Volume 22, Issue 7, Autumn 2011, Page 1-132

An Experimental Trial of Vaccination Hamsters Against Leishmania donovani Using Attenuated Subcultures

Kawther I. Al-Harmni

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6801

This experiment is a trail to use an attenuated Leishmania donovani promatigote as a mean for protection the hamsters against visceral leishmniasis. By subculturing the promastigotes from 1-18 times in NNN media, it was found that subcultures 16, 17 ,18 were effective in protecting the hamsters against challenge dose of the parasites.

Effect of Black Seed Alkaloids Against some Pathogenic Bacteria

Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6800

Alkaloids were separated from black seed by using two type of solvents; ethanol and chloroform, we obtained two fractions of alkaloid (A1 and A2). Separated fractions were tested in different concentrations 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 mg/ml against four types of bacteria
( Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus, E. coli and Pseudomonas spp.). The results showed that both fractions of alkaloid have antibacterial activity against tested bacteria but the effect of A1 was more than A2 and Gram positive bacteria were more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria, the inhibition zone increased by increasing concentration of alkaloid in all tested bacteria.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Different Meat Juices

Ehsan G. Zakaria

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 17-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6804

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide and it is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, humans can get infected post-naturally either by uptake of sporulated toxoplasma oocysts or by ingestion of tissue cysts upon consumption of raw or undercooked meat.
The study included cattle, sheep and chicken of different age groups and housing conditions whenever possible and applicable. Direct Latex Agglutination test was used to detect T. gondii specific antibodies and to determine seroprevalences in meat juice of slaughtered animals. The total samples are 300 of domestic animals (cattle, sheep and chicken 100 samples each of them).
The results of Latex agglutination test are positive in 17% of cattle, 37% of sheep and 9% of chicken from meat juice. The examination of specific IgG and IgM antibodies was detected by Hydroxy ethylmercaptan (2-ME) test with used of meat juices and Compound of 2- Hydroxy ethylmercaptan which appear in cattle 17.9% of IgM and 82.1% IgG, in sheep 16.2% of IgM and 83.8% IgG and in chicken 11.1% of IgM and 88.9% IgG.
The aim of this study was to approximate the risk of human infection via meat consumption by estimating the seroprevalence of T. gondii in slaughtered animals in Hamdania.

Neural Cell Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Human Umbilical Cord Blood: In Vitro

Aveen A. Mohammed Ameen; Delveen R. Ibrahim; Intissar N. Waheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 26-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6803

Human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as valuable source for cell transplantation and cell therapy. These cells in their undifferentiated state are fibroblast – like in morphology, and these cells when treated with retinoic acid, or epidermal growth factor, rapidly assumed the morphology of multipolar neurons. The resulting differentiated cells express nestin marker, a neurofilament protein that is one of the most specific markers of multipotent neural stem cells. In conclusion, the present findings support the hypothesis that cord blood contains MSCs that can be induced to differentiate into neuronal pathway and express neuronal marker.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrazepam by Coupling of Diazotized Reduced Nitrazepam with N-(1-naphthyl)ethyl-enediamine Dihydrochloride

Imad Y. Hasan; Yousra M. Al-Shaker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 39-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6790

A simple, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of nitrazepam in pure form. The method is based on the reduction of nitrazepam by zinc powder in concentrated hydrochloric acid medium followed by diazotization of reduced nitrazepam and coupling with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDA) to give a pink coloured product which is stable, water-soluble and has a maximum absorption at 564 nm with a molar absorptivity of 1.633×103 l.mol-1.cm-1. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10 to 500 μg of nitrazepam in a final volume of 25 ml.

Effect of Serum Zinc Concentration Amongst Pregnant Women in Mosul

Wael Abd-Alkader; Luma M. Tohala; Bassam E. Hanna

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 51-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6802

The study was conducted in Mosul during the period from february to april 2009 including non-married and pregnant group composed of 35 and 105 apparently healthy women respectively, pregnant group were subdivided equally according to their trimester into three subgroups, women in second and third trimester are having ferrous sulphate in their ingestion. Serum zinc measurement were done for these groups of women.
The results showed that serum zinc concentration start to reduce significantly during second trimester continue to decline in third trimester in comparison with non-married group. Therefore, it is recommended to measure serum zinc during pregnancy with use of optimal dose of zinc supplemental therapy.

Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some New Fused Cyclic Sulfoxides

Tahani W. Jihad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 62-74
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6796

A series of diarylidine cyclohexanones (1-12t) have been prepared via Clasien-Schmidt reaction and condensed with dimethyl sulphoxide through Michael-Claisen condensation to afford the corresponding fused heterocycles (13-24t), The structures of the products were elucidated by the spectrum (UV, IR, 1H-NMR). The suggested mechanisms for these reactions were investigated according to theoretical calculations, heat of formation (H.F.) and the steric energy (S.E.). Furthermore some of the products have been tested for their biological activity (antibacterial).

