Volume 22, Issue 8, Autumn 2011, Page 1-134

Isolation and Diagnosis of Lipoteichoic acid Isolated from some Gram Positive Bacteria

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Tuka M. Al-Sawaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6789

In this study, Locally isolated Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus viridans are used as a source of Lipoteichoicacid (LTA) which was isolated by Affinity Chromatography.
Some diagnostic tests were done to detect the presence and purity of LTA after measuring the absorbance of the samples using 200-400 nm wavelength. LTA samples were diagnosed qualitatively by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by measuring the rate of flow which reached 0.68, then were diagnosed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by calculating the retention time, which reached 2.03 minutes for S. aureus - LTA and 1.96 minutes for St. viridans- LTA .

Isolation and Diagnosis of Antagonistic Substances Against Potato Virus Y (PVY)

Nabil A. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 12-23
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6806

Potato virus Y (PVY) which isolated from potato leaves, was diagnosed by ELISA test and by Chenopodium amaranticolor as indicator plant which respond locally to this virus known by its resistance to it, so phenolic compounds were isolated from its leaves and detected spectrometrically at wavelength ranged 200-300 nm, recorded absorbency peaks at wavelength 210 nm for phenols and 280 nm for antagonistic proteins, isolated by acetone, centrifugation and precipitation by ammonium sulphate, these compounds not present in healthy leaves. This result has been assured by inhibition test of the virus in vitro by mixing sap of infected plant with equal amounts of infected C. amaranticolor crude sap and proteinecious solution of that extraction which decreased the number of local lesions on inoculated leaves of C. amaranticolor compared to leaves inoculated by untreated sap. These results assured that this plant was resistant to PVY.

Motility Types for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Respiratory Tract Infections

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Ghada A. al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 24-35
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6799

Motility types of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aeruginosa) have been studied and the detection on twitching motility was done by using stabbing with 1% agar to Luria-burtani (LB) broth medium. P. aeruginosa isolates revealed the ability to twitching motility which was characterized by extension of growth between agar and Petri dish, In addition to various degree of swarming after induction by using different amino acids and different agar concentrations lower than 0.7%. Cell morphology was examined from the center and margins of swarmed cells, cells from center seemed normal in morphology while the marginal cells appear elongated. Also swimming motility was observed by the wet mount preparation. The elongated cells were showed from LB broth by using transmission electron microscope. The bacterium succeeded in swimming motility in minimal media with 3% agar

Genetic Study on Ampicillin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Suppurative Otitis Media

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Jasim F. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 35-57
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6787

A total of 217 ear swabs were collected from patients infected with suppurative otitis media through their visit to ENT unit of Al-Zahrawi Hospital in Mosul city. Isolation and identification of microorganism from all specimens were done, the role of Streptococcus pneumoniae as a causative agent of the disease is shown; finally we examined plasmid existence in Streptococcus pneumoniae and it's role in ampicillin resistance. The result showed that this bacterium is one of the main causative agents of otitis media.Plasmids have been prepared from Streptococcus pneumoniae and calculated their quality; the results also showed that the gene responsible for this bacterium resistance to ampicillin is located on chromosomal DNA, and plasmids have no role in this reistsance. Finally these genes were transferred from resistant strain to a sensitive one by transformation process

Evaluation of Genetic Parameters of Milk Yield and some of its Composition with Wool Yield and some of its Physical Traits in Two Breeds of Iraqi Sheep

Samem F. Al-Dabbagh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 48-57
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6785

