Volume 22, Issue 2, Winter 2011, Page 1-141

Testing the Ability of Plasmid DNA Content in Bacteria Isolated from Wound and Burn Infections for Mobilization and Transfer Through Conjugation

Khalid D. Ahmad; Yousrah A. Al-Razaq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31570

Bacterial isolates from burn and wound infections were obtained from Mosul city hospitals. These isolates were identified depending on the basis of their morphological, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. The results showed that they belonged to klebsiella spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes. Conjugation between these bacteria and the laboratory E.coli (JM83) strain were carried out. Two crosses succeeded. They were, JM83 strain acting as a recipient with each of S.aureus (donar) and P.aeruginosa (donar) with exconjugant frequency of 0.091× 10-8 and 0.017× 10-7 respectively. In addition, cross between cured E.coli isolate as recipient with the bacteria that fail to conjugate with JM83 strain were performed and only one cross succeeded which is between cured E.coli and Ent-aerogenes with conjugation frequency 0.014× 10-7. In all these crosses the plasmid DNA encoding resistance to some antibiotics and heavy metals were transferred from donar to recipient bacteria through conjugation. Conjugation process was induced by ultraviolet light in those trials that fail to occur. Plasmid DNA concentrations in transconjugant and recipient bacterial cells support the occurrence of conjugation.

Isolation of Corn Seed Borne Fungi and Specification the Aflatoxigenic Species

Ryadh A. Al-Iraqi; Nadeem A. Ramadan; Ali A. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31585

Sixteen fungi were isolated from ten samples of stored corn grains , included Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus spp., Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. These fungi were found in high frequency whereas Cladosporium spp., Drechslera spp., Macrophomina spp., Mucor spp., Pythium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Stemphylium spp., were found in a lower proportions Among four identified species of the genus Aspergillus, ( A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. parasiticus) , the isolates of A. flavus produce AFB1 and AFB2 only , whereas those of A. parasiticus were non-aflatoxigenic .
The occurrence of aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus in the tested seed samples confirmed that these samples were contaminated with afltoxins. There was a relation between the level of aflatoxin in the grains and isolation percentage of A. flavus. The level of AF B1 ( 1.2-10 ng / gm ) was detected in seed samples ranged between 1.2 to 10 ng/g.

Study on Verticillium Wilt of Pistachio and its Control

Faisal A. Alrefaae; Ali K. Al-Taae; Huda H. Al-Taae

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 23-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31594

The present study was conducted on pistachio wilt, which recently spread in Iraq . Results of isolation and diagnosis showed that the pistachio wilt disease caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Identification was confirmed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to diagnose the pathogen using a specific pair of primers (FVD and RVD). The PCR results showed that V.dahliae Kleb is the causative agent of pistachio wilt disease in Iraq. The PCR produced two fragments bands of 330 bp as was expected for these two specific primers.
The results of chemical control indicated that the fungicide Beltanol had a surprising effect in reducing disease severity to 0.26n compared to 0.64 in the untreated samples, in addition to its significant effect on studied characteristics.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Stability Analysis for Durum Wheat Entries (Triticum durum Desf.)

Arshad T. AL-Nuaimi; Ahmed A. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 37-48
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31612

Eight durum wheat entries obtained from ICARDA were sown in three seed rates (120,150 and 180 kg/ha) using split plot arrangement according to randomized complete block design with three replications in season 2004 , phenotypic and genetic variances were significant for all traits at the seeding rates. Stability parameters for entries indicated that the entry Azul-5 responds to an un appropriate environments for the number of spikes/m2 and the number of grains/spike , the entry 1346/Lahn/Bcr/Lks4 respond to an un appropriate environments for 1000- grains weight.

Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Zinc on Yield and some Chemical and Mental Characters of Carthamus tinctoriaus L.

Anwar F. Thanon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32348

نفذت تجربة أصص في البيت البلاستيكي لدراسة تأثير رش الجبريلين بالمستويات 10 , 5 , 0 جزء بالمليون على المجاميع الخضرية لنباتات العصفر (Carthamus tinctorius L.) النامية في تربة ممزوجة بعنصر الزنك ذات المستويات المتزايدة 600 , 450 , 300 , 0 جزء بالمليون في الحاصل ومحتوى البذور من البروتين والكاربوهيدرات والتركيب المعدني لنبات العصفر .
ويظهر من النتائج أن إضافة عنصر الزنك إلى التربة وخاصة عند التركيز 300 جزء بالمليون أدى إلى تحسين الحاصل من خلال الزيادة في عدد البذور / رأس ووزن الحاصل البايولوجي / نبات كما أدت المعاملة إلى حصول زيادة معنوية في محتوى بذور نبات العصفر من البروتين والكاربوهيدرات مقارنة بالمعاملات الأخرى. في حين أظهرت النتائج أن رش نباتات العصفر بمنظم النمو الجبريلين وخاصة التركيز 10 جزء بالمليون أدى الى حصول زيادة في تركيز ايونات الكالسيوم والمغنسيوم والصوديوم والبوتاسيوم للبذور وكذلك زيادة في وزن الحاصل البايولوجي بينما أدت إضافة عنصر الزنك بالتراكيز العالية 600 جزء بالمليون إلى حصول انخفاض في عدد الرؤوس والبذور / نبات وانخفاض ملحوظ في تركيز البروتين والكاربوهيدرات والتركيب المعدني ، كما أدى الرش بالمستويات المتزايدة من الجبريلين على المجاميع الخضرية للنباتات النامية تحت ظروف التلوث بالزنك لاسيما المستوى 600 جزء بالمليون إلى تحسين النمو والحاصل ومكوناته الكيميائية وإنتاجية البروتين .
ولقلة الدراسات عن الآلية التنظيمية بين تأثير التلوث بالمعادن الثقيلة في التثبيط وتأثيرات مركبات اخرى مثل الجبريلين في التحفيز فقد جاءت هذه الدراسة لتقييم تأثير الرش بمستويات مختلفة من حامض الجبريليك للمجاميع الخضرية لنباتات العصفر في تربة ملوثة بعنصر الزنك في النمو والتحمل والحاصل والتركيب الكيميائي وإنتاجية البروتين والكاربوهيدرات .

