Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 21, Issue 2

Volume 21, Issue 2, Winter 2010, Page 1-84


The Effect of Cypermethrin and/or Cyhalothrin on the Histological Structure of the Testis of Albino Rats

Falah M. Aziz; Haifa A. Bakr

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38217

The present investigation dealt with the study of the effect of (1/10LD50) cypermethrin and /or cyhalothrin (two pyrethroids) on the histological structure of albino rat testis. Paraffin and plastic methods were used for this investigation. The histological alterations included atrophy of seminiferous tubules, depletion in the germinal layers and widening of interstitial space. Mixture of both pyrethroids showed synergistic effect with respect to above alterations, while cyhalothrin showed higher effect than cypermethrin. Large sized vacuoles were detected in the interstitial space. The most characteristic feature of the seminiferous tubules of the mixture treated rats was the appearance of multinucleated giant cells.

Evaluation of Anti- Ulcer Activity of Tripotassium Dicitro Bismuthate (TDB) in Mice

Ghada A. Taqa

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38231

Bismuth compounds have been used in medicine for more than 200 years to treat gastrointestinal tract disorders . Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the gastroprotective effects of Tripotassium Dicitro Bismuthate (TDB) against HCl- ethanol induced ulcer in mice. The drug was administered to mice at 50 and 100 mgkg doses orally before one hour of receiving 0.2ml of HCl- ethanol mixture to induce gastric ulcer. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg, orally )was used as standard drug . The severity of gastromucosal damage induced by HCl-ethanol was analyzed in term of ulcer index value. Pretreatment with TDB (50, 100 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in ulcer index value and increased protection against gastric ulcer when compared to saline treated group. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg, orally) also produced a significant decrease in ulcer index when compared with the saline treated group. There was no significant difference between TDB and Sucralfate in degree of protection against ulcer. Thus it was concluded that TDB has antiulcer activity in mice.

Effects of Folic Acid, N-acetyl Cysteine and Insulin and their Combinations on Ovarian Histology in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Pregnant Rats

Hamad J. Jumaa; Kusai A. Al-Chalabi; Lana S. Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 16-23
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38242

In this study, 192 healthy pregnant rats weighting about 200-250 grams were used. The animals were housed under standard laboratory condition (12h dark and 222 C). The animals were given standard rat pellets and tap water ad libtium.
Normal female rats mated with normal males. The first day of gestation was detected through vaginal smear for sperms of vaginal plug. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg of alloxan. After four days, rats with blood glucose more than 200 mg/dl were considered as alloxan induced diabetic pregnant, and they were distributed to three periods (1-7, 8-14 and 15-22) days of gestation. Diabetic pregnant rats at each period were divided to eight groups. First group supplemented with standard diet which respect negative control, while the rest groups were treated with 100mg/kg alloxan subcutaneously. In addition to alloxan, third group was treated with 250mg/kg folate and 4 I.U. insulin subcutaneously, group four was daily injected with 7.5mg/kg folate and 4 I.U. insulin subcutaneously, group five was supplemented with 250mg/kg folate, group six was daily injected with 4 I.U. insulin subcutaneously, group seven was supplemented with 0.1% N-acetyl cysteine and 4 I.U. insulin and the rats of the last group were supplemented with 0.1% N-acetyl cysteine. Ovarian sections were prepared during each week of gestation.
Histological examination of ovarian sections revealed less multiple follicles in all treatment groups as compared with positive control. Hemorrhage was seen in folic acid (0.25 mg/kg) and insulin and with n-acetyl cysteine and insulin treated groups. Infiltration of eosinophils was seen in folic acid (250 mg/kg) and insulin groups. From these results it was concluded that the histological sections showed decreasing ovarian follicle number in all treatment groups as compared with positive control.

Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Status and some Blood Components in β-Thalassemia

Owayes M. Al-Hassany

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 24-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38253

Information pertaining to the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status of patients with β-thalassemia has been scantly. We report here the results of our efforts in evaluation of some biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, renal function and ferritin in sera and some blood component such as Red blood cell count, estimation of hemoglobin, packet cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of a group who have β-thalassemic major (n=25). As a result of the research serum malondialdehyde (MDA), ferittin, concentration of serum urea and creatinine levels in these patients were found to be increased significantly when compared to the disease free control (p≤0.05). Conversely levels of reduce glutathione and vitamin C shown to be decreased as compared to the control group (n=15). The blood component measurement in this study showed significantly decrease comparing with the control group.

