Volume 23, Issue 4, Spring 2012, Page 1-147

Effect of Salvia Powder on Blood and Histological Picture of Liver and Heart Muscle in Male Albino Mice

Raja M. Al-Annaz; Janan H. Abdul-Fattah; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44406

The study was conducted to investigate effect of salvia plant powder in some heamatological parameters and histological changes in adult male albino mice, Balb/c breeder 30-45gm. weight, and 5-7 months old. Mice were divided into 4 groups, 6 mice for each. Ratio dried leaves of saliva plant had been powdered and added to the diet in different ratios 2.5, 5, 10 g/kg forage. The treatment of mice was repeated daily for four weeks. The results of the current study showed that the leaves powder of salvia plant had good qualities along with blood values the treatment lifted number of red blood cells and the concentration of hemoglobin and PCV in all treatments comparing with control group. The white blood cells has increased number in both groups 2.5, 5 g/kg forage and decreased in number in the group 10 g salvia/kg diet. Histological examination also showed the presence of differences some were positive and some were negative for liver tissue and heart comparing with control group.

Diagnostic Study for Companion Fungi on Four Generation Grains of Barely (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Nihal Y. Almurad; Raed S. Al-Saffar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 15-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44407

Thirteen fungal species has been recognized that associated with four generation grains from cross of barley (Beckson  Arivat), deferent species were reported in four generation grains (F1, F2, and back crosses Bc1 and Bc2): Alternaria alternata, Alternaria raphani, Aspergillus flavus, Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp., Candida albicans, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Staphyllium sp., Penicillium sp. . The most frequent fungus in grains of four generations was Rhizoctonia solani followed by Penicillium sp. , The F2 generation was the most frequent in species, followed by Bc1 and Bc2 finally.

Bioefficacy of Four Botanical Extracts Against Culex pipiens Pallens (Culicidae) Stages and Non-Targeted Chironomus ninevah Ahmad (Chironomidae)

Atallah F. Mekhlif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 23-35
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44408

Bioinsecticidal activity of Tilia chordate Miller, Euphorbia peplus L., Solanum carolinense L. and Hammada salicornica (Bunge) Botsch (=Haloxylon salicornicum) were tested against various stages of Culex pipiens Pallens and Chironomus ninevah Ahmad 4th larvae. For 12 and 24 hrs. exposure times, Lc50 were (16.0 , 7.5 ppm), (14.0 , 13.0 ppm), (18.0, 26.0 ppm) and (26.0, 21.0 ppm) caused by T. chordate, E. peplus, H. salicornica and S. carolinense respectively. Pupal mortality were 56 , 41 , 36 and 28% for T. chordata, H. salicornica, S. carolinense, and E. peplus at the later (80 ppm) applied concentration. Only, T. chordata, and H. salicornica, extracts were active on adult exclusion with mortality 41 and 19% at 80 ppm concentration.
On the other hand, its revealed that significant differences between Lc50 of the targeted C. pipiens larvae and that of the non-targeted C. ninevah larvae with 10, 4 and 2 folds of the applied extracts ; T. chordata, S. carolinense and H. salicornica.

The Effect of Increasing Concentration of Copper and Myo-Inisitol in In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

Gharbia H. Daniel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 36-43
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44409

It was found that the increased levels of copper and myo-inisitol in the culture medium was positively effective in increasing the morphogenic response of grape plants Kamali cultivar till the level of 0.025+ 200 mg/l from both compounds respectively. Since the use of this combined level caused to achieve the highest number of shoots (10 shoots/ explant) and leaves (25.75 leaves/ explant) at shoot multiplication stage as well as achieving the highest number of roots (3.08 roots/ explant) at root formation stage. The use of these levels of copper and myo-inisitol did not show any aberrant morphology appearance but the use of higher elevated levels till three times, gradually decreased the morphological response by giving lower values of the numbers of shoots, leaves and roots. At acclimatization stage, the produced plants were successfully transferred to the out-air conditions with a high survival rate reached to 85%.

Effect of Excessive Levels of Vitamin A on Bone Formation and some Biochemical Parameters in Young Rats

Hadeel M. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 44-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44410

The present study was designed to effect the excessive levels of vitamin A on bone formation and some biochemical parameters in young rats. 18 of albino males young rats were divided into 3 groups it 6 animals each. These included untreated control and two treated groups received orally vitamin A at the doses 330 and 660 IU/g B.W daily for 30 days. Animals were weighted weekly, Blood samples were obtained at specific times for biochemical parameters determination which include alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), Calcium, Inorganic phosphorus ,magnesium and albumin levels. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anesthetized and killed. The right femur bone were obtained for mineral analysis in bone ash include calcium, magnesium and Phosphorus. The results showed significant decrease in body weights and ALP, calcium, Inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, albumin in the serum of the first and the second groups. More reduction was observed in the second group when compared with the control groups. The mineral analysis of bone ash showed a significant decrease in calcium, magnesium, Phosphorus in the first and the second groups compared with control groups. It was concluded from this study, that excessive levels of vitamin A caused an effect on body weight and defect detection in bone formation of young males rats.

