on the Electron Gun Performance

Abdullah E. Al-Abdullah; Muna A. Al-Khashab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 138-147
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44405

A new design of electron gun has been developed to study the effect of the curvature shape of the opposite electrodes faces on its optical and operational performance. Convex and concave arc shapes of different radii and orientations of the electrodes faces combined to design a series of electron guns geometries including the flat shape of the electrode face. Each model has been studied extensively to obtain the optimum electrode curvature shape. It has been found that it is possible to improve the current density and other optical properties of the electron gun by choosing suitable arc shape and radius for the confront electrodes.