Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 22, Issue 4

Volume 22, Issue 4, Spring 2011, Page 1-156


Effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM) in Blood Sugar Contrition and Some Biochemical Parameters in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Male Rats

Wadah J. Mohammed; Waleed M. Sheet; Salh M. Rahim; Mousa J. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31232

This study was designed to examine the effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM) in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein ( HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), vary low density lipoprotein (VLDL), alanine amenotransferase (ALT), aspartate amenotransferase (AST) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and these results were compared with the effect of Glibenclamide as control chemical drug.
The results of this study showed that diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan for 30 days caused a significant increase in concentration of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), vary low density lipoprotein (VLDL), alanine amenotransferase (ALT), aspartate amenotransferase AST levels. While significantly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL).
The results of this study reveled that administration of (EM) produced asignificant decreased in glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, vary low density lipoprotein, alanine amenotransferase, aspartate amenotransferase. While significantly increased high density lipoprotein levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Also the results referred that the effect of EM was best the effect of the control chemical drug glibenclamide in its activity.

Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride Crude Extracts Effect on Species of Trichophyton which Caused Skin Human Disease

Omar M. Al-Obaidy; Maha A. Al-Rijabo

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 16-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31237

Two Trichoderma species (T.harzianum and T.viride) were used in this study, in which the crude extracts of these fungi were extracted and tested (with compared ketoconazole) at the concentrations 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml against different species of the human pathogenic fungi Trichophyton, the results showed a huge inhibition activities of these extracts against the tested fungi with some differences in the ratio of inhibition also when compared with ketoconazole, but the results showed that the crude extract of T.harzianum showed the greatest inhibiting activities toward the tested fungi especially at the concentrations 1 and 2 mg/ml, in which the ratio of inhibition reached 100% at the concentration of 2mg/ml against all the tested fungi, and this extract must be take many test to could be used as one of the most active and potent biological control means against the human pathogenic fungi.

Study the Effect of Boiled Aqueous Extract of Trigonella foenum graceum on some Bacterial Species

Nareman S. Nasir

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 28-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31246

The study includes the inhibitory effect of boiled aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graceum seed on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and E. coli (In vitro) and on E. coli (In vivo).
Result revealed an inhibitory effect of the extract on all the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this extract on E. coli was shown to be 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for each of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.
Also an in vivo evaluation of the extract in healing of experimental inflection models was studied. Results showed that the extract had considerable impact in healing, E. coli wound infection within 17 days as compared with the control group in which gentamycin was used

The Purification of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) and Preparation of its Antiserum

Fadl Y. Abbo; Nabeel A. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31298

Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) was diagnosed on corn crop in Ninewah province by using tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA). The virus isolate was propagated in corn plants. The virus was purified by differential centrifugation and precipitated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and then by sucrose density gradient. The efficiency of purification method was evaluated biologically and spectrometrically, and virus purity was 1.12 . Its antiserum was prepared by using rabbit, the end the dilution point ( titer ) of antiserum was 1/ 512. The efficiency of antiserum was tested by agglutination, and agar double diffusion tests .

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

Propagation of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Plant by Tissues Culture

Sajida A. Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31505

The role of some growth regulators in the initiation and callus growth from seedling's stem explants of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) was carried out.Benzyladenine (BA) was used at concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg/l, while Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and Indolebutyric acid (IBA) for each were used at various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg/l.
The result indicated that the best medium for growth callus was the MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l BA, depending on callus fresh weight after 90days of growth. The addition of 3% of sucrose to MS medium stimulated the initiation of callus well.
Moreover, shoot development occurred on callus grown on medium containing BA (1.5mg/l) after 70 days of growth. The differentiated callus was subcultured on hormone-free medium and then the plants developed can be readily transferred to the soil after harding

chlorpromazine , determination, 2,2`-bipyridyl, spectrophotometry

Wael A. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 79-93
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31510

This paper describes the development of a spectrophotometric method for the determination of chlorpromazine hydrochloride drug via oxidation reduction method which based on the reduction of iron (III) by the chlorpromazine hydrochloride to iron(II) which gives a soluble colored complex when reacts with the reagent 2,2`-bipyridyl at room temperature having maximum absorption at 521 nm against reagent blank. Beer´s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 2.5 to 300 µg/25 ml with an apparent molar absorptivity of 1.054 x 104 l.mol-1cm-1 and Sandell`s sensitivity of 0.033 µg.cm-2. The relative error is ranged from -0.1 to -1.66% and relative standard deviation from ±0.2 to ±1.37% . The method has been applied successfully to the determination of chlorpromazine hydrochloride in two dosage forms : tablets and ampoules. Additives and excipients normally found in dosage forms do not interfere