This study was conducted on two flocks of Awassi (100) and Hamdani (70) ewes during 2009 and 2010 seasons to estimate the genetic parameters for the two breeds, productivity of each breed, heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlation of milk yield and its composition by monthly intervals 15 days post-lambing for 5-6 months, wool yield and some of its physical traits within these two seasons. The results revealed a highly significant effects (p≤ 0.01) for breed on daily milk yield (DMY), greasy fleece weight (GFW), fiber diameter (FD), while the effect of breed was significant (p≤ 0.05) on staple length (SL) only. Heritability estimates for (DMY) and its composition were low for both breeds ranged from (0.11-0.23), while they were low to high for wool yield and traits ranged from (0.15-0.51). Genetic correlation values for milk and wool traits for both breeds were all highly significant (p≤ 0.01) between positive and negative. Phenotypic correlation values for both breeds were highly significant (p≤ 0.01) for (DMY) with both (GFW) and clean fleece weight (CFW) 0.10,0.15 and 0.11,0.16 for Awassi and Hamdani ewe flocks respectively. While the rest of the values were negative or non significant

Isolation and Morphological Identification of Oral Treponema from Infected Periodontal Pockets

Amera M. M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. S. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 58-70
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6795

The study included the relying of some phenotypic tests to investigate the possibility of isolation and identification of oral Treponema from infected periodontal pocket samples. These phenotypic tests included the examination of fixed smears prepared from the bacterial isolates and staining them with gram and modified gram's stain and with Fontana stain under light microscope where the distinct spiral forms of germs were seen. The oral Treponemes also identified by the observation of their actively motile spiral cells in wet smears using phase contrast microscope. The isolation and identification of these bacteria also proved after their interaction with specific antibody and cell clarifying by greenish spiral form when illuminated with U.V. light using fluorescence microscope. Further, the isolation and identification of oral Treponema was continued by the removal of their outer membrane (O.M.) using Triton X-100 and releasing their flagella and staining with specific flagella stain.

Studying of Metallo Endopeptidase and its Relation with Chronic Renal Failure

Thikra A. AL-Allwsh; Liqaa Abdulla; Israa AL- Jarah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 71-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6791

The research includes a biochemical study of metalloendopeptidase in the blood, which is divided into two parts: The first part includes purification of metallo endopeptidase from plasma. It has been found that the specific activity and the number of purification is (5.07U/mg) and (33.13) respectively for the aqueous solution of the ammonium sulphate precipitation of the plasma (peakA) using gel filtration technique. In addition to that, It has been found that the enzyme has approximate molecular weight (86000±1000) dalton using the same technique. It has been demonstrated that metallo endopeptidase contains zinc and calcium elements, which is a kind of glycoproteins .The optimal conditions to analyze the casein substrate in one minute and pH optimum (6) using citrate buffer at (40ºC) and a substrate concentration of (0.25mM). Maximum velocity and Mich-menten were determined and found to be (0.4U/ml) (0.04mM)respectively.
The enzyme activity was studied using gramicidin S and insulin as a substrate which showed high activity, while the activity was decreased by bovine serum albumin compared with casein. The enzyme activity decreased when EDTA and manganese acetate were used.
The second part includes a clinical study of metallo endopeptidase in the serum of individuals and patients with chronic renal failure. It has been shown that the normal value of metallo endopeptidase is (14.19±0.36)U/ml of the control group for both sexes, their ages ranged between (20-70) year. There was a significant increase in the enzyme activity (17.53±0.53)U/ml in the serum of the patients affected by chronic renal failure from both sexes. It was also obvious that enzyme activity was not effected in control and patients group by age, sex and smoking while the increase of activity was demonstrated with the increase of the disease's period as well as there was a significant increase in the enzyme activity in the patients affected by diabetes mellitus and hypertension and diabetes mellitus or heart diseases, aside from chronic renal failure .
A significant increase has been shown at urea, magnesium and potassium levels, while there was a significant decrease of total protein, albumin, calcium, zinc and sodium levels. However, no significant difference was noticed at globulin and copper levels for patient group compared with the control group.
Finally a linear correlation coefficient between the activity and each of the total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium and copper in the control group was observed, and a significant correlation between the activity and each of the total protein, globulin, zinc and copper in the patients group

Follow-up Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women

Farah Y. Mla-Alw; Luay A. Al-Helaly; Tareq Y. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 88-106
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6788