Effect of Lead on some Antioxidants and Lipid Peroxidation in Blood of White Male Albino Rats

Muna H. Jankeer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 55-69
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44411

The present study includes the investigation of the effect of lead on some enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in serum of male albino rats Rattus norvegicus aged 2.5-3 months. Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats/ group).The first group: was given standard forage and distilled water (as a drinking water) and considered as control. The second group: was given standard forage and distilled water (as a drinking water) containing 20 mg lead /L. daily for a period of 15 days. Third group: was given standard forage and distilled water (as a drinking water) containing 40 mg lead/ L. daily for a period of 15 days. The fourth and fifth groups were treated with the same concentration of the second and third group separately daily for a period of 30 days.
The results showed that treatment with lead caused a significant decrease in the concentration of each of total protein, albumin, globulin, glutathione GSH and the superoxide dismutase SOD activity in serum of treated rats compared with the control group. The reduction of the above mentioned parameters was progressive with the time of treatment. The result also showed that treatment with lead caused a significant increase in uric acid and malondialdhyde MDA in serum compared with control group. The results also showed that the decrease and increase were more prominent in rats treated with 40 mg
lead/ L of drinking water. These results suggests that lead may induce oxidative stress in albino rats.

Effect of Foliar Spray of Iron Cheleate and Acta Acro Fertilizers on Growth of Pistachio vera L. Seedling

Ayad T . Shayal Alalam; Ayad H. Alalaf; Zuhair A. Dawood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 70-81
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44412

The research included study the effect of foliar spray of three concentrations (0, 30 and 60 mg.l-1) of Iron element as Iron cheleat (Fe – EDDHA) and three concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 6 cm3 ) of Acta Agro fertilizer on growth and some vegetative characteristics of pistacia vera L. seedlings which grown in black poly ethylene backs filled with lomy soil, each treatment was applied three times at 25/4, 10/5, 25/5 /2011. A complete randomized block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates each consisted of 4 seedlings was used to carry out this research. Data collected at the end of September 2011 indicted that, foliar spray of Iron element at 60 mg,l-1 resulted in a significant increase in both parameters, seedlings high and percentage chlorophyll pigment as compared with control treatment. Mean while spray of Iron element at 30 mg.l-1. led to the most significant increase in seedlings high. At the same time, application of Acta Agro fertilizer at 6 cm3.l-1 gave the highest increase in total number of leaves per plant, single leaf area and leaf area per seedling. None of treatments had a significant effect on the fresh and dry weight and percentage of dry matter of leaves as compared with control.

The Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds Extract on Physiological and Histopathology of Kidney in Swiss Male Albino Mice Exposed to Gamma Ray

Hazim F. Mahmud; Saja N. Mohammed; Ahmed B. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 82-91
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44414

The effect of Gamma radiation on kidney tissues of male mice before and after Nigella sativa seeds alcoholic extractions (50mg/kg B.W.) supplementation for 10, 20 and 30 days was investigated. Histopathological examination carried out in this study indicated that a dose 125 rad /day of Gamma radiation causes different degree of damage in the morphology of kidney tissues includes cytoskeleton disturbance, necrosis, apoptosis, nuclear damage, cellular death, vacullation, Bowman capsules damage and Hemorrhage. The histological observations also revealed important differences between control and tested individuals depending on the irradiation duration. On the other hand the results showed that kidney tissues recovered to almost restored the natural architecture in mice treated with 50mg/keg B.W. Nigella sativa seeds alcoholic extractions pre exposed to Gamma Ray at (10 ) days but at ( 20 ) days the recovery is les pronounce then the mice which exposed to gamma ray for ( 30 ) days, as compared with control group and all duration of exposure to radiation. these results indicate that Nigella sativa seeds have protective role against Gamma rays.

