Volume 23, Issue 1, Winter 2012, Page 1-143

Photodynamic Effect on Photosensitized Candida albicans with Hematoporphyrin Derivative Using Low Power Diode Laser In Vitro

Ahmed S. Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29057

In this study, the Photodynamic Effect (PDE) of Hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) combined with irradiation from low power laser on Candida albicans was investigated. Four isolates of C. albicans were diagnosed in seven samples collected from oral cavity of adults with dental caries. Laser irradiation used in this study has been emitting from Diode laser at a wavelength equal to 630 nm (red region of the spectrum), while the output power was approximately 10mW as a continuous wave. The exposure time of irradiation was between (30-240) seconds, irradiation area was (0.125) cm2. C. albicans were exposed to irradiation after its exposure to several concentrations of HpD these concentrations were varied from (16 -128) µg/ml. The results clearly showed the Photodynamic effect in killing C. albicans which was photosensitized by HpD in combination with laser irradiation. There was no determined effect on yeast cells viability neither by the using HpD concentrations nor irradiation doses separately. It could be concluded that PDE of HpD by low power laser irradiation at wavelength 630 nm on Candida albicans was a powerful technique in growth inhibition of that pathogenic yeast In vitro.

Assessment of some Heavy Metals in Muscle Tissue of Silurus triostegus from Derbendikhan Reservoir, Kurdistan Region –Iraq

Rezan O. Rasheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 11-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29081

Derbendikhan reservoir is located on the south east of Sulaimani province between longitude 35° 6' 35”N and latitude, 45° 41' 20" E, and it is the second largest reservoir in the Iraqi Kurdistan region at an altitude of about 485 m above sea level. More than twenty genera of fishes are endemic to this reservoir, Silurus triostegus is one of them, which was selected to determine the amount of heavy metals that accumulated in the muscle tissue. The results revealed that the metals were accumulated in the following descending order (Fe


heavy metals
Derbendikhan reservoir
Silurus triostegus

Detection of rfbO157 and fliCH7 Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Human and Sheep in Basrah Province

Mohmmed H. Khudor; Awatif H. Issa; Farooq L. Jassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 19-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29388

This study aimed to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in samples from patients with diarrhea, sheep milk, and sheep drinking water by growth on selective media, biochemical tests, latex agglutination test, and PCR technique.
During the period from November 2008 to May 2009, a total of 340 samples were collected; stools diarrhoeic patients (125), healthy sheep feces (125), milk (45), and sheep drinking water samples (45). Samples were screened for the presence of non-sorbitol fermenting colonies (NSF) on sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite (CT-SMAC). Out of the 340 samples, 58 (46.4%) stool from diarrhea, 98 (78.4%) from sheep feces, 19 (42.2%) milk, and 17 (37.7%) drinking water were non-sorbitol fermenting. E. coli isolates were serotyped as E. coli O157:H7 by latex agglutination test, 3 (5.7%) isolates of stool from diarrhea patients, 7 (7.3%) isolates of sheep feces, 2 (11.1%) isolates of milk, and none of drinking water samples were positive. All latex agglutination positive isolates were positive to PCR test except one isolate from sheep feces. PCR positive isolates were produced enterohemolysin on sheep blood agar, and were found resistant to at least 3 antibiotics.
The highest rate of E. coli O157:H7 isolation was observed in April (7.6%) followed by December (4.7%) , while those of sheep feces showed the highest rate in March (10%) followed by April (8.6%).

Histopathological Examination of Uterine Tumors and Endometrial Hyperplasias Colonized by Streptococcus agalactiae and Antibiotic Susceptibility of the Isolated Streptococcus agalactiae

Mohammed K. Al-Wiswasy; Hadeel T. Al-Hadithi; Haifa O. Al-Shaheen; Quds A. Omer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29397

Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from six leiomyomas of the uterus and two endometrial hyperplasia cases collected from women aged 35 to 80 years, underwent Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH) in Basrah Maternity and Child Hospital due to continuous vaginal bleeding not responding to medical treatment. Sections of leiomyomas stained with haematoxylin and eosin illustrate proliferating smooth muscles fibers with intervening fibrous tissue. Sections from endometrial hyperplasia stained with modified Gram stain demonstrated S. agalactiae as diplococci or as aggregates.
Resistance of S. agalactiae isolated from the above eight cases, against 14 antibiotics was determined. Results clarified that all isolates (100%) are resistant to 10 antibiotics: tetracyclin, erythromycin, cefotaxine, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, cloxacillin, cephalothin, gentamycin and tobramycin. Most isolates demonstrated susceptibility to amoxicillin (62.5 %) which makes it the drug of choice against S. agalactiae. Four isolates of S. agalactiae (50%) were resistant to vancomycin, which raises a threat of vancomycin resistance genes being transferred to other gram-positive species found in the vaginal and rectal sites.