The research included a study of oxidative stress in healthy and hypertension pregnant women in Ninawa governorate through measuring (18) biochemical parameters. The study was carried out on (228) women (age 14 – 40 year). The normal pregnant women (186) divided into four groups (depending on weeks gestation 1-40 weeks) and (42) pregnant women complicated by hypertension at last period (31-40 weeks). Non pregnant women (29) were included in the study as control with similar age.
The group of normal pregnant women showed significant decrease concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, glutathione, uric acid, total bilirubin, zinc and iron, compared to the non-pregnant women. While there was a significant increase of : ceruloplasmin, peroxynitrite, malondialdehyde, and the activity of glutathione S-transferase.
The research also included a study of the effect of gestation period on the biochemical parameters for normal pregnancy. The results showed significant decrease with increase of gestation period of vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, glucose, albumin, iron, calcium and glutathione while there was significant increase of malondialdehyde, copper ceruloplasmin, and glutathione S-transferrase. The results also showed that the level of oxidative stress waere high in the last gestation period (31-40 week).
Moreover, the study showed the effect of the number of children on some biochemical parameters for normal pregnancy at last gestation period. The results reveald that there were direct correlation between the number of children and the concentrations of peroxynitrite and inverse correlation with the concentrations of calcium and the activity of superoxide dismutase.
On the other hand, the group of women pregnant which have complication with hypertension had significant decrease concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, glutathione, zinc and the activity of superoxide dismutase, and significant increase in the concentrations of uric acid, copper, peroxynitrite and in the activity of glutathione S-transferase compared to normal pregnant women

The Effect of Coating on Alloy AISI 304 at High Temperature on Fatigue Resistance

Moayad Mohammad; Yahya A. Salman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 107-118
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.30179

In This research the effect of metallic coating namely, aluminizing and chromizing on fatigue resistance of austinitic alloy AISI 304 has been studied. The metallic coating were conducted using a cementation method at 1000°C such coatings are used to protect the alloys in severe corrosion environments. The results obtained showed some small reduction in fatigue life of aluminized alloy when compared to a bare alloy, this reduction could be attributed to formation of intermetallic compound Fe- Al and Ni-AI on the surface of aluminized specimens. The intermetallic compound could be suffer a phase transformation when treated at 1050°C, as a result of rediffusion processes, that can be promoting the fatigue resistance. However a significant deteration in fatigue life were accounted for chromizing corresponds to formation of a brittle FeCr and NiCr solid solution on the specimens surface, although some small increases in fatigue life was also detected after heat treatments at 1050°C, this is could be belong to the rediffusion of chromium element down word through the specimen. Generally, both types of coatings leads to a phase transformation of the base alloy itself from austenite to ferrite, this transformation could be occurred either because of Ni depletion to contribute in the formation of surface layer ( coating matrix ), as in case of aluminizing, or because of significant increases of chromium concentration in the base alloy, as in the case of chromizing, which can also leads to formation of intergranular chromium carbides, the formation of chromium carbides can increases the brittleuess, as well as, can offards an easy way for crack propagation in fatigue test. However, the results proved that the best fatigue resistance was obtained, when a base alloy itself treated at 1050°C the slowly cooled to obtain a single form of austenitic phase .

Study of Spatial Variation of Total Solar Radiation Falling on Horizontal Surface in Iraq

Shaima H. Darweesh; Waleed I. Al-Rijabo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 8, Pages 119-134
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6794

Due to lack of studies concerning the spatial variation of total solar radiation falling on horizontal surface in Iraq , this give an importance to perform this research. A mathematical model was found in this study to estimate global solar radiation on plane surface as a function of relative humidity, mean air temperature and sun shine ratio, the model give a high accuracy on application .
Figures concerning the spatial variation of total solar radiation were found during the winter, spring, summer and autum months by using 17 meteorological stations spread over the whole Iraq .
Mean monthly values of total solar radiation over Iraq were in the range of (2307, 6842) W.d/m² during the months of the year .
Annual spatial variation of total radiation in Iraq show a gradually increase of total solar radiation from the north toward the south of Iraq.