Differential Pulse Polarographic Determination of Furosemide (lasimex) in Human Serum and Urine

Fanar M. Al-Healy

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 94-110
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31530

The present work involves a study of the polarographic behavior of pure Furosemide(lasimex) by direct method in aqueous solution , which gives a two well defined reduction peaks, the main peak at a potential (-0.196) volts and the other small peak at (-0.236) volts in phosphate buffer (pH=3).The calibration of Furosemide was constructed in phosphate buffer (pH=3) the calibration curves in the potential (-0.196) volts were observed in the range of concentration (6.8310-5 - 9.9010-5) M with a correlation coefficient (0.9884), and second in the range of concentration (10.5110-5-12.3410-5) M with a correlation coefficient (0.9919).
The calibration curve of Furosemide in the presence of human blood serum was studied in the potential (-0.187) volts and range concentration of current (7.4410-5-15.3810-5) M with a correlation coefficient (0.9971).
The calibration curve of Furosemide in presence of urine in the potential (-0.084) volt and range of concentration (7.4210-5-12.3110-5) M with a correlation coefficient (0.9960).
The method was successfully applied to the determination of Furosemide in tablets in aqueous solution and in the presence of valium voltammetrically with out interferences.

Qualitative and Quantitive Analysis of Amino Acids Isolated from Protein of Phoenix dactylifera and Determination of Molecular Weight by Gel Filtration (part I)

Dina I. M. Al-Sawaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 111-128
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31535

The research was concerned with Amino Acid Analysis of the protein isolated from the crude aqueous extract of ground date seeds Phoenix dactylifera.
Two types of analysis acidic and basic hydrolysis were performed for
(72 hours). Acidic hydrolysis showed absence of some amino acids and a decrease in the intensity of the peaks. On the other hand, basic hydrolysis showed higher intensity of peaks for the same aqueous extract.
The research also involved separation of the proteinous components from the aqueous extract of ground date seeds Phoenix dactylifera. Three major proteins
(a, b, c) were isolated and their molecular weight were determined by gel filtration and showed the following values (>2000000, 45000, 251) Dalton Respectively

Isolation and Studying some Extracts, Protenious and non-protenious Compounds from Sweet Majorum (Origanum majorana) in Mice Exposed to Oxidative Stress

Sakena H. Rashed

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 129-144
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31544

This study was designed to prepare cold aqueous extracts of Origanum majorana fruits, and isolation of alkaloid and flavonoids extracts. The study also comprised the isolation and studying the proteinous compounds, using gel filtration technique. Two compounds were separated A (233646 M.wt) Dalton and B(1032 M.wt) Dalton from the cold proteinous precipitate.
The effects of these extracts and the compounds previous mentioned above were studied on serum glucose and total cholesterol. Also glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver, kidney and heart tissues in mice exposed to oxidative stress. The extracts were administrated intraperitoneally .
After one week from the treatment, the results were indicated that the cold crude aqueous, non-proteinous extracts, alkaloids, flavonoids, proteinous precipitate and proteinous compound B which was isolated from it at the doses of (400, 400, 0.51, 0.33, 10.15, 2.58) mg/kg body weights caused a significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum glucose, total cholesterol and MDA level in liver, kidney and heart tissues, also caused significant increase (p<0.05) in GSH level in liver, kidney and heart tissues in male mice exposed to oxidative stress. The study concluded that most Origanum Majorana extracts have antioxidant effect in mice exposed to oxidative stress .

Fabrication and Study the Optical Properties for Methyl Green Gelatin Filter

Ismail K. Abbas; Soory A. Daher

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 145-156
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31553

In this work, an optical wratten gelatin filter was fabricated then its optical properties have been calculated, such as the filter thickness, aging, effect of protection glass plates, dye concentration and the period of mixing the gelatin with distill water at selective temperature. From this investigation, it was found that the best gelatin concentration is 4%, also the preferable mixing time of gelatin with water is 20 min. The preferable thickness is 0.01 cm at temperature 313 K. The drying temperature is 298 K for period 20-24 hr. the optical characteristic of our filter is in good agreement with that standard filters