Volume 23, Issue 2, Winter 2012, Page 1-140

Preparation of Laboratory Kit for Lipoteichoic acid as One of the Constituents of Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall

Amera M. M. Al-Rawi; Tuka M. Al-Sawaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27950

The study includes the production of antibody for LTA in the rabbit after isolation and purefication from S.aureus and St.viridans by injecting the animals regullary and consecutively with pure LTA. Kit was prepared to investigate the presence of antibodies in sera of injected animals by ELISA, the absorbance of the test samples for each of S.aureus - LTA and St.viridans - LTA were 1.0700 ± 0.0141 and 1.0100 ± 0.0141 respectively, The absorbance of control sample, which represent sera of lab animals injected with distilled water was 0.9300 ± 0.0141.

Isolation and Identification of Local Isolates of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Studying its Tolerance Towards the Herbicide Glyphosate

Fawz A. AL-Safar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 11-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27952

Four strains (FA37, FA38, FA39, and FA40 ) of Sinorhizobium meliloti were isolated from different agricultural areas of Ninaveh, Erbil and Duhok Governorates. Identification studies were conducted for these strains for their resistance to chloramphenicol, Erythromycin and production of cell surface molecules and their ability to grow in a Minimal Medium. Results showed that the four strains had the ability to resist both antibiotics, production of β(1→2) cyclic glucan molecules and growth in Minimal Medium. The study of symbiosis relation between the strains and Medicago sativa plant showed that the strain FA37 was the most successful isolate in constructing symbiosis relation indicated by the dry shoot group, which reached 45.7 mg. The strain was then selected for further experiments. Results revealed that the strain FA37 had high resistance against different concentrations of the herbicide Glyphosate, whereas the plant showed no resistance against the least concentration 10 µg/ml that the Rhizobium strains tolerated.

The Inhibition Effect of some Plant Extracts on some Gram Negative and Gram Positive Bacteria

Fadia M. AL-Haiali; Zeyad T. AL-Rassam; Yazn M. Yassen

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 22-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27968

The study includes detection of the antibacterial effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Salvadora persica, Urtica dioica, Cymbopogon citrates) on bacterial isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermides, Streptococcus, Rhodococcus, Micrococcus roseuses, Micrococcus leuteus, Alcaligenes, Proteus, Pseudomonas, E.coli, Klebsiella, Serratia, Salmonella, using the disc diffusion method. The results was compared with some standard antibiotics: Neomycin (Neo), Doxycyclin (Doxy), Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), Chloramphenicol (Chloram).
The results showed the characterization of Glycyrrhiza glabra from the other plant extracts under the study by its antibacterial effect especially on gram positive bacteria. The study didn’t show any significant difference between the antibacterial activity of alcoholic extracts compared with Neomycin, Chloramphenicol, Doxycyclin against gram positive bacteria. The extract showed better antibacterial effect than Doxycyclin, Neo. and Chloramphenicol against each of Streptococcus, Proteus and Micrococcus roseuses respectively the aqueous extracts of Siwak showed a significant difference in its antibacterial effect on Proteus compared with Neomycin and its alcoholic extracts showed no significant difference in its antibacterial activity compared with Doxycyclin and Chloramphenicol on Micrococcus roseuses, also with Doxycyclin on Streptococcus. It appeared also that there were no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of Urtica dioica alcoholic extracts in comparison with Doxycyclin and Chloramphenicol on Micrococcus roseuses, and with Chloramphenicol and Neomycin on Pseudomonas and with Cipro. on Klebsiella. The results showed no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of alcoholic extracts of Cymbopogon citrates compared with Neomycin on each of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermides also with Doxycyclin and Chloramphenicol on Pseudomona and Micrococcus roseuses.

Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis from Periodontal Pocket Infections by Microbial Cultivation and PCR Techniques

Amera M. M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 39-55
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27971

The study aimed to detect P. gingivalis from 49 patients with periodontitis at different ages and both sexes, after determination of pocket depth, types of infection whether chronic or progressive by dentists. Routine culture method was done using selective media and anaerobic condition and compared with species specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.
DNA was extracted from samples and its concentration and purity were determined. The results showed domination of chronic infections and the pocket depths ranged between 3-9mm, as well as the results revealed that isolation percent of P.gingivalis by PCR was more higher than culture method, it was 65.3% and 28.5% respectively. The results also showed that phenol-chloroform was the efficient method for DNA extraction comparing with other methods. The study revealed that there are effects of age and sex on isolation rate and the results indicated that percentage of P.gingivalis was detected in 20-30 years old and males were more infected than females.

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and its Component of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Motaz A. Rashed; Arshad Th. Hamodi; Ebtisam N. AL-Assaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 56-66
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27975

Five varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Intesar, Rabbea’a, Abo-Chreebe-3, Adnaniya and al-Eaz) and their half diallel crosses were used to study of the following quantitative characters grain yield per plant, number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spikes, 100 grain weight and, harvest index. The study included estimation of genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlation between grain yield and its components. The results give phenotypic correlation was positive and highly significant between grain yield and each of number of spikes per plant and 100 grain weight. while The results give genetic correlation was negative and highly significant between number of spikes per plant and 100 grain weight. Environmental correlation give the result positive and significant between grain yield and each of number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spikes and 100 grain weight. The genotypic and phenotypic path coefficient analysis showed that number of per spike had the highly direct effects on grain yield, 100 grain weight and harvest index. The determination coefficient showed the number of spikes per plant and 100 grain weight was the most important trait was 9.82% and 8.71% respectively, the joint effects 10.99%. It can be dependent for improve the yield bread wheat.