Evaluation of some Liver Function Tests During Different Gestational Period

Ahmed H. Al-Hamdani; Fadhila S. Al-Doski

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 44-51
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29404

This study was designed to assess the effect of pregnancy on liver function tests (LFTs) and to identify the variations between these LFTs during different gestational period. The present study include seven parameters: serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, AST/ALT ratio) and bilirubin (total, direct and indirect) had been measured in blood of 50 healthy nonpregnant women, their age was ranged between (17-40) years as a control group and in 150 apparently healthy pregnant women their aged between (16-41) years. Pregnant women were divided into three subgroups according to their gestational period: 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters (50 pregnant for each trimester of pregnancy). The results recorded a non significant difference in AST activity in all trimesters compared with control group, while serum ALT activity showed a significant reduction during pregnancy trimesters as compared with control group. The serum ALP activity show a significant increase as gestational period progress. However, the result of AST/ALT ratio showed no significant difference with the increase in the gestational period. Finally, serum total, direct and indirect bilirubin were all non significantly difference in all trimesters when compared with control (except the significant decrease in the comparison of total bilirubin in the 3rd trimester with control group).

Antibiogram Profiles of Bacterial Isolates from Intensive Care Units in Mosul Teaching Hospitals

Zainab A. Al-Jawad; Haitham M. Al-Habib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 52-59
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29407

The study was conducted to identify the types and frequencies of bacterial isolates from patients with Intensive Care Units-acquired infections, and to determine their antibiogram profile. One hundred and fifty four clinical samples were collected from 101 patients who developed clinical suggestion of new infections of urinary tract, lower respiratory tract or wound following the 48 hours of their admission to the Intensive Care Units. All samples were cultured on different culture media, and the isolated microorganisms were identified by the conventional bacteriological methods. The antibiogram profile of selected antibacterial agents was tested. The total number of the bacterial isolates was 69 miroorganisms. Gram-negative bacteria were more frequently encountered (82.6%) than the Gram-positive ones(17.4%) among all samples. The predominant Gram-negative isolate was E. coli (23.2%), followed by Pseudomonas spp. (21.7%), K. pneumoniae (14.5%), Proteus spp. (11.6%)., Acinetobacter spp. (8.7%), and E.aerogenes (2.9%). The predominant Gram-positive bacterial isolate was S.aureus (7.2%), followed by E. faecalis (5.8%), and S.epidermidis (4.3%). The most effective antimicrobial agents were amikacin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin.

Study the Effect of some Physical Parameters on the Diffusion Properties of Prepared Alginate-Chitosan Capsule

Noha M. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 60-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29412

Colloid hydrogel spherical core of alginate-chitosan capsules which is used to surround a bovine serum albumin were prepared using coacervation method. The effective physical parameters on porosity or permeability of chitosan-alginate polyions membrane were determined by the manipulation of solution conditions such as pH, ionic strength, and polymer concentration of chitosan. Different pH (3.9, 4.9, 5.9) and different concentrations of chitosan (0.1 g, 0.2 g, 0.3 g) as well as with and without NaCl (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 %) were used to study the release of bovine serum albumin (BSA, molecular weight= 69,000) in vitro from the capsule prepared from alginate-chitosan blended polymer. The overall diffusion of BSA through the chitosan capsule membrane increased as the pH increased from 3.9 to 5.9. Also, an increase in the concentration of NaCl in the chitosan solution used in the preparation of capsule caused an increase in the diffusion of the protein. In contrast, an increase in the concentration of chitosan solution from 0.1g to 0.3g caused a decrease in diffusion of the proteins

Serum Magnesium and Copper Levels Amongst Pregnant Women in Mosul City

Luma M. Tohala

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29416

The study was conducted in Mosul during the period from September 2010 to March 2011 including two groups: the first non-pregnant women and the second pregnant women composed of 40 and 120 apparently healthy women respectively. Pregnant group was subdivided equally according to their trimester into three subgroups, women in second and third trimester having ferrous sulphate supplement.
Serum magnesium and copper measurements were done for these groups of women.
The results showed that serum magnesium concentration start to reduce significantly during first trimester continue to decline in second and third trimesters in comparison with non-pregnant group. Serum copper concentration start to increase significantly during first trimester continue to increase in second and third trimesters in comparison with non-pregnant group.

