Volume 20, Issue 6, Summer 2009, Page 1-96

Effect of Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Leaf Extracts on the Reproductive Organs and Fertility of Male albino Mice (Mus musculus)

Waad S. Shaher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39923

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oral dose (250mg/kg body weight/day, for 21 days) of each aqueous and alcohol leaf extract of Azadirachta excelsa on histological structure of the testis and fertility of male albino mice Mus musculus. Histological structure of the testis of both treated groups showed affected seminiferous tubules indicating mixing of the germ cell types in stages of spermatogenesis, atrophy of the spermatogenic elements, increases in number of Leydig cells, occurrence of giant cells and decrease s or absence of the spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules as compared with control group. The other alternations of both treated groups were decrease in number of the spermatozoa in the Ductus epididymidis. The fertility index of the treated groups was reduced, this result which proves the fertility was observed in untreated females after mated with treated males.

Influences of Insulin, n-Acetyl Cysteine, and Folic Acid on the Level of Sex Hormones in the Diabetic Pregnant Rats

Lana S. Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 10-17
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39930

The preventive influences of folic acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and insulin were examined on the alterations of reproductive system related hormones in alloxan-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Healthy pregnant rats (192) were treated with single subcutaneous injection 100 mg/kg body weight alloxan.
The experimental rats were divided into five groups: group one represented negative control, group two was positive control. Group three was treated with folic acid 0.25mg/kg; group four, daily injected with insulin; and last group was treated with NAC 1%. Each of 17- β -Estradiol; progesterone; follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were assayed by ELISA.
Alloxan induced diabetic pregnant rats showed significant decrease in all sexual hormone parameters and in all three weeks of gestation. The hormone β-Estradiol none significantly increased in all treatment groups, while significant increasing in progesterone value was observed in all treated groups. Insulin, restore the elevation of FSH and LH hormones except for LH in second week. Treatment with folic acid 0.25 mg/kg was showed significant increase FSH and LH except FSH in third week and LH in second week. While NAC showed less protective effects through decreasing of only progesterone and estrogen levels.

The Antioxidant Effects of Flavonoids and non Flavonoid Part Extracted from Ginger ( Zingiber Officinale) Roots.

Ameira A. Hamdoon; Man S. Kalo; Elham M. Al- Khashab; Sameira M. Al- Katib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 18-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39940

The extraction of Flavonoids from dried ginger ( Zingiber officinale Ros.) roots in addition of non-flavonoids parts (oils and defatted) were studied against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in the serum of male rats for 15 day.
Fifty male rats with age of 3-4 months and weight of 225- 300 g were divided into 5 groups : group (1): control group received drinking tab water and ideal diet, group (2): received 0.5% H2O2 in drinking tab water , group (3): received 0.5% H2O2 and oral dose of 15 mg/ kg of BW. flavonoids once daily, group (4): received 0.5% H2O2 and oral dose of 30 mg/ kg BW flavonoids once daily. Group (5): received 0.5% H2O2 and the experimental diet ( 50 g non- flavonoids part / kg diet).
H2O2 treated group showed elevation in serum cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxynitrite radical levels and reduction in glutathione (GSH), vit C, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus levels compared with the control group (p≤ 0.05). Treatment with ginger extracts counteracted the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 by reducing the levels of cholesterol, MDA and peroxynitrite and enhancing the levels of GSH, vit C, albumin and calcium compared with the H2O2 treated group (p≤ 0.05). Treatment with non flavonoids part, by means of experimental diet, showed decreasing in the MDA, peroxynitrite, phosphate levels and increasing in vit C level compared with the H2O2 treated group (p≤ 0.05). The results of the present study provided the protective effects of the ginger extract by increasing antioxidant defense and suppression free radicals production in the serum.

