Volume 21, Issue 5, Summer 2010, Page 1-157

The Effect of 2,4-D and Kin and their Interaction with Sulphanilamide in Initiation and Growth of Black Cumin Nigella sativa L. Callus

Hana S. AL-Saleh; Maha M. Al-Noaimy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 1-23
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.36953

The study deals with the role 2,4-D and Kin and their interaction in callus induction , growth and differentiation from Nigella sativa L. ,which were used in (10-3, 10-5 ,10-7, l0-9, l0-11 ) molar for each and by their interaction with each other. The results showed the best enhancement media are that contain 10-5 M of 2,4-D with 10-7 M of the Kin in which the fresh weight of the growing callus 12.49 g ,by the age that lasts 75 days , followed by the medium containing 10-5 M of 2,4-D alone in which the fresh weight of the callus reached to 10.96 g in 75 days.
The results showed also the best differentiation of the shoots happened in the media supplemented with 10-11 for each 2,4-D and Kin,While addition of 10-11, 10-9 of both 2,4-D and Kin had achieved the best growth for the roots.
The study induced knowing the role of ( Sulphanilamide ) a chemical compound in initiation, growth and differentiation of Nigella sativa. It was clear that the best enhancement media for callus initiation and growth are that containing suphanilamide by 75 micromollar with 10-5 , 10-9 M for 2,4-D and Kin, also the media fortified by 100 micromollar of sulphanilamide alterating with 10-5, 10-7 M for 2,4-D and Kin, as for shoots enhancement the best results were obtained after using the media containing 100 micromollar of sulphanilamide with l0-9, l0-11 Mr of Kin .
Results also showed variation of the callus content of thymol comparing them by the thymol extract (control sample). The variation depended on the type and concentration of the growth regulators used.

Allelopathic Interaction of Prostrate Spurge Euphorbia prostrate L. with Three Species of Ornamental Plants

Janan Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 24-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.36962

This research was conducted to study the effect of prostrata spurge residues (shoot and root) on germination and growth of three species of ornamental plants which includes (Chrysanthrmum carinatum L., Gaillardia pulchella L. and Lathyrus odoratus L.). Laboratory results showed that the aqueous extract of the residues at concentrations (5,10%) w:v caused a significant reduction in seed germination of the three species as compared with distilled water, The greatest reduction observed at the concentration (10%). The seedling growth showed an increase in the shoot length of chrysanthemum L. seedlings, but gaillardia L. and lathyrus L. shoot length was reduced, Moreover a reduction in the radicle length was seen in the three species. The results of green house experiment showed inhibition in seed germination of the three species of ornamental plants which sown in the soil containing (Spurge) residues that added at the ratio (5,10%) w:w and incubated for two weeks as compared with control soil (without residues), Also the results revealed a significant increase in the growth of the plants which grown in the soil containing spurge residues at the two ratios. The greatest increase which was found in the shoot length and its dry weight in Gaillardia L. reached to (102.1%,333%), but in the root length and its dry weight noticed in (Chrysanthmum L.) was (174.5% ,166.6%) at the (10%) ratio.

Isolation and Identification of Active Compounds from Tissue, Cell Cultures and Extracts of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Rana T. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 38-55
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.36972

The results of this study referred to the presence of some active compounds that were characterized the chamomile plant. The dry roots, stems and flowers showed the presence of some active compounds that were separated by colour indicater (green colour) by TLC which is apigenin compound, then it is identified by HPLC. The results showed the presence of this peak in all these speciment used.
As comparing these results with the usage of fresh explants and by using roots and stems results also showed the presence of some of peaks from these single peak separted at 3.5 minute was characterized in each of these parts used. This indicate that this peak belongs to the same compound that was separated from the dry plant. Also identification of the active compounds extracted from callus, roots regenerated in tissue culture and cell cultures referred to the presence of number of peaks from these the absorbance peak which separated in retention time 2.3 minute was characterized this result considered to be remarkable indicate to the presence of the same compound.

The Role of Interaction of some Growth Regulators with Salfanilamide on Initiation and Growth of Cell Suspension Culture of Black Seed Nigella sativa L.

