Volume 20, Issue 3, Spring 2009, Page 1-120

Effects of Lead Acetate and Probiotic on Some Physiological Parameters in Broiler Chicks

Sinan.Th. Abdullah; Nashat.G. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40110

This work was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic (BIOMIN)® on lead acetate absorption and it is toxic action on certain physiological and biochemical parameters: body weight gain, Hb concentration, PCV%, serum total protein and serum lead level in chicks. One-day-old forty Ross broiler chicks were used. The probiotic was used in recommended dose (1.5g/kg diet). Lead acetate was used in two doses; full dose of 320 mg/kg diet and half dose of 160 mg/kg diet. The results show that probiotic significantly (P≤0.05) decreased serum lead level, enhanced body weight gain, while it has no direct significant effect on serum total protein, Hb concentration, and PCV%. On the other hand, lead acetate alone (in both doses) was caused sever anemia, depression in the level of both Hb concentration and PCV%, while half dose (160 mg) of lead acetate was caused no effect on both body weight gain and serum total protein, but death of some chicks, and decreased serum total protein were occurred with full dose of lead acetate.

Effect of Melia azedarach L. and Ailanthus altissima Swingle Extracts on the Larva Alimentary Tract and Growth of Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Atallah F. Mekhlif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 8-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40120

The enriched methanolic extracts of seeds of Melia azedarach and leaves of Ailanthus altissima have had the same effect on the valves of the cardiac sphinector of Agrotis ipsilon larvae. At the low concentrations, the sphinector was expanded, and the valves degenerated at the high concentrations. M. azedarach extract was separated the peritrophic membrane and muscles of the midgut, while the extract of A. altissima was thicked the peritrophic membrane only. The application of extracts were effected on developed pupae and adults of treated larvae, this effect was represented by failure of adults emergence and degrees of wings malformations. Also, the extracts were significantly reduced the weight of A. ipsilon larvae fed on treated diets. For treated larvae, Lc50¬ of black cutworm larvae were 2.5 and 3.5 ppm for M. azedarach and A. altissima respectively.

Effect of Cement Pollution on some Biochemical Parameters in the Blood Serum of Hamam AL-Alil Cement Factory Workers

Haitham L. Al-Hayali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40131

Long time exposure to cement industry pollution leads to several health problems. This study was designed to investigate the effects on 55 workers which were divided into groups according to the departments of Hamam AL-Alil Cement Factory-Iraq. The biochemical parameters included in the study are: calcium, zinc, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glutathione and malonaldehyde.
The results showed that there was a significant increase in calcium, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and malonaldehyde in workers serum which increased with increasing exposure time. The results also showed a significant decrease in glutathione and zinc in workers serum which increased with increasing exposure time in all factory department.

The Effect of Lead on Lung Histology of Albino Mice Mus musculus

Aticka A. El-Nouri

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 29-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40155

The aim of the study was to investigate the histological changes caused by lead in the lung of albino mice . Twenty five mice were divided into 5 equal groups, . The first group was given distilled water and used as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered (2 and 4 mg/kg of body weight) lead acetate respectively for two weeks. The fourth and fifth groups were orally administered ( 2 and 4 mg/kg of body weight ) lead acetate for four weeks. Animals were anesthetized and the lungs were extracted for histological studies. The histological changes were observed in the lungs are emphysema, infiltration of mononuclear cells in the interalveolar septa, sloughing of epithelial cells of bronchiole, congestion of blood vessels and blood cells in some bronchi and bronchioles. The lesions were more severe in animals exposed to the high dose. In conclusion the severity of the lesions of lead toxicity depends on the dose of lead and period of exposure.

Zinc and Copper Levels in Seropositive Toxoplasmosis Women in Mosul – Iraq

Haitham S. Al-Bakry; Elham M. Al-Khshab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 37-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40161

The aim of this Study was to investigate the effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on levels of zinc and copper in seropositive toxoplasmosis women in Mosul city. Serum zinc and copper levels were measured in (77) women whose –Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were Positive , in addition to (30) sero – negative healthy women , as control group. The average zinc concentration in serum from sero – positive women was significantly ( P < 0.05) lower than control group. Howevor compared to the healthy women , the copper concentration in serum of sero-positive women were significantly ( P <0.05) higher.

Histological Study of the Liver and Kidney of Albino Mice Mus musculus Exposed to Lead

Aticka A. El-Nouri; Muna H. Jankeer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 42-51
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40179

The present study was performed to investigate the histological effects caused by lead in the liver and kidney of male albino mice Mus musculus. The study was conducted on 25 mice, the animals were divided into 5 equal groups. The first group was given distilled water and used as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered (2 and 4 mg lead acetate /kg of body weight) for two weeks. The fourth and fifth groups were orally administered (2 and 4 mg lead acetate/kg of body weight) for four weeks.
The animals were anesthetized, the (liver and kidneys) were extracted for histological studies. Histological changes which observed in the liver were, vacuolation, fatty degeneration, necrosis in some hepatocytes, congestion within central veins, hemorrhage between hepatic cords and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In the kidney the changes noted were hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue with enlargement of epithelial layer lining renal tubules, necrosis of some tubules with hyalinization and focal inflammatory cells infiltration. In this study deleterious toxic effects observed in liver and kidney

Study of the Physical and Structural Properties of some Local Ninivites and Effect of Doping with some Chromium Complexes

Asem S. AL-Botani; Regab A. Buker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 52-64
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40216

Chemical composition, physical properties and structural characterization of natural Ninivite silica rocks have been studied. The study approach is based on using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, differential and gravimetric thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, instrumental and classical chemical analysis techniques.
The results were compared with those obtained from a locally prepared and purified amorphous silica gel. Both samples were doped by selenato and oxalato chromium complexes in order to be a more active and selective adsorbent materials. Chromatographic columns were set for all the above types of adsorbents using four eluants gradually increased in polarity. The fractionation results showed significant variations in the fractions isolated according to their polarities as indicated by percentage results.