Plasmids of Pseudomomas aeruginosa Bacteria Isolated from Various Human Infections

Adel K. Khader; Khalid D. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 33-43
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38309

The isolated bacteria of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients suffering from various infections in Erbil city hospitals were identified depending on the basis of morphological, cultural characters and biochemical tests. Genetic transformation of the laboratory Escherichia coli K-12 (JM83 strain) by the plasmids isolated from P. aeruginosa bacteria showed that the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, gentamycin , nalidixic acid, rifampicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, mercury chloride and the gelatinase enzyme production are located on plasmid DNA molecules, but genes coding for lincomycin resistance and pyocyanin production are on chromosomal DNA of these bacteria. The results obtained were supported by gel electrophoresis and plasmid curing experiments.

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of some New Chromene Derivatives

Shaymaa K. Younis

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 44-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38319

An efficient synthesis of some new 4-(benzo [d] -1,3-dioxo-5-yl)-[2,3-c]-N-aryl pyrolo-1,3-dione-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[h] chromene derivatives (4a-h) via Diels-Alder reaction of 2-piperonylidene-1- tetralone (1) and N- aryl maleimides (3a-h) under microwave irradiation was described.
The yield have been improved (- 84 92%) and the reaction time reduced from hours to few minutes through the use of dichloromethane as solvent and aluminum chloride as catalyst.
All prepared compounds were confirmed by the available physical and spectral methods.

Some Important Reactions of 4-Aminoantipyrine (4-AAP)

Moayed S. AL. Gwady; Attalla M. Sheet; Shakir M. Saied

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 53-64
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38339

The new heterocyclic compounds 1,5-Dimethyl-2-phenyl-4-(5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-ylamino)-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-ones (iiia-b) and 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-4-(5-aryl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-ylamino)-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-ones (iva-b) were synthesized in the first route in this work by refluxing ethanolic solution of hydrazine hydrate with N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)cinnamamid (iia) or (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) acrylamide (iib) respectively. These unsaturated amides were prepared by the reaction of benzaldehyde or 4-chlorobenzaldehyde with N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetamide (i) in refluxing methanol. This acetamide was prepared by reaction of 4-AAP with acetyl chloride or with acetic anhydride.
In the second route 1,7-dimethyl-2-phenyl-hexahydro-6H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine-3,5-dione (vii) was synthesized by refluxing ethanolic solution of hydrazine hydrate (in presence of pyridine) with ethyl 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ylcarbamate (vi). This carbamate was synthesized by the reaction of 4-AAP with pyridine or anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Finally, the reaction of 4-AAP with benzaldehyde or its 4-chloro derivative afforded the corresponding Schiff bases (va-b).
The structure of these compounds was confirmed by IR & UV Spectra, in addition to the CHN elemental analysis.

Synthesis of some New 1,2,4,5-Tetrazine Derivatives Via Diels-Alder Reaction

Shaymaa K. Younis

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 65-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38352

A rapid, sufficiency and economic with no pollution method was adopted to synthesize several 1-aryl-2,5-dione pyrrolidino[3,4-d]-3,6-diphenyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro pyridazino [1,2-a]-3,6-diaryl -1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine compounds (4a-f) and (5a-f) using a solid phase (solvent-free ) microwave irradiation technique.
The reaction of dibenzylidine hydrazine (1a) as diaza-heterodiene with N-aryl maleimide compounds (2a-f) as cyclic dienophile yielded the corresponding 1-aryl-2,5-dione pyrrolidino[3,4-d]-3,6-diphenyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro pyridazine derivatives (3a-f) via Diels-Alder reaction that proceeded through intermolecular 1,4-cycloaddition mechanism and induced by microwave irradiation.
Similarly, compounds (3a-f) as cyclic hetero dienophile have been converted directly to the 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives (4a-f) and (5a-f) in presence of diarylidine hydrazines (1b-c) as diaza-heterodiene by means of Diels-Alder reaction induced by microwave irradiation and through intermolecular 1,4-cycloaddition mechanism too.
The reaction time has been brought down from hours to few minutes in this technique as compared with the conventional method. This method was, also, efficient, fast economic and environmental friendly.
All the prepared compounds were confirmed by the available physical and spectral methods.

Fabrication Optical Filters to Enhance the Contrast for Black and White Photomicrograph Film

Khider A. Salaih; Soory A. Daher; Ismail K. Abbas

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.38363

In this research we fabricated a gelatin optical filter to enhance the contrast in black and white photomicrograph film for biological stained specimen with the basic fuchsin dye.
From the absorption and transmission spectra of different dyes with different concentrations, the results show that the mixture of methyl green and methyl orange with weight ratio(8/1)of concentrations (0.044 and 0.356) gm/L are in a good agreement with that of standard filter .