Hana S. AL-Saleh; Maha M. AL-Noaimy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 56-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.36990

The study included the establishment of cell suspension culture of Nigella sativa L. by the presence of the plant growth regulators (2,4-D and Kin) and sulphanilamide. Results showed that the best enhancement media to initiate cell suspension cultures were media containing 2,4-D and Kin at 10-5 , l0-9 molar alternatively which gave the highest rate 95.74 % of callus initiation compared with 98.8 % obtained from the standard media 10-6 molar 2,4-D. the results appeared to approve that the usage of sulphanilamide has the enhancement influence to form the suspension cultures of Nigella sativa when it used with 2,4-D and Kin.
The rate of the callus initiation reached 93.1% in the media containing 75 micromolar sulphanilamide with 10-5, 10-9 molar for 2,4-D and Kin alternatively, it was noticed a good growth in the media containing 100 micromolar of sulphanilamide with 10-5, 10-7 molar for each 2,4-D and Kin, the callus initiation reached 92.9% .
In order to complete achieving the study to find out the contents of cell cultures from the effecting compound (Thymol) comparing them by the thymol extract (control sample). The finding of the cell suspension cultures by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) proved that cell suspension was about to be equal and in some other times it surpass its contents in the comparison compound (Thymol) of the control treatment.Generally, it is clear that the existence of (sulphanilamide) in the nutrient media had given the best results when tested by the (TLC) for the thymol content in cell suspension cultures.

The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Liquid Fertilizer on Productivity of Potato Plants Infected by Potato Virus Y (PVY)

Zainab F. Al-Hashimi; Ragad N. Al-Khashab; Nabeel A. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37006

The results showed that spraying potato plants with salicylic acid 1% before the occurrence of systemic symptoms after vaccination by Potato Virus Y, gives the best results to control the virus and severity of infection , that led to retard symptoms occurrence to 15-20 days of vaccination. The spraying also improves plant properties particularly its lengths reached 47.05 cm , 145.3 gm ,25.8 gm , 48.8 gm respectively, compared with infected plants which were 25.7 cm , 37.4 gm , 5.39 gm 20.64 gm respectively. While spraying with acid after symptoms occurrence gaves negative results to control the virus. The results showed that spraying by salicylic acid 1% and fertilization by mineral fertilizer (Multfer 5%) gives positive results to control the disease , mitigate its effect on plants and improve its properties. So its lengths reached 57cm , 240.9gm ,35.7gm ,40.1gm respectively. Compared with 27.7cm , 33gm , 5.1gm ,21.7gm respectively. For the same properties of infected plants .

Determination of Activity of some Enzymes in Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of Sheep Origin and the Effect of Infection on the Enzymes Activity in Sheep Heart Tissues

Fulk A. Al-Dabbagh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 83-92
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37016

The present study focused on comparision of the enzymes Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Alkaline phosohatase (ALP) and Glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-66PH), in heart of sheep infected with Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin, and those of non-infected sheep to clarify the effect of the parasite on heart tissues of sheep.
Results show a significant decrease in the activity of GOT, GPT and ALP in hearts of infected sheep compared with protoscoleces and control (non-infected) sheep. On the other hand, there seems to be a significant increase in activity of LDH and G-6-PH in hearts of infected sheep compared with protoscoleces and non-infected sheep.

Study of Cholinesterase Activity in Adult Ewes Treated by the Anthelmintic Drug Levamisole

Yaser A. Esmaial; Mohammad H. Ali; Masod H. Megdad; Ashraf S. Alias

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 93-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37028

The aim of this study was to examine the toxic effects of levamisole in adult ewes, using a modified electrometric method to measure the cholinesterase ( ChE ) activity in whole blood, plasma and erythrocyte. The normal mean ChE activity (Δ pH / 30 min) was the highest in the erythrocyte (0.64) , followed by the whole blood (0.36) and then in plasma (0.08). In Vitro, levamisole at concentrations (0,25,50,100,200,300) μm/L caused significant inhibition of erythrocyte ChE by (0%, 13%, 15%, 19%, 36% and 54%) respectively. Adult ewes were divided into three groups each group contained 40 animal. The animals were treated with levamisole by doses of (0, 7.5, 15mg/Kg B.W ) by mouth and after zero ( 1,2,3)h blood sample(erythrocyte) was drawn to measure cholinesterase (ChE) activity. The activity was significantly decrease (%19.4) compared to the control. in activity of cholinesterase in the group that was treated by levamisole 15 mg/kg B.W and these results indicate the ability of levamisole to inhibit ChE activity.