Alkaline Phosphatase and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Serum, Amniotic Fluid and Placenta of Pregnant Women in Ninavah Governorate

Raja A. Al-Taii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 68-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32360

The present study included estimation of the alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activity in 60 samples of blood, amniotic fluid and placenta of pregnant women which entered labouring unit in Al-Batol teaching hospital in Ninavah Governorate whose ages between 17-40 years, the data were collected using special questionnaire form.
The results showed a significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphotase and acid phosphotase in blood serum, amniotic fluid and placenta in both age groups 21-30 and 31-40 years, while there was significant change in age group 17-20 years, compared with control group. The results also showed a significant increase in the enzymes activity in blood serum, amniotic fluid and placenta of hypertensive and diabetic pregnant women compared with control group.

Detection of some Alkaloids and Fatty Acids to Plant and Callus of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L . )

Mira A. Al – Katib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 77-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32381

The study results showed that the best supporter media for callus induction from local purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) stems and leaves sterile explants , those MS media(Murashige and Skoog medium) supporting with hormone regulators BA(Benzyl adenine), NAA(Naphthalene Acetic Acid) in concentrations 1.0 , 2.0 , 4.0 , mg/L from each of them as well as MS medium containing BA : NAA in 2:1 mg/L respectively , and the callus was inculcation during 15-20 day . The result of separating alkaloids from callus of stems and leaves and shoots of plant showed in Infrared Spectrophotometer technique (IR) separating of Oleracein B and Oleracein D that degree in purity and the best of it appear in stems callus extract . when Thin Layer Chromatography Technique (TLC) was made for extracted alkaloids , Rate of Flow (Rf) values appeared very comparatively to these samples (0.77, 0.82, 0.80) to each of stems callus alkaloid, leaves callus alkaloid and plant alkaloid respectively , then retention time record for it , and main band recognized in plant alkaloid at 4.755 min , also 4.646 min and 4.657 min in stems callus alkaloid and leaves callus alkaloid respectively by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique , that result prove of Oleraceins (B, D) occurrences in samples of purslane . The fatty acids which occur in purslane plant , calli of stems and leaves are detect by using Capillary Gas Chromategraph (CGC) technique , the plant extract showed 12 fatty acids in it , but in low concentration compared with that appear in leaves callus extract for most fatty acids especially omega – 3 fatty acid (C18: 3) , when the stems callus extract record the lower ratio of fatty acid occurrences that it was 3 fatty acids only (C16: 0 , C16: 1, C18: 1).

The Estimates of Heritability and Expected Genetic Advance by Using Analysis Generation Variances of Self – fertilizing Generations in Bread Wheat

Manal A. Hayalye

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 100-108
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32392

Four generations (F2 , F3 , Bs5 and Bs3) of two crosses in bread wheat , the first (S3- 69, S6 – 35) and the second (Germany X pandas), were used to study the components of variances , average degree of dominance , heritability and expected genetic advance form selction in the generations F2 , F3 , B1s and B2s for the quantitative traits : grain yield , number of per spikes , weight of 100 grains and number of grains per spike . The results of this study showed that the polygenes revealed over dominance for :
(1) number of spikes and weight of 100 grains in the two crosses . (2) grain yield and number of grains per spike in the first cross .
Broad and narrow sense heritabilities and expected genetic advance were high magnitude for some traits in the studied generations . Selection could used in the four generations to increase the frequency of desirable alleles for weight of 100 grains in the two crosses and recurrent selection could suggested to increase the frequency of desirable alleles for other traits .

Classification Key to Species of Culex (Culex) (Diptera: Culicidae ) in the North of Aleppo - Syria

Durriah B. Arjoon; Yahia Assany; Mohamed Abiad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 109-126
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32406

The study was conducted in the north of Aleppo / Syria, and several sites for the development of key classification of the types of normal Culex spp, a total 2811 were collected by light traps with CO2, it were recorded five species which belong to genus Culex: Culex Culex pipiens, Culex Culex antennatus, Culex Culex laticinctus, Culex Culex perexiguus, Culex Culex thieleri.
It had excerpted Classification key to the species of Culex in the north of Aleppo- Syria based on taxonomic characters of the body morphology and male genitalia.

Predictive about the Genetic Effect of Salvia officinalis Extracts on the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Fadeya M. Al-Hyaly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 127-141
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32426

The study aimed to detected of the ability extract hot water and alcohol extract of plant Salvia officinalis to cause genetic effects on Eukaryotic cells, by indicating the ability of these extract to induce genetic mutation in the conidia of fungus Aspergillus amstelodami using three mutation methods, pretreatment method, growth mediated method and plate incorporation method, the study didn’t record any mutagenic effect at four sub lethal concentration 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/ml of hot water extract and 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 mg/ml of alcoholic extract and through the study of alcoholic extract at concentration of 0.9 mg/ml in calculating mitotic index of the division stages of onion root after 24-84 hours period of exposure, the study didn’t record any effect on the chromosomal group during division stages and the chromosomal shape and this assure the safety of using Salvia officinalis in the different life styles.