Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 21, Issue 7

Volume 21, Issue 7, Autumn 2010, Page 1-140


Anatomical, Histological Study Eye of the Bird Corncrake crex crex

Sanabil A. Abd Al Majeed; Ali A. Abd

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 1-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.34944

The present study carried out to investigate the anatomical and histological structure of eye components in the Corncrake crex crex which it is omnivorous to correlate the eye structure with nutrition nature.
The results showed, anatomically, that the eye ball spherical and compressed some thing at the anterioposterior axis, on the other hand the posterior segment larger than the anterior segment the eyes set on the side of the head top. The eye ball composed of three tunics: Outer sclera and it is extension cornea, middle uvea (choroid, ciliary body and iris ) and inner retinal layer.
Histologicaly cartilages surround the eye ball as well as Os nervi optici present near the optic nerve. The cornea concaved and differ in its thickness. The stroma of cornea appeared as three subdivitions layer differ in their density. Pigmented cells appeared at the root of the cornea. The lens some what flattened at the anterior and spherical at the posterior portion. The annular pad appeared at both side of equatorial.
The choroids had lymphatic vessels and the other components resemble that of other vertebrates. The iris showed variations in the thickness and skeletal muscles appeared in it. The Ciliary body very obvious and concave, at the central region, to ward the vitreous humour.
The retina appeared avascular and duplex (with rods and cones). On the other hand the dorsal and central portion of the retina more thicker than that of ventral and peripheral respectively. One dorso temporal fovea also appeared, and visual streak upper to the fovea. The pigment epithelial layer cells cuboidal. There were one type of rods and two types of cones (double and single) in the retina which differ in their density. Other structures were observered such as oil droplets in the cones and parabloid in both rods and cones, The other layers of the retina resemble that other birds but their thickness differ at various portions of the eye ball.
The pecten oculi appeared as fan like vascular structure with 12 folds which originate from optic disc area processes extended from transverse pigmented bridge and then one process folded lateraly as well as upper bridge was noted.
We can conclude that the Crex crex bird have avery well acute vision because the cornea covexed and the lens flatted anteriory. On the other hand the retina contain temporal fovea, visual streak, oil droplets, Parabloid, Pecten oculi, these structures enable the bird to see it is various nutrients in the environment easly.

The Study of the Histopathological Changes in Cecaum of Experimental Infection of Salmonella spp. and Eimeria tenella in Broiler

Donea A. Abdullah; Ahlam F. Al-taee; Ehsan G. Zakaria

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 27-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.34968

Co - experimental infection with Eimeria tenella and Salmonella spp. was conducted in broilers. Ninty broilers at thirty days of age were divided in to three groups, 30/ group. The first group was considered as control, the second group was given orally 5x104 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The third group was inoculated with the same number of sporulated oocysts in addition to the inoculaton of 1.5 x 108 Salmonella microorganisum .
The clinical signs observed in these group were restricted only to the second and third group. The gross lesions in these groups showed clinical signs which were charectrized by necrosis and bleeding of cecal tissue especially the second generation of schizogony and gametes was evident in tissue section with the severity of lesion. In addition there was an inflammatory reaction with polymorphneuclear leucocyte especially among third group which was infected with Salmonella spp.

Effect of Olive Fruits Infection with Spiloceae oleagina Fungus on the Quality of Extracted Oil

Nwara A. Mohammad; Sultana M. Hussein

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 41-56
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.35045

The green olive fruits ( c.v. Shimally) were collected from Algherka region (El Beyda city) and Green Mountain in Libya. Samples included healthy fruits and those showing symptoms of eye spot disease (Spiloceae oleagina).Certain properties of healthy and infected fruits were studies.
No significant differences in fruits length and diameter were noted wheras no significant differences in specific and gravity diffraction of coeff oil extracted and the proportion of oil in the good fruits and infected fruit.
Chemical properties indicated that there was a rise in free fatty acid, peroxide number, anisidie number, thiobarituric acid in oil extracted from infected fruit comparing with the good fruits. In terms of fatty acids, the results showed no significant differences in both cases. The results of Chlorophyll, tocopherols and phenolic component showed that increasing in case of infected comparing with good fruit, which helps the stability of oil against oxidation. The study is registered for the presence of this disease on a plant olive in Libya.

Legumenous Seed Born Fungi Producing Cellulase

Nadeem A. Ramadan; Faten N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 57-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.35057

This study was conducted for the purpose of finding local isolates which produce the cellulase enzyme. Specific test was conducted to determined the ability of these isolates to produce cellulase on solid and liquid media, also to find out the best isolates producing this enzyme. A quantitative test was carried out find the best cellulose producing isolate, which was Alternaria alternate isolated from cowpea, as it produced 5.26mg glucose/60min /cm3 and 0.315 mg/cm3 glucose.

Mutagenic Effect of Thymol in Conidia of the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Maha A. Al-Rijabo; Gehaan M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 66-77
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.35068

In the present research, five different sublethal concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25, 30) µg/cm3 of thymol were tested for their ability to induce forward mutation resistant to the toxic base analogue (8-Azaadnine) in conidia of Aspergillus amstelodami by the growth-mediated method.
All five concentrations showed mutant frequencies significantly higher than the spontaneous one, (the negative control). but significance of the mutagenic effect was found in the last two concentrations (25, 30) µg/ cm3.