The Novel Use of Processed Ninivite-Kaolin Mixture Part 1: Mercury Removal from Its Effluents

Moath H. Mustafa; Tariq A. Mahmoud; Wadala A. Bashir

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 79-90
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29421

The mixture of processed ninivite and kaolin has for the first time been used for the removal of mercury from its effluents after nitric acid digestion. Under optimum experimental conditions [shaking time, pH, temperature and quantity of processed ninivite and kaolin mixture, AS(N+K)], the removal efficiency has been found to be >95%. The process is believed to be economic and easily handled

The Novel Use of Processed Ninivite-Kaolin Mixture Part 2: Cadmium and Lead Removal from Their Effluents

Wadala A. Bashir; Tariq A. Mahmoud; Moath H. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 91-103
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29425

Cadmium and lead effluents had been treated with a (1:1) mixture of low grade ninivite (N) and Kaolin (K). Before use, the mixture is treated only with a 10% brine solution and found to be effective for the removal of 85% Cd ( at a maximum concentration of 200mg/ℓ) at a pH of 11.5 and 90% Pb (at a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/ℓ) at a pH 7.0. The results were compared using Dowex-50X, as a typical cation exchanger and activated carbon (charcoal), as an ideal adsorbent and found to be satisfactory

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn+2, Co+2, Ni+2, Cu+2 and Zn+2 Complexes with Pyridinium Salt. Crystal Structure of 1,3, 5- Trimethylpyridinium Iodide

Nabeel H. Buttrus; Amer A. Taqa; Eman M. Rumadthan; H. Uekusa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 104-115
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29427

A series of new complex salts of the type [A]2[MCl2I2] where A=1,3,5-trimethylpyridinium cation, M= Mn+2,Co+2, Ni+2,Cu+2 and Zn+2 were prepared by the reaction of the metal chloride and 1,3,5-trimethylpyridinium iodide in (1:2) molar ratio and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, Uv/Vis., spectral studies and magnetic measurements. The crystal structure of 1,3,5-trimethylpyridinuim iodide was determined by single crystal x-ray crystallography.
The structure of the anion part and a 1,3,5- trimethylpyridinium cation which crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group (Cmcm) with a=8.9850(9), b=15.767(2), c=6.9940(6)A°, V=990.82 (16)A°, Z=4. Which is on a crystallographic mirror plane perpendicular to C-axis except for methyl hydrogen atoms. The anion and cation are connected through hydrogen bonds between I and the cation by hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and weak π-π interaction are also expected.

The Optical and Electrical Properties of CdSe Thin Films Prepared by CBD Technique

Nawfal Y. Jamil; Marwa T. Mahmood; Noor A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 116-125
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29447

In this work thin films of CdSe were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique at different deposition temperatures 298, 318, and 328 K. The effects of deposition temperature on the optical properties have been studied as well as the effect of annealing at different temperatures (373, 473, 573 and 673 K) for one hour. The optical properties of CdSe were studied from transmittance measurements as a function of a range of wave lengths (320-1000 nm). Optical band gap has been decreased from 2 to 1.7 eV after annealing. CdSe/p-Si was prepared by depositing CdSe film on the p-type Si substrate. The I-V characteristics showed a diode behavior.

Suppression of Microwave High-Speed Circuit Noise by Using a 10 GHz Transimpedance Amplifier at 30 oC

Samir M. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 126-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29469

A 10 GHz low noise transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is designed in which a new high-speed Angelov transistor model was employed. Thermal circuit components were simulated for noise measurement at 30ºC at which a typical microwave noise of 20 pA/√Hz was applied as the TIA input. A form of feedback topology helped to reduce the minimum noise figure to 3 dB, while the |S21| parameter gain proved to be 21.7 dB. A noise voltage at the TIA output was 3.23 x 10-15 V2/Hz. The designed circuit showed a stability factor value of 0.36 which is considered as conditionally stable.

Thermal Performance of a Domestic Solar Water Heater

Hala K. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 137-143
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29473

An integrated solar water heater was designed and built using local materials and labor. The system consists of 1 m x 1 m x 0.03 m rectangular tank. The total cost of the system is 125000 ID. The working principle of the unit is fairly simple. An absorbent surface absorbs solar radiation to heat water.
The performance of the system was tested for four days in April during different atmospheric conditions. In three days, the water temperature reached 60 °C and higher in partly cloudy, sunny/showers, and sunny/clear sky conditions. However, on a dusty/cloudy day solar radiation was severely reduced keeping the highest water temperature slightly below 30 °C.
The chronic shortage of power supply in Mosul, the abundant sunshine hours in winter and the reasonable cost of the system all serve as good reasons to acquire and install a solar water heater to meet household needs for hot water.