Volume 22, Issue 6, Summer 2011, Page 1-121

Antifungal Activity of Nitroglycerin Against Some Species of Aspergillus

Mohammad K. Shindala

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6523

The results of present study showed, that nitroglycerin as a nitric oxide donor (NO) have antifungal activity against some species of the opportunistic pathogenic fungus Aspergillus depending on species of fungus and the concentration of drug in growth media . A . flavus was the most sensitive to nitroglycerin, it caused 44.45% and 59.25% inhibition of fungus growth when used in concentrations of 0.075 and o.15 mgml in growth medium respectively. Whereas, A. fumigatus seems to be less sensitive to drug, the inhibition percentages was 9.09% and 18.2% at the same previous concentrations respectively. The concentration 0.15 mgml was more inhibitory on growth of test fungi in compared to 0.075 mgml.

Isolation and Identification of Bacterial Species from House Fly Musca domestica Wings

Khansaa M. Al-Taee; Essra Gh. Alsammak

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 11-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6514

Seventy five house fly Musca domestica were collected from Mosul city, the higher account of isolated bacteria is 5.980 ×310 CFU/ ml from the body compare with right and left wings 5.78 × 310 and 5.6 × 310 CFU/ ml respectively . Species belonged to Bacillus cereus, Acinitobacter spp., Proteus vulgaris , Streptomyces spp. , Aeromonas spp., Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , isolated from the right wing while Lactobacillus spp. , Bacillus mycoides , Micrococcus roseus , Alcaligenes spp. , Neisseria spp. , Proteus vulgaris , Pseud. aeruginosa were isolated from the left wing.
The isolated species from the right and left wings shown diffrent antibacterial activities against the isolates of the same and the opposite wings. while the Streptomyces spp. isolated from the right and the Bacillus mycoides which isolated from the left wings shown effect on the most detected species under the study. The bacteriophage of the species belong to Acinitobacter spp., Proteus vulgaris , Micrococcus luteus , Alcaligenes spp. , Bacillus mycoides and Pseud. aeruginosa were isolated from the fly under the study.

Genetic Transformation of Sinorhizobium meliloti by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Plasmids Using Conjugation Technique

Jasim M.Y. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 22-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6529

The present study included isolation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria from the root nodules of Alfalfa plants, Transformation process was conducted by conjugation with transformed bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The results showed the efficiency of the process, where the antibiotic tests acquire two genetic labels, resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampicin on the conjugated strain, proved that Ti plasmid (Tumor-inducing Plasmid) transferred from the A. tumefaciens as well as that the conjugated strain produces melanin pigment. For more assurance, Alfalfa plants were inoculated with the conjugated strain, and the results showed the success of conjugation via crown gall formation on stem which formed by Ti plasmid in addition to root nodules in same plant. These results indicate the capability of performing conjugation technique between different species of Rhizobiaeceae to acquire new isolates carrying beneficial characteristics that are able to be transfer to plants and produce a new desired genetic transformed plants.

Antimutagenic Effects of the Alcoholic Extracts of Cyperus rotandus Tuber and Salvia officinalis Leaves in Aspergillus amstelodami

Gehaan M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 35-45
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31097

This study involved testing the antimutagenic effect of three concentrations of the alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotandus tuber and of Salvia officinalis leaves. The concentrations were (800, 900 and 1000) (500, 700 and 900) mg/ml respectively in conidia of fungus Aspergillus amstelodami. The antimutagenic action was tested by checking the ability of both extract to reduce the frequency of mutation resistant benomyl induced by nitrous acid, in the conidia treated with nitrous acid for 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The combination between the mutagen and the extract were tested by (Using extract after treating the conidia with mutagen E/N, using mutagen and extract together N+E). Alcoholic extract of both tuber Cyperus rotandus and leaves of Salvia officinalis reduced the mutagenicity of nitrous acid but to different extents.

Trichoderma Isolates Ability to Produce Cellulase Enzyme and it's Role as Resistance Inducer to FungusMacrophomina phaseolina

Nihal Y. Al-Murad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 46-59
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6522

