Volume 22, Issue 3, Spring 2011, Page 1-68

Antifungal Activity of Pomegranate and Oak Galls Extracts Against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger

Abdulilah S. Ismaeil; Musa I. Taha; Abdul-ghany O. Sarmamy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31130

Different factorial experiments were conducted during 2008-2009 in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, University of Salahaddin-Erbil, to determine the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and oak gall (Quercus infectoria L.) at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of raw extracts to control Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger after 48, 96 and 168 hours of incubation, using completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. The results revealed that all the plant extract concentrations used were effective against the two fungi. Ethanol extracts were more efficient against the growth of mycelia of the two fungi than aqueous extracts. Penicillium spp. was more sensitive to the plant extracts of pomegranate and oak gall more than Aspergillus niger. There were significant interactions between time of incubation and plant extract concentrations in their effects on the growth of mycelia. The two fungi renewed part of their activity after 168 hours of application of plant extracts.

Study of some Hydrolytic Enzymes in Sera and Saliva of Patients with Oral Epithelial Tumors

Rukzan M. Dawood; Hathama R. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 11-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31140

The present study was designed to investigate the changes in the activity and specific activity of some hydrolytic enzymes like - amylase, alkaline and acid RNase in sera and saliva of patients with oral epithelial tumors (benign and malignant). Then follow up the variation of these enzymes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique to evaluate the changes of these isoenzymes due to the presence of the tumors.
Thirty three patients with oral tumors (benign and malignant) aged from 15-75 years attending the specialized surgery hospital in Baghdad medical city, were included in the present study. Thirty one healthy individuals of matched age and gender were utilized as control. The results indicated the presence of highly significant increase (P> 0.001)of sera alk. RNase activity (U/L) in both benign and malignant groups in comparison to that of control. The specific activity results (U/mg) showed also a significant increase (P> 0.05) in both benign and malignant groups. The results of acid RNase activity and specific activity reflected a non significant increase in both benign and malignant groups. The salivary amylase activity (U/L) and specific activity (U/mg) showed significant decrease (P> 0.001) in malignant group, whereas the sera amylase activity and specific activity revealed a non significant increase in both benign and malignant groups.

Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Workers Exposed to Pollutants

Luay A. Al-Helaly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31150

The study was conducted in Mosul city to show the effect of pollutants on some antioxidant enzymes which included: catlase (CAT.), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The study included (153) persons represented in four groups, three of which were subjected directly to different pollutants (petroleum station workers (n= 37), workers in x-ray diagnosis (n=39) and cement production workers (n=33)). The fourth group as a control included outside city center living (n=44).
The results showed a significant decrease for CAT and GPx enzymes in all groups incomparison with control group. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in GST with petroleum station and cement workers. For SOD, the results revealed a significant increase in workers of x-ray diagnosis , but a decrease non significantly in other groups.
In addition, the increase of period of pollution, produced a decrease in CAT for all groups except in petroleum station workers and workers in x-ray diagnosis. Moreover a decrease in GST, SOD and GPx for all different pollutant groups were observed.
In conclusion, an increase exposure of different pollutants led to an increase in the oxidative stress in workers which decreased the antioxidant enzymes levels. This behaviors might give an indication for the oxidation that take place in exposed persons.

Preparation of Potassium Dicitro Bismuthate Complex as Antigastric Ulcer

Amer A. Taqa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31158

The present study was designed to synthesis potassium dicitro bismuthate (III) complex. The complex was characterized by infrared spectra, conductivity and elemental analysis of Bi. The effect of gastro protection was investigated for the prepared complex against HCl- ethanol induced ulcer in rats. The complex was administered to rats at 50 and 100 mgkg doses orally before one hour of receiving 0.2ml of HCl- ethanol mixture to induce gastric ulcer. Sucralfate (100mg kg, orally) was used as standard drug. The severity of gastro mucosal damage induced by HCl-ethanol was analyzed in term of ulcer index value. Administration of potassium dicitro bismuthate (III) one hour before HCl-ethanol had significantly decreased ulcer index value when compared to saline treated group. Sucralfate (100mgkg, orally) also produced a significant decrease in ulcer index when compared with the saline treated group. There was no significant difference between potassium dicitro bismuthate (III) and Sucralfate in degree of protection against ulcer. Thus it can be concluded that potassium dicitro bismuthate (III) has antiulcer activity in rats.

Geometrical Effects on the XRF Spectrometer Data Validity Using Hypothetical 20 keV Photon Source

Sabeeh K. Shamoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 50-57
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31161

The factors associated with source – sample – detector geometry and radiation absorption by 2 cm in diameter circular carbon samples on the x-ray fluorescence spectrometer data validity is studied. Radiation coming out from various parts of the sample may not share in equal manner to the detector signal if the geometry is not calculated correctly. This case may also arise if a sample is not homogeneous, so if correct geometry is designed the decision on sample homogeneity can be made. Carbon samples of 30 mg/cm2 are supposed and suitable distance from 20 keV hypothetical photon source and detector were found in a search to solve the geometry problem.

Theoretical Study of Energy Gap for Silicon and Germanium Under High Pressure

Adnan M. AL-Sheikh; Khaled S. Hameed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 58-68
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31189

In this study the energy gap (Eg) for both silicon and germanium under high pressure and different temperatures is evaluated using two approaches. One of them by evaluating the gradient of (Eg) with pressure (dEg/dP), and with temperature (dEg/dT) under different pressures. The other, by using different equation of state (Birch-Murnaghan, Misra-Goyal, Vinet and modified Lennard-Jones) to evaluate the variation of lattice constant with pressure, and then evaluate the variation of (Eg) with pressure.