Melanin Deficiency and its Effect on Pathogenicity in Alternaria alternata

Warka S. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 103-120
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37036

Many plant fungal pathogens produce dark brown to black pigments; melanins. These pigments are thought to contribute to longevity, survival and pathogenicity of their producers. In an attempt to test the role of melanin in the pathogenicity of the fungus Alternaria alternata, three melanin-deficient (white) isolates, SW1, SW2 and SW3 were compared with their wild type (black) parent for some parameters that are considered essential to disease development. These included colony radial growth rate, number of viable conidia produced, rate of growth of leaf spot, and efficiency of producing the pathogenicity- associated enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. In none of these parameters did the melanin-deficient (white) isolates significantly differ from their wild type (black) parent indicating a lack of direct effect of melanin in pathogenicity of this fungal species.

Isolation and a Study of Acidic Deoxyribonuclease from Blood of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

Raghad A. Mohammed; Layla A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 121-137
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37049

The current research was concerned with a biochemical study of acidic deoxyribonuclease DNase II which was isolated from the serum of patients suffering acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as a marker for diagnosis of AMI. The results showed a significant increase in the activity of DNase II enzyme in the serum of the AMI patients with a mean value (268.0+ 6.90) U/L compared to the activity of healthy people (25.7+ 1.60) U/L. The enzyme was isolated from the blood of AMI patients using different biochemical techniques. Two proteinous components had been isolated by gel filtration technique from the precipitate produced by ammonium sulfate. It was found that only the first peak has DNase II activity. The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme using gel filtration was found to be (67000) Dalton. The research was also concerned with finding of optimum conditions for DNase II activity. Maximum activity was obtained using (32) g/ ml of deoxyribonucleic acid as a substrate for the enzyme, in acetate buffer at pH (4.50) and temperature of (40) 0C at a reaction time of (150) second. Using Line Weaver-Burk plot, it was found that maximum velocity Vmax and Michaelis Menten constant Km have the values of (120.5) U/ L and (1.8) g / ml respectively. Finally, the effect of some chemical compounds and nucleotides on the DNase II activity was also studied. It was found that EDTA showed a maximum inhibition with (100%) on the activity of the enzyme at a concentration of (5) mmol, while CuSO4 obtained maximum activation with (157.36%) on the activity of the enzyme at a concentration of (10) mmol in comparison to other chemical compounds, But. β-Mercaptoethanol, 5'-dGMP and 5'-dUMP showed activation effect on the activity of the enzyme at a concentration (0.1) mmol with (78.02%, 189% and 201%) respectively. It was found that Isordil showed a competitive inhibition on the activity of the enzyme at a concentration of (0.01) M.

Determination of Metformine Hydrochloride Drug by Fabricated Selective Membrane Electrodes and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method (HPLC)

Emad M. Yousif; Suham T. Amine; Ali I. Khaleel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 138-157
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37068

First part :
This part includes the determination of metformin.HCl (MET) by construction of two ion selective electrodes incorporating PVC membrane with phosphomolybdic acid (PM) or phosphotungstic acid (PT) as active materials. The plasticizer used is either Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) or Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP).The results for the electrodes are as follows:
1- The linear range for (DBP-MET-PM) electrode was 10-5 – 10-1 M with a slope of 30.7 mV/decade and correlation coefficient of 0.9978. The limit of detection was 2.5 x 10-7 M and the optimum pH was in the range 3.6 – 4.2 at 25oC at the optimum concentration for the internal filling solution of 10-4 M . The life time for the electrode was 24 days.
2- For (TBP-MET-PT), the linear concentration range was10-5–10-1 M with a slope of 30.8 mV/decade and a correlation coefficient of 0.9844. The limit of detection was 2.75 x 10-7 M at optimum pH range (4.2 – 4.6) at 10-4 M for internal filling solution. The life time of this electrode was 14 days .

Second part :
In this part , MET drug was determined by HPLC using C18 column. In this method and at pH= 3 using a mobile phase of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate with acetonitrile in a ratio of (50:2.5) and flow rate of 1 ml. minute, the MET drug was determined. The signal was detected at 233 nm. The percent recovery, relative standard deviation and the linearity of concentration were 98.14 %, 0.98 and 2-24 µg.ml-1, respectively with a limit of detection of 0.23 µg.ml-1 .