Volume 20, Issue 2, Winter 2009, Page 1-186

Isolation and Identification of Penicillium Species from Indoor Dust of Mosul Buildings / IRAQ

Nadeem A. Ramadan; Asma A. B. Al-Herthi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40158

The study identified 28 fungal genera isolated from house dust samples collected from different areas East and West Mosul city during October 2003 and February 2004. A total of 39 species were identified from the 28 genera. Candida and related yeast were the most abundant (48.71%) followed by Aspergillus (9.7 %) of with 9 species.
Nine species of Penicillium were identified ;P.aurantiogriseum (6.5%), P. camembertii (6.5%), P.chrysogenum (26.0%), P.citrinum (6.5%), P.crustosum (10.9%), P.decumbens (8.7%), P.expansum (24.0%), P.purpurogenum (6.5%) and P. requefortii (4.4 %) and the total isolates was 46 (3.28 %). The total number of Colony Forming Units (C.F.U.) in October 2003 was 5.48X104 /gm dust while in February 2004 it was 8.54X104 /gm dust. As regards the locations of samples the C.U.F. were in houses 1.72 X 104 in kindergartens 1.69X104 ; primary schools 1.41 X104 ; intermediate schools 1.44X104 and secondary schools 1.1 X 104 .

Determining the location of some Antibiotic- Coding Genes in Streptomyces spp

Essra G. Al-Sammak; Khalid D. Ahmed; Rayan M. Faisal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40163

Twelve isolates belonging to the species streptomyces antibioticus(3), S. albus (2), S. streptovaticillium(1), and S. purpureus (5) were checked for their ability to resist
different antibiotics. The results showed variation in their pattern of antibiotic resistance. The antibiotic production ability of these isolates was tested and it was found that five of them are antibiotic producers while the rest were not. Two methods were used to determine the location of genes encoding antibiotics, conjugation and plasmid curing. Conjugation between each of the isolates of streptomyces as donars and the laboratory strain E. coli JM83 as a recipient produced no transconjugant colonies capable of antibiotic production .Treating the original donar isolates with ethidium bromide (25µg/ml), showed that 40% of the isolate (4) lost their ability to produce antibiotics. This result suggests that the genes encoding antibiotic production are located on the plasmid DNA.Failure of curing colonies towards antibiotic production in the isolates 1,8 may indicate that antibiotic resistant trait is located on the chromosomal DNA in these isolates.

Genetic Architecture for Single Hybrids of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

Ahmed A.J. AL-Thaher; Arshad Th. AL-Niaumi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 23-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40177

Complete diallel of seven durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum Desf.) were used in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications to study the architecture for traits number of days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of spikes/plant, spike length, number of grains/spike, biological yield/plant, grain yield/plant, harvest index, 1000-grain weight and protein percentage. Genetic variance components estimated by Jinks & Hayman procedure (1953). Linear graphic analysis was also done for the variance of parents (Vr) and covariance of parents with F1 rows (Wr). The results showed that Additive genetic variance was important in the inheritance of all characters except protein Percentage, where as dominant variance was important for the inheritance of all characters. The average degree of dominance was over-dominance for some loci.

Isolation and Identification of Providencia alcalifaciens from Infantile Diarrhea and Study of the Histological Changes that it Cause

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Maha A. Yonan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 37-48
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40182

Providencia alcalifaciens had been isolated and diagnosed 351 infantile diarrheal cases, from both sexes at the age of 2 years or less depending on screening tests that included microscopic examination and biochemical tests which formed 3.13%.Also the study detected the ability of Providencia alcalifaciens for the production of melanine like pigment upon it's growth on the special medium was distinguished by the appearance of brownish colour.
In order to study the invasion of enterocytes the mice infants were orally injected with the suspension of the bacterium. Then histological sections performed to study the mode of the entry of this bacterium the enterocytes. The microscopic findings showed pathogenic lesions in the intestinal tissue with hyperplasia in Payer's patches and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes .

Histochemical Study to Investigate Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids Compounds and Their Physiological Role in Microcercous and Distome Cercariae

Mohammed S.A.Al-Salihi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 49-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40185

Histochemical techniques revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in both microcercous and distome cercariae. There was an abundance of glycogen and different mucopolysaccharides when lead tetra acetate-Schiff technique was used, but the result was negative in case of microcercous cercariae when maxilon blue RL technique was used as no metachromatia was noticed. The reaction was moderately positive with distome cercariae by using the same technique. Also there was an abundance of proteins containing tryptophan and arginine in tissues of both cercariae. Both cercariae showed very strong positive reaction with the technique used to detect lipoproteins.