Effect of Extract Callus Plant Rue on the Growth of Bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti and its Relationship with Plant Alfalfa Medicago sativa

Fawz A. Al-Safar; Mira A. Al-Katib; Najwa I. Al- Barhawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 78-86
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.35129

The disparate impact of extract callus plant Ruta graveolens L.( rue) on the growth of bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti in the nutrient medium, as noted its effect inhibitory on the growth of bacteria in the medium of Manitol Salt Yeast Extract (MSY) liquid in terms of numbers tend to decrease by 47.5 and 38.6%, as shown by its effects as an energy source when you add it to the medium of nutritional deficiencies Rhizobium Minimal Mediam (RMM) instead of sugar Mannitol and increasing the bacteria by 27.7 and 12.3%, after 24 and 48 hours of incubation compared to a sample comparison (bacteria developing in the nutrient medium without the addition of extract), in terms of measuring the turbidity at the spectral wavelength 595 nm,in the other hand, this extract inhibited the formation of root nodules on alfalfa seedlings inoculated with the bacterium S. meliloti developing in the middle (NF) Nitrogen Free solid, also reduced the number of vegetative branches , and leaves, with the death of some of seedlings and low protein content, but at the same time, led to a higher level in the inoculated seedlings compared to sample comparison

Role of the Caffeine (1,3,7 trimethylxanthine) on Callus Initiation, Growth and Differentiation from Hypocotyls of Sun Flower Helianthus annuus L.

Firas H. Khdheyer

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 87-105
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.35152

The present study deals with the effect of caffeine on callus initiation and growth from hypocotyl explants of Helianthus annuus, Explants exhibits response for callus initiation when caffeine added to MS medium (MS+0.5 mg/L NAA +1.0mg/L BA ). The best was that with 0.5 mg/L caffeine in which the fresh weight of callus reached 5.176g after 35 days of culture . It was Also found that addition of caffeine to MS medium alone with 1.0 mg/L BA enhanced initiation and growth of callus the highest fresh weight was 3.920g obtained when 5.0 mg/L caffeine added with 1.0 mg/L BA .
It was also found that with addition 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D to MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L caffeine callus growth was better than its growth when 2,4-D alone was added, so the fresh weight of callus reached 1.150 g . It was noticed that addition of 0.5 mg/L NAA to MS medium containing different concentrations of caffeine led to initiation of callus, and the callus differentiation of roots specially when 0.5 mg/L was added with 2.5 mg/L caffeine 87.5% root formation was obtained .
The results cleared that addition of caffeine alone with different concentrations to MS medium enhanced root formation. The best medium was that MS with addition of 2.5 mg/L caffeine which enhance 11 roots with 12.6 cm in length that after 35 days .

Voltammetric Determination of Dexamethsone in Serum, Urine and Drugs

Suhair M. Daowd; Fanar M. AL- Healy; Sadallah T. Sulaiman

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 106-122
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.36046

The present work involves a study of the polarographic behaviour of pure Dexamethasone by direct method in aqueous solution , which shows a well defined reduction peaks at a potential (-1.08) V. in phosphate buffer (pH=7) and (-0.84) V. in phosphate buffer (pH=3). The calibration of Dexamethasone was constructed in phosphate buffer (pH=3and7) for the range of concentration (2.4910-6M)-(1.5410-5M)in phosphate buffer (pH=7) with a correlation coefficient (0.9949), and with a range of concentration (6.310-7M)-(1.5410-5M) in phosphate buffer (pH=3) with a correlation coefficient (0.9957).
The calibration curve of Dexamethasone in presence at human blood serum in the range of concentration (3.1110-6M)-(9.2810-6M) in phosphate buffer (pH=7) with a correlation coefficient (0.9892), and range of concentration (6.210-7M)-(6.2110-6M) in phosphate buffer (pH=3) with a correlation coefficient (0.9873).
The calibration curve of Dexamethasone in presence of urine in the range of concentration (1.8610-6M)-(1.5310-5M) in phosphate buffer (pH=7) with a correlation coefficient (0.9813), and with a range of concentration (6.210-7M)-(1.2310-5M) in phosphate buffer (pH=3) with a correlation coefficient (0.9974).
The method was successfully applied to the determination of Dexamethasone in tablets and syrup in aqueous solution.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrazepam by Coupling of it's Diazotized Reduced form with m- Aminophenol as Coupling Reagent

Maha T. Hussin

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 123-140
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.36059

This paper describes the development of a spectrophotometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of nitrazepam after diazotization of it’s reduced product and coupling with m-aminophenol in basic medium, to form an intense orange – coloured, water – soluble and stable azo-dye which shows a maximum absorption at 478 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 5 to 200µg/25ml with a molar absorptivity 17581.25 l. mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity of 0.016 µg.cm-2. The relative error is ranged from -2.11 to +1. 4% and relative standard deviation from ±0.55 to ±2.10 %, depending on the concentration level.
The method has been applied successfully to the determination of nitrazepam in pharmaceutical preparation (tablet).