Effect of Grape Seeds Powder on the Level of Some Antioxidants and Lipid Peroxidation of White Male Albino Rats Exposed to Oxidative Stress

Eman S. Mahmmud; Rukzan M. Daoud; Muna H. Jankeer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 67-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27982

The present study included the investigation of the effect of grape seeds powder Vitis vinifera in preventing oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide H2O2 at a concentration 0.5 % given with consumed drinking water in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus aged 2.5 – 3 months. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (5 rats/group) and the rats were treated with forage to which grape seeds powder were added at different concentrations 200, 400, 600 mg/kg. B. Wt. of grape seeds powder daily for eight weeks.
The results showed that treatment with 0.5% H2O2 caused a significant increase in malondialdhyde (MDA), bilirubin and uric acid level and a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH), albumin level and the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum of treated rats compared with control group, also the above changes indicating the ability of H2O2 to induce the oxidative stress in albino rats.
The results also showed that treatment with grape seeds powder caused a significant decrease in MDA, bilirubin and uric acid level and a significant increase in GSH, albumin level and the activity of SOD compared with control. The results also showed the decrease and increase were more prominent in rats treated with 600 mg /kg. B. Wt. of grape seeds powder, these results indicate the protective effect of grape seeds powder against oxidative stress.

Comparison of Classical and Molecular Identification for Tannerella forsythia from Chronic Periodontitis Infections

Sahira I. AL-Sanjary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 79-90
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27997

The study included (48) Chronic Periodontitis samples were collected from both sexes with ages between (20-60) years, in addition to determination the average of pocket depth. Morphological and Classical characteristics of Tannerella forsythia using light and fluorescent microscopy were carried , in addition to biochemical tests. The species shown to be catalase and indol negative and without acid from glucose but Esculin hydrolysis test was positive while no growth was noted on esculin bile salt medium. DNA was extracted from Tannerella forsythia using the boiling method approximately (5.2-6.5) µg/ µl was obtained with (1.6-1.8) purity. polymerase chain reaction using species specific primer to amplify 641bp fragment from 16SrRNA gene was performed. It was found to be a more effective method for the detection of Tannerella forsythia in clinical specimen as it gave (43.7) positive isolates compared with (20.8) by using conventional methods.

Effects of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extraction of Salvia officinalis on Mechanical Activity of Smooth Muscle of Ileal Rabbit

Raja M. Al-Annaz

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 91-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.27998

The effect of different dosesof aqueous (boiled) and alcoholic extraction of Salvia officinalison rhythmic spontaneous activity of ileal smooth muscle of rabbit was investigated. The results indicate that meramea has spasmolytic effect on the smooth muscle of ileum of Rabbit. The dose 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml of aqueous (boiled) extract causes an inhibition of muscles rhythmic contraction. While the methanolic extraction of salvia officinalis 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml causes an increased in the duration of peristalitic movement (contraction and relaxation) of smooth muscle. This study is proved how the aqueous (boiled) extraction inhibit the peristaltic movement while the effect of methanolic extraction is opposite, if increase the duration of contraction and relaxation period, due to the active component (flavonides) of salvia officinalis.

Effect of the Different Seaweed Extract (Seamino) Concentrations on Growth and Seed Chemical Composition of Two Wheat Varieties

Mohammad A. AL-Ubeidi; Hussein S. AL-Rashedy; Abdul-Aziz S. Abdul-Jabar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 100-113
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29003

This study conducted at Biology department/ Education college/ Mosul University aiming to evaluate the effect of spraying the shoot parts of two wheat cultivars (Um Rabee and Sham 6) by two Seaweed extracts (Seamino) concentrations (2.0 and 4.0) ml /L at three different stages of growth.
The results of this study showed a significant increase in concentration of chlorophyll a and b in the leave tissues and the Ca, Mg and K content of the cultivated grains during spraying the shoot with (2.0 and 4.0) ml /L seamino; More over, there was a significant increase in plant length, the relative water content and flare leaf area, but there was a non significant increase in the carbohydrate and protein of the cultivated grains at (2.0) ml/L seaweed extract.
The cultivated Sham 6 dominated the cultivated Um Rabee in most parameters studied

Studies of the Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Composite Reinforced by Randomly Woven Fiber Glass and Effect of Acidic Solutions on some of its Physical Properties

Huda A. Albakry

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 114-129
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.28858

Preparation of unsaturated polyester reinforced with 20% (v/v) glass fiber woven randomly E–were studied and the mechanical properties such as, Yong modulus (E), Impact Strength (I.S), Brinell hardness (B.H) and compression Strength (C.S) were investigated, at room temperature.
The resistance to the stress of the reinforced polyester and its mechanical properties were improved.
The effect of the acidic solutions like (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4) at different concentrations, has been studied on some physical properties (absorbance and diffusion coefficient) of polyester before and after reinforcement, and the results revealed obvious improvement in its physical properties.

Study the Effect of UV Radiation Dose on the Optical Properties of SSNTD – CN-85

Rana H. Mahmmod

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 130-140
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.29053

Experimental study has been performed to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (244 nm) on the physical properties of the solid sate nuclear track detector CN-85 has(100m) thickness . Samples radiated by ultraviolet radiation for (1,3,7,9,11) hr. The results show the effects of the radiation on the samples. The real dielectric constant Є1 change from 7.9 at 1hr. radiated to 10.1 at 11hr. radiated. The extinction coefficient K0 changed from 2.25×10-4 at 1hr. radiated to 9.0 ×10-5 at radiated 11hr. It has been found that the values of energy gaps decreasing from (2.0eV) at 1hr. radiated to (1.22eV) at 11hr. radiation. The amount of energy gap decreased with increasing UV dose. The results show the amount of maximum absorption between (308-312)nm.