Biochemical Study of Rhodanese Enzyme Isolated from Blood and it’s Role in Cyanide Detoxification

Thikra A. Allwsh; Zainab H. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 61-80
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40192

This research included isolation of rhodanese enzyme from blood plasma. The modification method for isolation rhodanese from plasma in form of pure crystals showed highly purification folds compared with the gel filtaration technique which used to isolate rhodanese from ammonium sulphate precipitate solution of blood plasma. It
had been found that the protein peak (A) isolated from plasma and protein peak (C) isolated from ammonium sulphate precipitate solution of plasma with (65%) saturation by gel filtaration technique using (Sephadex G-75) had apparent molecular weight (37153  1000 Dalton) and (36307 1000 Dalton) respectively.
The study of optimal condition of rhodanese activity for the isolated protein peaks (A) and (C) showed optimum reaction time at (30), (35) minutes, optimal pH at (8), optimal temperature (45C),(50C) and optimal concentration (125mM) (130mM) of sodium thiosulphate and potassium cyanide(130mM), (135mM).
The results showed that benzaldehyde inhibit rhodanese activity and this inhibition can be removed partially by using (0.1M) sodium thiosulphate. It had been found a decrease of rhodanese activity when sodium thiosulphate replaced with amino acids (cysteine, methionine, cystine). The results showed that  - mercapto ethanol break down both of protein peak (A) and (C) to a symmetrical peaks with different molecular weights.
The study of rhodanese activity which isolated from plasma (peak A) in cyanide detoxification in vivo (using experimental animals) and in vitro (using blood) in addition to the effect of cyanide on some clinical parameters levels like glucose, hemoglobin, and thiocyanate. The results showed that potassium cyanide leading to increase in glucose, hemoglobin and thiocyanate concentrations in vivo and in vitro compared with control group, while sodium thiosulphate and rhodanese or both are act in cyanide detoxification in vivo and in vitro and this was concluded through decrease of glucose and hemoglobin concentration and an increase of thiocyanate concentration compared with control group.

Partial Purification of 5´-Nucleotidase Isoenzymes from Blood Sera of Anemic Patients

Sabah H. Khorsheed; Ferah G. Al-Salihi; Asraa Yaseen

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 81-92
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40198

In this study, 5´-Nucleotidase isoenzymes were partially purified from blood sera of anemic patients, through different steps including: Protein precipitation with ammonium sulfate and dialysis. Three isoenzymes were isolated from dialyzed protein fraction by using Anion-exchange chromactography (DEAE-Cellulose A-50), with maximum purification folds (22.13) for isoenzyme Ш.
In addition, the kinetic studies for the isolated isoenzymes were carried out, which included the effect of different substrate (5´- AMP) concentration and determination their Km values: 14.08, 12.98 and 8.4 (mM) respectively compared to normal; 13.0, 14.08 and 15.6 (mM).

Preparation and Characterization of some Divalent Metal Ion Complexes with Schiff Base Ligands Derived from Amino Acids

Thana Y. Yousif Amein; Ihsan A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 93-109
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40204

A new complexes of some transition metal ions (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II)) and some non transition metal ions (Zn(II),Cd(II)) with a number of Schiff bases obtained from the condensation of some amino acids (Methionine) and (3-acetyl pyridine, 4-acetyl pyridine, acetoacetaanilide) have been prepared. All the prepared complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility infrared and electronic spectral. The complexes were classified as:
A-mononuclear complexes:
Complexes with the formulas [ML(CH3COO) ] (H2O) ,[ML (H2O) ] and [ML(CH3COO) (H2O)2].
B-Di nuclear complexes:
Complexes with the formulas [M2(L)2(CH3COO)2] .2H2O and [M2(L) (CH3COO)3] H2O and [M2(L) (CH3COO)2(H2O)]
M= Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II)Cd(II).
L= 3-acetylpyridine Methionineimine, 4-acetylpyridine Methionineimine and acetoacetanilide Methionineimine.
The physical measurements showed that the prepared complexes may have a tetra coordinated (tetrahedral or square planer) and hexa-coordinated (octahedral) structure and that all the prepared complexes were non electrolyte.