Effect of Fatty Acids ( Myristic and Palmatic Acids ) on the Rheological Properties and Swelling Power of Sago Starch

Noha M. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 65-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40223

Effect of fatty acids such as Myristic and Palmatic acids, on the rheological properties of sago starch during heating and cooling were studied using a dynamic rheometer, Haake Rotovisco RT20. Fatty acids were applied at 0.5% and 0.1% levels on the starch weight basis( 20% w/w). The gelatinization temperature ( TG' ) of sago starch dispersion was determined at 68.4 o C. The addition of both fatty acids inhibited the swelling of the starch and then caused an increase in TG' compared to the native starch. The storage modulus (G') increased to a maximum value and dropped during heating of the starch. The reduction of peak G' value was 737 900 Pa. The extent of breakdown in G' during heating was high without addition of fatty acids. Hence the G' values of sago starch increased on cooling as well with the addition of fatty acids. The peak loss tangent (tan ) reached a maximum value at 2.728 and then dropped on heating. In contrast, during cooling the loss tangent values decreased. Swelling behaviour of sago starch granules with and without fatty acids was studied. As a result, the addition of Myristic acid to the sago starch decreased the swelling power values (SP) rather than the Palmatic acid .

Selective Extraction of Zirconium from Various Samples and Subsequent Spectrophotometric Determination with Eriochrome Cyanine R Reagent

Hanan H. Ahmad; Salim A. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 74-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40231

A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of zirconium(IV) in various samples has been developed. In this method trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is used for the extraction of zirconium. The colour of the complex is developed in the organic phase by the addition of eriochrome cyanine R reagent (ECR) and ethanol as a diluent. The calibration plot is linear in the concentration range 0.08–10 μg ml-1 with a molar absorptivity (ε) of 2.0x104 l.mol-1 cm-1 at 564 nm The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:2 ( Zr : ECR ). The extraction of zirconium (IV) was carried out in the presence of various ions to ascertain the tolerance limit of individual ions. The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of zirconium in various samples such as, natural waters and ores .

Spectrophotometric Determination of 1-Naphthylamine - Application to Sea and River Waters

Dawood H. Mohammed; Sameer A. Rahim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 84-91
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40239

The present work includes a detailed investigation of a new spectrophotometric method for the determination of 1-naphthylamine. The method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of the compound with catechol in the presence of potassium chromate as oxidant in acidic medium to form a stable purple–red coloured product which shows maximum absorption at 530 nm. The molar absorptivity is 3685 l.mol-1.cm-1. Beer's law is obeyed over the range of (1- 60) ppm. The method is applied to the recovery of 1-naphthylamine from sea and river water.

Alkylation by Enamines for Synthesis of some Heterocyclic Compounds

Jasim A. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 92-101
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.41333

Compounds of 4-phenyl-3-butene-2-one (1) and 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-butene-2-one (2) were prepared by reaction of benzaldehyde or 4-chlorobenzaldehyde with acetone. Also 1,3-diphenyl-2-chloropropene-1-one (3) was synthesized from the reaction of benzaldehyde with 2-chloroacetophenone through Claisen-Shmidt condensation. The substituted Δ1(9)-octalone-2 (4,5) was prepared by reaction of the compounds (1and2) with cyclohexanone through Michael addition followed by aldol condensation. Compounds (4,5) were reacted with alkyl halide, as 2-chloroacetophenone or 1,3-diphenyl-2-chloropropene-1-one (3), via enamines formation which then hydrolyzed to give compounds (6-9). Compounds (6,7) were reacted with hydrazine , urea and thiourea to afford compounds (10-15) .
The structures of all synthesized compounds were confirmed by available physical and spectral means .

Study of Substitution Mechanism in the Superconductor La2CuO4

Bassam M. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 102-112
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.41334

The aim of the research is to understand the mechanism of process of substitution of the ion instead of La+3 in the superconductor . Calculations of electrostatic potential( E. P.) for two probable positions is done to determine the site of minimum energy, the site of La around Cu ion is the minimum in energy on all the range of concentrations of the Sr ion. The changes in E. P. by substitution helps in understanding some aspects of the complex synthesis procedure of compound and especially the high and the long period preparation temperature which gives full action of electrostatic forces.

Observation of Hypersensitivity Phenomena in E-Coli Cells after Irradiation by Alpha Particles

Khalid D. Ahmad; Hassan M. Al-Taa; Faika A. Azooz

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 113-120
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.41335

In order to study the hypersensitivity phenomena in single strand cells, E-Coli bacteria cultures were irradiated by alpha particles emitted from Am241 point source. The cells showed hypersensitivity at 0.05 Gy. Survival curves models were fitted to the data. The recent hypersensitivity models fitted the data much better than the old conventional models.