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Acetylhydrazones

Hala M. Al-Shakrge; Mohammed J. Mohammed; Abdul-ghany M. Al-Daher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 75-84
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6797

Complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) with p-tolualdehyde acetyl hydrazone (TAH), p- anisaldehyde acetyl hydrazone (AAH) and 2- furylaldehyde acetyl hydrazone (FAH) of the types [ML2Cl2] where L=TAH and AAH and [M(FAH)2]Cl2 were synthesized. The complexes were characterized on the basis of analytical molar conductance, molecular weight, magnetic moment, infrared and electronic spectra. From the elemental analysis and molecular weight data 1:2 (metal : ligand) was proposed. The molar conductance measurements showed that TAH and AAH complexes were non-electrolytes and FAH complexes were 1:2 electrolytes in DMF and DMSO. The magnetic moment coupled with the electronic spectra suggested an octahedral geometry for all the complexes .
IR spectral studies indicated that TAH and AAH functions as neutral bidentate ligands via carbonyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms while FAH act as neutral tridentate ligand coordinated through furan ring oxygen atom in addition to carbonyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms.

Theoretical Study of the Reaction of some Amino Alkyl Bromides with Hydrosulfite Ion in Acidic and Basic Media

Abdul Majeed M. Dabbagh; Kasim Y. Rahawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 85-96
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6786

Thermodynamic parameters of amino alkyl bromide with hydrogen sulfite ion have been investigated using computational methods in both acidic and basic medium. A semi-empirical method AM1 are performed to investigate the mechanism and factors affecting on the reaction route in both medium. The results led to the estimation of heat of formation and steric energy for reacting amines, transition states, intermediates and products. Our investigations have shown that the reaction process is affected by electronic factors and steric crowding . It is clarified that these factors play important role in the stability of the intermediates and is consistent with the previously proposed mechanism

Spectrophotometric Determination of Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 4-Aminoantipyrine in the Presence of Potassium Periodate

Safaa A. Zakaria

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 97-108
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6805

A simple spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of oxymetazoline hydrochloride (OMCl) as pure and in its pharmaceutical preparations.
The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction of OMCl with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-A.A.P) in the presence of potassium periodate as oxidizing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a coloured water soluble product that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 480 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in a concentration range 20 -400g OMCl/20 ml with a molar absorptivity of 5.34 x 103 1.mol-1.cm-1, a relative error of -0.50 to -1.47% and a relative standard deviation of ± 0.36 to ± 1.58%, depending on the concentration level. The optimum conditions for full colour development are described and the proposed method was applied successfully to the assay of OMCl in two pharmaceutical preparations

Synthesis and Characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) Complexes with 2-Furaldehyde-2- Thenoylhydrazone

Ibraheem A. Al-Qassar; Abdul-Ghany M. Al-Daher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 109-120
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6793

Three types of Metal(II) complexes with hydrazone derived from condensation of thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and 2-furaldehyde namely 2-furaldehyde-2-thenoylhydrazone (fth) of the general formulas [M (fth-H)2],[M(fth)2 Cl2] and [M(fth)2] (NO3)2, where M= Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II), were synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, infrared and electronic spectral data.
The infrared and molar conductance data of the complexes reveal the monobasic tridentate ONO nature of the ligand and coordination through the enolate oxygen, furan ring oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms, in the complexes [M(fth-H2)] upon deprotonation of the ligand. The same ligand acts as neutral bidentate ON in the chloro-complexes coordinated through the carbonyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms and neutral tridentate ONO in the nitrate complexes coordination through carbonyl oxygen and furan ring oxygen atoms in addition to the azomethine nitrogen atom. The magnetic and electronic spectral data suggested an octahedral geometry for the complexes.

Determination of Meloxicam in Pharmaceutical Formulation byAzo-Coupling Reaction with Sulphanilic Acid Using Both Batch and Flow- Injection Technique

Aveen F. Jallal; Shirwan O. Baban

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 121-132
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6798

Two sensitive and fast spectrophotometric methods were used by batch and flow-injection spectrophotometric techniques for the determination of meloxicam are proposed. The methods were based on azo-coupling reaction of meloxicam with sulphanilic acid in the presence of sodium nitrite in alkaline medium after converted to primary aromatic amine. The calibration curves resulting from measuring the absorbance at 365 nm are linear over the ranges 1.0-20 and 3.0-30µg/ml with detection limits of 0.5 and 1.0µg/ml, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell index were 1.3839×104l/mol.cm and 2.539×10-2µg/cm2 respectively. The methods are applied to the routine analysis of meloxicam in pharmaceutical formulations.