The Relationship of Fatty-Acid Composition of Female Serum to the Level of some Biochemical Variables and the Possibility of Myocardial Infarction

Luma A. Al-Bajjary; Ameera A. Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 110-125
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40213

The present study investigates the relationship between fatty-acid composition (in cholesterol ester and phospholipids), the biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, TC; high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C; uric acid, malondialdehyde, MDA and glutathione, GSH), the possibility of myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus in women aged 41-65 years.
Serum samples were divided into two parts. Lipids were extracted from the first part by organic solvents and their compounds were separated by thin-layer chromatyography. Cholesterol ester and phospholipids were hydrolyzed and the produced fatty acids were re-esterified by BF3/methanol. Fatty acid-methyl esters were separated and identified by capillary gas chromatography. It was found that patient groups exhibited a higher level in n6 fatty acids but a lower level in n3 fatty acids and in the ratio of n3/n6 compared with the control group. The second part of serum was used to estimate the biochemical parameters. Uric acid, TC and MDA showed an increase in their levels while HDL-C, GSH and the ratio of HDL-C/TC exhibited a decrease in their levels in the patient groups.
It was concluded that the increase in n6-fatty acids, TC, MDA (the main product of lipid peroxidation) and uric acid( one of the risk signs of having heart artery disease) as well as the decrease in GSH, HDL-C, HDL-C/TC ratio, n3-fatty acids and n3/n6 fatty acids ratio reflect a negative signs of mycocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus.

Isolation and Characterization of Arylesterase from Root of Ginger (Zingeber)

Wasan Kh. Ali; Tareq Y. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 126-139
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40219

The research was concerned with the isolation of arylesterase from the aqueous extract of Ginger using different biochemical techniques. It was shown that, using gel filtration chromatography on sephadex G-75, the solution of the proteinous precipitate produced by acetone precipitation, contained three proteinous peaks. The first two peaks (A and B) possessed a variable activity of arylesterase, where maximum specific activity was obtained in the second peak(B) which showed (22.04) folds of purification while the first peak (A) showed less activity with (16.73) folds of purification. Furthermore, the comparative molecular weight of the partially purified arylesterase (peak B) using gel filtration was found to be (46370) Dalton. The research was also concerned with finding the optimum conditions of arylesterase. Maximum activity was obtained using (9 mM) Tris – HCl as a buffer at pH (6), with incubation temperature (45ºC), incubation time of (15min) and (3.5mM) of phenyl acetate as a substrate. Using linweaver –Burk plot, it was found that maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) had the values of (209.3 U/ml) and (1.35 mM) respectively. The effect of some chemical compounds on arylesterase activity was also studied. It was found that sodium chloride showed a competitive inhibition on the activity of the enzyme at a concentration of (4.5 mM) using Tris-HCl (9 mM) as a buffer.

Synthesis Study of the copolymerization of Benzidine with some Vinyl Monomers

Ebtehag Z . Sulyman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 140-159
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40227

The study includes the preparation of the acidic monomer, benzidine bis maleimic BMA, and the monomer was investigated by IR technique. Copolymerization of the acidic monomer benzidine bis maleamic BMA with styrene, methyl methacrylate in was accomplished DMF was studies. The copolymers were investigated by their colors, solubility and IR technique.
The relative monomer reactivity ratios in prepared copolymers were studied and azeotropic copolymerizations was not found at all monomer concentrations and the PBMA ratio was higher in copolymer in all cases. Thermal studies of the copolymers by using TGA, IGA technique, Indicate that the polybismaleimide possess higher thermal stability in comparison with other polymaleimides .As well as, thermal stability in was increased directly with increasing the molar ratios of acidic monomer benzidine bismaleamic acid BMA. The reactivity ratios study appeared that the type of copolymerization prefers to be alternate copolymer.

Microwave Absorbing Characteristics Study of Three Layers Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM)

Ammar Y. Al Jubory

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 160-172
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40230

In this work, Microwave absorbing coatings were prepared in the X-band region, in a form of three layers of ferrite powder (MnFe2O4), iron powder and manganese oxide powder (MnO2) with (1)mm thickness for each layer. A study of layer exchange effect on absorption, when exposed to direct radiation was conducted. In this case, a standing wave ratio SWR system was used in which it was found that when the three layer coating (3mm thickness) were exposed to direct microwave radiation, a greater absorption values were obtained (86%). Hence, an exchange of coating layers does have a good impact on absorption values at specific frequencies.

The Role of CO2 from Oil Burning in the Green House Effect and the Rise in Earth Temperature

Bassam M. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 173-186
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40236

The Green House Effect nowadays forms one of the major problems, and is one of the side effects of technology. This effect is related to the mechanism of exchange of energy of earth with its environment. The increase in consumption of petroleum products in the 2nd half of the 20th century; and is continuing in the current century; leads to the increase of CO2 concentration. The CO2 molecules have energy levels in the range of frequencies of the radiation from the earth this will prevent such frequencies from leaving earth, and as a result, effecting a temperature raise. A set of equations were postulated relating the increase in CO2 concentration with the increase of oil consumption. These equations enabled the calculation of the annual increase in the mass of CO2. This increase is of an accumulation character, and leads to increase of temperature. The rise of earth temperature up to 2008 was calculated and it was about 0.37 degrees Celsius in comparison with 1900.