The result of this study indicated that Trichoderma spp. culture filtrates have antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina where the isolate Tv1 gave the higher antagonistic activity with 66%. in addition to that the same isolates showed higher antibiosis activity with an average of 1 according to Bell scale, with reduced pH level in culture media while the isolate Thk20 recorded the higher biomass amount of 1.17 g/100 mL with sporeulation ability 7,58 /cm2. Trichoderma isolates showed significant differences in it's capacity to produce cellulase enzyme where the isolate TV1 produced the higher amount of enzyme 1,26 unit/g, followed by the isolates Tv2, Th1, Thk20 with 0.88, 0.28 , 0.28 unit/gm respectively. The result also showed that the ability of Trichoderma isolates to induce resistance in cowpea plants by raising in peroxidase activity to 1.52 unit /g f.w in Tv2 and in polyphenol oxidase activity with 3.03 in the same isolate treatment in addition to the pathogen with the isolate Thk20 recorded the higher amount of total phenols in plant 1.51 mg/g.f.w and 1.46 mg/g.f.w in the same isolate treatment in presence of the pathogen

The Applications of Al- Chrome Azurol S Color Reaction to Assay Mishraq Alum Purity and Fluoride in Tablet

Hanan H. Ahmad; Farha K. Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6530

In the present research, a spectrophotometric method is suggested as an alternative to the gravimetric method used to find mishraq alum purity. The method is based on the complex formation between aluminium ion and either Chrome Azurol S (CAS) or Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) to give colored products suitable for the determination of aluminium. The same reaction has been applied to the determination of fluoride in tablet, depending on the bleaching effect of fluoride on the formed aluminium colored complex. Statistical comparison of method has given satisfactory results

Isolation and Studying Cathepsin B Enzyme from Normal Human Serum

Rafad R. Saduon; Tareq Y. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 73-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6519

The work included the isolation of cathepsin B enzyme from normal human serum using different biochemical techniques which included: ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration chromatography on sephadex G-100. Furthermore, the comparative molecular weight of cathepsin B enzyme which is partially isolated from serum was found to be (24,000 ± 500 Da) by gel filtration chromatography.
The results also showed that the optimum conditions of cathepsin B enzyme activity were obtained using sodium phosphate (100 mmol/L) as a buffer at pH (6.0), at a temperature (40 ˚C) and (1 mmol/L) of BANA as a substrate. Using Linweaver Burk plot, it was found that Vmax and Km have the values of (346.20 U/L) and (0.489 mmol/L) respectively.
The results also showed that the activity of cathepsin B enzyme was increased using thiol compound. Cysteine showed a greater activation than β-mercaptoethanol. The activation of cathepsin B enzyme was greater in the presence of EDTA in the reaction mixture.
Finally, the effect of iodoacetate, calcium chloride, mercury chloride, zinc sulfate and potassium cyanide on the activity of cathepsin B was studied. These compounds showed strong inhibition on the activity of cathepsin B. The inhibition of cathepsin B by mercury chloride was irreversible type of inhibition at a concentration (0.01 mmol/L).

Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfasalazine by Coupling with Diazotized p-Nitroaniline - Application to Pharmaceutical Formulations

Nassim M. Hameed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 88-101
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6526

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of sulfasalazine has been developed. The method is based on the coupling reaction of sulfasalazine in basic medium with diazotized p-nitroaniline, to form a yellow – orange water soluble azo dye that shows maximum absorption at 452 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 5-700 µg of sulfasalazine in a final volume of 25 ml, i.e, (0.2-28 ppm) with a molar absorptivity of 2.88×104 1.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0138 µg. cm-2, a relative error of 0.99 to 1.0 % and a relative standard deviation of ±0.03 to ±1.09% depending on the concentration level. The proposed method has been applied to assay of sulfasalazine in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets).

Comparative Experimental Measurement Study of Void Fraction Using γ – Ray and Fast Neutrons

Hazim F. Mahmood; Salah A. Sheet

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 102-110
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6508

In this work we did a comparison for measurement of void fraction for steady state between two methods using γ – Ray with different energies and fast neutrons. The relative percentage of measurement by using neutron is less than of using γ – Ray.

Study of the Electrical Characteristics of Schottky Organic Semiconductor (n-Malachite green), Diode

Zahraa H. Ahmed; Ismail K. Abbas

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 111-121
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6520

In this research, Schottky diodes were fabricated using the pure organic semiconductor n- malachite green with thickness 1.43 m at room temperature. The electrodes and the ohmic contacts were Indium and aluminum respectively. These materials were deposited by vacuum evaporation process with thickness 1000Å. Current-Voltage characteristics were studied at room temperature in dark and light, and the sample showed the characteristic of schottky diode. The calculated value of ideal factor (n) is 3.3. We study the variation of conductivity with temperature in light from which the potential barrier (ΦBn) and activation energy (Ea) were calculated and their values are 1.71 and 0.22 eV at room temperature respectively. But at higher temperature their values are 1.18 and 0.368 eV respectively. Finally the series resistance (Rs) also had been calculated and its value is 2.09 kΩ.