Behavior of some N-Substituted Phthalimides Derivatives as Plant Growth Regulators in the Initiation and Regeneration of Lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Callus

Hana S. Al-Salih; Amera E. Ahmad; Abdul Motalib S. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 92-110
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44416

The effect of twoi synthet phthailmides derivative compounds on the response of Lettuce seedling stem explants with single node was studied by addition to MS medium alone or with 3×10-6 M Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or with 4×10-6 M Benzyl adenine (BA).
The results indicated that the addition of 10-4 M of N-2(2-hydroxy phenyl) phthalimide compound (A) N-2-(2-carboxy phenyl) phthalimide compound (B) alone to MS solid medium increased the regeneration of shoots from seedling stem segments containing single node. However, addition of 10-8M of both compounds enhanced root formation. results showed that callus induced when 10-6 M of compound A added to MS medium .
Addition of 10-4 M and 10-6 M of both compounds A and B separately with the presence of 3×10-6 M NAA encouraged callus formation as in the standard medium, callus fresh weight was 23.30g and 23.06 g in the medium contains 10-8M of compound A or B with 4×10-6M BA respectively compared with 18.73g for the callus grown on standard medium after 60 days of growth. Whereas the fresh weight of callus grown on MS medium with addition of compound A or B alone reached 21.45g and 18.86 g respectively. addition of compound A and B separately with 4×10-6 M of BA enhanced shoot differentiation without formation of roots and from all the concentrations used 10-4 M of compound A was the best.

Biochemical Study of Chitinase and its Relation with Thalassemia

Thikra A. Allwsh; Baraa R. Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 111-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44421

The present research is a clinical study of chitinase and its relation with thalassemia. It had been found that the normal range of chitinase activity in serum of healthy control (1.79 ± 0.10 U/ml), and it had been found that significant decrease of chitinase activity for patients group when compared with controls group. It was also found that the activity was not affected by sex whereas an increase was found with aging in both patients and control groups. The result demonstrated that the chitinase activity was not affected by the type of thalassemia (a or β - thalassemia), distress of β- thalassemia (major and intermediate) and splenctomy. The results show a significant increase in (GPT), (GOT), (Fe) and (TIBC) while also showed a significant decrease in hemoglobin level of thalassemia patients compared with control. Correlation coefficient between chitinase activity and clinical variables of thalassemia patients studied showed a significal reversible relation between chitinase and (Fe) and irreversible relation between chitinase and(GPT) in control. It also show a reversible relation between chitinase and hemoglobin in patients.
The isolation method of chitinase from lysosome of plasma (protein peak B) showed two protein peaks by gel filtration technique, using column containing sephadex G-75. The activity of a chitinase showed in(protein peak B).while the isolation method of chitinase from ammonium sulphate solution (75%) saturation of plasma showed three protein peaks by gel filtration technique, using same column. The activity of a chitinase showed in (protein peak E), a high number of purification showed in (protein peak B) compared with (protein peak E), it was found that the two peaks (B and E) had apparent molecular weight (39180 ± 1000 dalton) and (36307 ± 1000 dalton) respectively. The study of the optimum condition of chitinase activity in the two peaks show an optimum reaction time at (35), (30) minute, optimum pH at (7), optimum temperature at (60°C), (55°C), optimum concentration of substrate colloidal chitin (12 mg/ml), (10 mg/ml), Vmax (2.08 U/ml), (2.00 Uml) and Km (2.12 mg/ml) and (2.00 mg/ml) respectively.

Oxidative Stress for Women Infertility in Ninava Governorate

Obeda A. Al-Kado; Luay A. Al-Helaly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 128-147
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44418

The research included a study of oxidative stress in infertility female for two types (Primary and secondary) in Ninava governorate, beside of the effects of Body mass index (BMI) on oxidative stress of infertility through measuring (17) oxidants and antioxidants parameters. The study was carried out on (223) sample of women (age 19 – 45 year). The infertility (179) divided into two groups (depending on types of infertility). Non infertility (44) were included in the study as control with similar age and sex.
The group of primary infertility showed significant decrease concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, total bilirubin, folic acid and zinc when compared with control, while there was a significant increase of: glutathione S-transferase(GST), albumin, copper, iron, Cp, MDA and peroxynitrite. While, the secondary infertility showed significant decrease concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, GSH, total bilirubin, folic acid, zinc and copper, and there was a significant increased of : GPx, GST, Cp, MDA and peroxynitrite. Moreover, the oxidative stress showed increased in primary infertility compared with secondary infertility because of increased of antioxidants and decreased of oxidants in primary infertility.
Beside of, the study showed the effect of BMI on the oxidants and antioxidants levels. The results revealed that there were direct correlation between BMI increase with the concentrations of (MDA, peroxynitrite) and inverse correlation with the concentrations of antioxidants (For example vitamin C, vitamin E, SOD, total bilirubin, folic acid and uric acid).