Recording of Chewing louse Philopterus sp. (Mallophaga : Ischnocera) from Crow in Iraq

Fulk A. Al-Dabbagh; Zohair I. Rahemo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 32-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39947

Several specimens of lice were collected from the skin and feathers of the crow (Corvus sp.), and it is concluded that it belongs to Philopterus sp. (Mallophaga: Ischnocera). The body is small 2 - 3 mm in length and 0. 8 mm in width, and is elongated, flattened tough and well chitinized. Head is triangular in shape expanded behind the eyes . Antennae are capitate lie anterior to maxillary pulp which is 4 - 5 segmented. Mouth with clear buccal capsule and provided with 3 pairs of spines at the sides of its head . Legs are short, with tibia leading to tarsus ending with a stout single claw. The ovipositor is clearly seen, in addition to crescent - shaped spermatheca. Such lice with these characters were not reported before from Iraqi birds, and it is concluded that it is very close to Philopterus sp. but species can't be determined in the absence of male specimens.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations*

Zainab M. Al-mufty; Nief R. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39959

A simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of mefenamic acid in pure form and in some pharmaceutical formulations was developed. The method is based on the oxidation of mefenamic acid by iron(III), and subsequent complexation of iron(II) with o-phenanthroline, forming a red-colored complex (ferroin) having the maximum absorbance at 510 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 0.4-2.0 μgml, the molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity are 2.9×104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and 8.3 ng.cm-2, respectively and the relative standard deviation (RSD) is less than 2.0 (n=10). The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.065 and 0.195 μg.ml-1,respectively. The method is applied successfully to determination of mefenamic acid in some pharmaceutical formulations (capsules and tablets). The common excipients do not interfere with the proposed method. A statistical comparison of these results with those of official method using (t and F) values at 95% confidence level shows good agreement and indicates no significant difference in the precision and the present method has good validity.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Scandium (III) with Eriochrome Cyanine R and Cetylpyridinium Chloride – Application to Waters and Synthetic Alloys*

Wadala A. Bashir; Lamya A. Sarsam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 48-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39972

The detailed investigation of a sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the trace amounts of scandium is described. The method is based on the reaction of scandium with eriochrome cyanine R reagent in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride surfactant at pH 4.1, to form a violet-blue ternary chelate which exhibits maximum absorption at 595nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range 0.1-3.0 µg25ml, i.e., 0.004-0.12 ppm, with a molar absorptivity of 1.3×105 l.mol-1.cm-1, (r=0.9991), Sandell’s sensitivity index of 0.45 ng.cm-2, a relative error of 0.0-0.4% and a relative standard deviation of ±0.6 to ±6.1 %, depending on the concentration level.
The method has been applied successfully to determine, scandium in various samples of water and synthetic alloy.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorocresol via Nitrosation Reaction – Application to Pharmaceutical Preparations (Creams)

Widad E. Hassan; Nief R. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 66-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39987

A spectrophotometric method for the determination of pure chlorocresol and in a number of its pharmaceutical preparations (creams) has been developed that offers advantages of simplicity, sensitivity and stability. The proposed method was based on the formation of a nitroso derivative of chlorocresol. The colored product have maximum absorption at 424 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of (2-26) ppm, with a molar absorptivity of 0.417×104 l.mol-1.cm-1. Relative standard deviation of the method was better than ±1.8% and the average recovery was 99.2%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of chlorocresol in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations (creams).

The Effect of Texturing on the Efficiency of a-Si Solar Cell

Bassam M. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 74-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39995

Texturing of amorphous silicon( a-Si ) solar cell surface by parallel grooves leads to collecting the reflected light from one side of the groove by the other side. In this work a theoretical method is found to calculate the effect of texturing on the efficiency of the(a-Si) solar cells. This is done by finding the change in the photo current due to the increase of light energy trapped due to texturing. Then new I-V are found for groove angles (acute, right and obtuse angles) and for angles of incidence from ( 0 up to 180° ). This is done by finding the solar cell parameters (photo current, total current, short circuit current, open circuit voltage). For small groove acute angels ( 40 as example ) about 100% collection of the incident energy is happened, this in turn increases the efficiency, but this happen within limited angular range. Increasing the groove angles increases the range of maximum absorption but lowers the efficiency

Density Law of Spiral Galaxy Relative to Rotation Curves

Mohammed K. Zeki; Aziz J. Abdul-Kahader; Nazeeha A. Daoud

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 90-96
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40006

An expression for galactic density has been derived from galactic rotation curves using Burbidge technique, in which rotational velocity v(r) is related to the galactic density at a given distance r. Abel's integral has been used to evaluate the galactic density (r, k). The derived density law has been applied to spiral galaxies with a general observed rotation curves with a turn-over at some distance rt, so we got two different density forms 1(r, k) and 2(r, k) for the core and for disk and halo of the galaxy respectively.